1. Communicative and psychological characteristics of D.
2. Linguistic characteristics of D.
3. Stages of teaching D. ex-ses for TD.
The dialogue as a form of speaking which is realized in the immediate exchange of replies between 2 and more persons.
Separate replies are interrelated in a D. and are called lines of a dialogue. By a line of a dialoguein linguistics we mean an utterance limited by a change of a speaker.
Two (or more) adjoining lines of a dialogue interrelated in meaning and often with the help of the same lexico-grammatical and rhythmic-intonational means are called adialogical unit (or a lead-response unit),and the mechanism of their interrelation is calledan exchange of remarks.
The minimal structural unit of a dialogue is a dialogical unit.
The aim of teaching D. in the secondary schoolis the development of the skills of arranging a talk or a discussion according to some real or teaching situation, as well as in connection with the content of what has been read or heard.
D is of double nature.
The tasks for TD should comprise 2 kinds of dialogical skills:
1. the skill of initiating a conversation (or of taking the initiative in striking the conversation);
2. the skill of comprehending and adequately responding to the partner remarks, and, in his turn, of prompting the partner to continue the talk.
Dialogue is also a means of teaching when:
· it is used for practicing the speech materials under supervision of a teacher;
· it is used in a question-answer form (the teacher’s questions and the pupils’ answers).
The psychological and linguistic features of dialogueare predetermined by:
Ø bilateral activity of partners;
Ø presence of immediate contact and
Ø the common character of a situation and a subject of the conversation.
The psychological mechanisms of generating D:
Level One - motivational: it is of singular importance that the perception of smb’s speaking is synchronized with one’s own speaking.
The first line of a dialogue, the so-called lead is generated on the basis of one’s own motive; the 2d line – the response- is generated as a sort of the second-signal reflex to the motive perceived.
Level Two – analytical-synthetical level: its content is inner speech.
Level Three – realizational.
The psychological features of D:
1) its situational character, i.e. correlation of an utterance with a particular situation;
2) being addressed to the particular partner,
3) its economical character, i.e. usage of the most important parts of sentences and words which may serve as reference points for comprehension;
4) redundancy of wording of speech, caused by its spontaneous character, which finds its reflection in extended replies, repetitions, conjunctions etc;
5) its expressive character which is achieved by usage of logical and emotional words.
Linguistic characteristics of D
1. Structural correlation of responses in a dialogical unit:
a) full, when a response is based on a lead:
- Have you a family?
- Yes, I have (a big) family.
b) partial: a response contains an additional word or a certain alteration:
- do you like the play?
- Yes, I like the play, but the acting leaves much to be desired.
c) zero: a response has an evaluative character (the most difficult type):
- we have only one basic school system.
- I don’t believe it’s as easy as that.
2. The number of responses: two-member – three-member units;
3. The character of responses: question, a statement, an imperative;
4. The communicative function in a D:
o asking for information;
o giving information;
o specifying information;
o requesting, persuading, invitations etc.
5. The degree of polemics:
o DU –unison: statement – development of the same idea;
o DU – with zero degree of polemics:
- statement – statement – statement –question;
- moderation – statement – doubt- - objection’
- high – statement – counterstatement – expressing disagreement or refutation.
a) elliptical sentences (when a subject r a ink-verb, or a preposition, there is/are constructions may be omitted);
b) usage of Present Simple/Pr. Continuous/Pr. Prefect Tenses;
c) contracted forms of modal and auxiliary verbs.
a) conversational formulas and cliché;
b) silence-fillers (well, er, so, hm…);
c) modal words (of course, sure, no doubt).
a) phonetic ellipses: ‘cos, ‘cause…;
b) emphatic intonation (Low/High Rises/Falls…, stresses).
Extended remarksare complex units of D produced by one of the participants of a speech act which combine some qualities of M and D.
Extended remarks consist of several elementary components.
Receiving contact Monological part Establishing Contact
The most widely used communicative types of extended remarks are:
o giving detailed information;
o questions with preamble;
o questions for more information;
o joining and developing the partner’s idea/s/.
There are 2 main approaches in TD:
from the model dialogue which is to be memorized;
A model dialogue A dialogical unit an independent dialogue
teaching leads and responses in dialogical units.
A dialogical unit a microdialogue establishing contact.
Stages and Techniques of TD
Stage One:developing dialogical skills at a dialogical unit level.
It is aimed at developing the skill of differentiating between different communicative types of responses and reproducing them after the teacher. Ex-ses to be used - are of receptive and reproductive character:
· receptive ex-ses:
· imitation ex-se:
· substitution ex-ses;
· question-answer ex-ses (find – out and guessing games);
· respond to my statements;
· give a proper context to…
· make up a DU by analogy;
· songs for teaching elements of the D;
· jazz-chants; small-talks.
Stage Two: developing dialogical skills above the dialogical unit level.
it is aimed at developing the skills of producing microdialogues with the help of different props: