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Teaching Dialogue

Plan:

1. Communicative and psychological characteristics of D.

2. Linguistic characteristics of D.

3. Stages of teaching D. ex-ses for TD.

 

The dialogue as a form of speaking which is realized in the immediate exchange of replies between 2 and more persons.

Separate replies are interrelated in a D. and are called lines of a dialogue. By a line of a dialogue in linguistics we mean an utterance limited by a change of a speaker.

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Two (or more) adjoining lines of a dialogue interrelated in meaning and often with the help of the same lexico-grammatical and rhythmic-intonational means are called a dialogical unit (or a lead-response unit), and the mechanism of their interrelation is called an exchange of remarks.

The minimal structural unit of a dialogue is a dialogical unit.

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The aim of teaching D. in the secondary school is the development of the skills of arranging a talk or a discussion according to some real or teaching situation, as well as in connection with the content of what has been read or heard.

D is of double nature.

The tasks for TD should comprise 2 kinds of dialogical skills:

1. the skill of initiating a conversation (or of taking the initiative in striking the conversation);

2. the skill of comprehending and adequately responding to the partner remarks, and, in his turn, of prompting the partner to continue the talk.

Dialogue is also a means of teaching when:

· it is used for practicing the speech materials under supervision of a teacher;

· it is used in a question-answer form (the teacher’s questions and the pupils’ answers).

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The psychological and linguistic features of dialogue are predetermined by:

Ø bilateral activity of partners;

Ø presence of immediate contact and

Ø the common character of a situation and a subject of the conversation.

 

The psychological mechanisms of generating D:

Level One - motivational: it is of singular importance that the perception of smb’s speaking is synchronized with one’s own speaking.

The first line of a dialogue, the so-called lead is generated on the basis of one’s own motive; the 2d linethe response- is generated as a sort of the second-signal reflex to the motive perceived.

Level Twoanalytical-synthetical level: its content is inner speech.

Level Three – realizational.

 

The psychological features of D:

1) its situational character, i.e. correlation of an utterance with a particular situation;

2) being addressed to the particular partner,

3) its economical character, i.e. usage of the most important parts of sentences and words which may serve as reference points for comprehension;

4) redundancy of wording of speech, caused by its spontaneous character, which finds its reflection in extended replies, repetitions, conjunctions etc;

5) its expressive character which is achieved by usage of logical and emotional words.

Linguistic characteristics of D

1. Structural correlation of responses in a dialogical unit:



a) full, when a response is based on a lead:

- Have you a family?

- Yes, I have (a big) family.

b) partial: a response contains an additional word or a certain alteration:

- do you like the play?

- Yes, I like the play, but the acting leaves much to be desired.

c) zero: a response has an evaluative character (the most difficult type):

- we have only one basic school system.

- I don’t believe it’s as easy as that.

2. The number of responses: two-member – three-member units;

3. The character of responses: question, a statement, an imperative;

4. The communicative function in a D:

o asking for information;

o giving information;

o specifying information;

o requesting, persuading, invitations etc.

5. The degree of polemics:

o DU –unison: statement – development of the same idea;

o DU – with zero degree of polemics:

- statement – statement – statement –question;

- moderation – statement – doubt- - objection’

- high – statement – counterstatement – expressing disagreement or refutation.

Grammatical peculiarities:

a) elliptical sentences (when a subject r a ink-verb, or a preposition, there is/are constructions may be omitted);

b) usage of Present Simple/Pr. Continuous/Pr. Prefect Tenses;

c) contracted forms of modal and auxiliary verbs.

Lexical peculiarities:

a) conversational formulas and cliché;

b) silence-fillers (well, er, so, hm…);

c) modal words (of course, sure, no doubt).

Phonetic peculiarities:

a) phonetic ellipses: ‘cos, ‘cause…;

b) emphatic intonation (Low/High Rises/Falls…, stresses).

Extended remarks are complex units of D produced by one of the participants of a speech act which combine some qualities of M and D.

Extended remarks consist of several elementary components.

Receiving contact Monological part Establishing Contact

 

The most widely used communicative types of extended remarks are:

o giving detailed information;

o questions with preamble;

o questions for more information;

o joining and developing the partner’s idea/s/.

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There are 2 main approaches in TD:

from the model dialogue which is to be memorized;

A model dialogue A dialogical unit an independent dialogue

teaching leads and responses in dialogical units.

A dialogical unit a microdialogue establishing contact.

Stages and Techniques of TD

Stage One: developing dialogical skills at a dialogical unit level.

It is aimed at developing the skill of differentiating between different communicative types of responses and reproducing them after the teacher. Ex-ses to be used - are of receptive and reproductive character:

· receptive ex-ses:

· imitation ex-se:

· substitution ex-ses;

· question-answer ex-ses (find – out and guessing games);

· respond to my statements;

· give a proper context to…

· make up a DU by analogy;

· songs for teaching elements of the D;

· jazz-chants; small-talks.

Stage Two: developing dialogical skills above the dialogical unit level.

it is aimed at developing the skills of producing microdialogues with the help of different props:

1) Props to be used here:

· simplified pictures;

· stick-pictures;

· structural dialogue: question – statement + request

question for more information answer;

· based on the beginning/end;

· a monological text;

· a reported speech.

2) ex-ses at giving the proper context to the responses of a D based on simplified pictures;

3) ex-ses aimed at the extension of a D. e.g. Listen to the beginning of the D and enlarge it;

4) stripped dialogues:

5) ex-ses at transforming a M into a D:

· Indirect transformation: listen to the text and discuss it in pairs.

· Direct transformation: listen to the text and reproduce the conversation of the characters;

· Additional transformation: listen to the text and discuss its events, comparing them with the same events in your life;

6) Ex-ses aimed at making a D based on its content rendered in indirect speech. e.g. Listen to the dialogue and cut it short.

7) Ex-ses aimed at composing a D on the basis of its beginning, end or its central part.

8) Ex-ses aimed at composing a D on the basis of the theses of each role.

9) Ex-ses aimed at composing a D on the basis of a series of pictures. e.g. Look at the pictures and try to guess what will happen next or Play one of the roles below (work in pairs).

Stage Three: developing dialogical skills at the discourse level. it is aimed at developing the skills of producing independent dialogues:

1) Ex-ses aimed at composing a D based on a picture:

2) Ex-ses aimed at composing a D based on a verbal visuality: Look at the invitation card and plan the coming week-end:

Please, do join us for a picnic Our Zhitomir Sports Club invites you to the meeting on…
Come to our tourist club party on… We request the pleasure of your company at a reception…

3) Ex-ses aimed at composing a D without any props: Discuss in pairs the film/TV program/concert/play you saw yesterday.

How to work at the model-dialogue:

Step 1: listen to the dialogue recorded on the tape and answer the teacher’s questions or say whether it is true or false;

Step2: listen to the dialogue using the verbal visuality (printed text);

Step3: listen to the particular lines of the D, practise their pronunciation and intonation;

Step4: read the dialogue: a) as a whole text; b) in parts;

Step5: reproduce the dialogue, restoring the particular lines of one of the characters;

Step6: reproduce the D in roles (parts);

Step7: extend the lines of the D in accordance with the communicative task;

Step8: transform the D, changing one of the replies;

Step9: make up a dialogue by analogy within the same topic, but in a different situation, between the different communicators, with a different communicative task.

Step10: make up a topic-centered dialogue based on microdialogues.

 

 

Lecture # 13


Date: 2015-02-16; view: 2080


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