1. Communicative and psychological characteristics of Monologue.
2. Linguistic peculiarities of monologue.
3. Techniques and chief stages of teaching monologue. Ex-ses for teaching monologue.
A monologue is a relatively extended, well-organized kind of speech, a result of individual composition which presupposes a lasting utterance of one person, addressed to the public”.
In other words, the essence of monologue is a connected, continuous expression of thought by one person, addressed to one or to a number of persons (auditory).
Basic communicative functions of M. are:
Ø Informative (to convey new information about smth);
Ø Influential (to persuade smb in smth);
Ø Evaluative or expressive.
The main communicative types of monological utterances:
1) A piece of information,
2) A piece of narration,
3) A piece of description
4) A piece of argumentation (reflection
The logical schemes of a Monologue are as follows:
Introduction Body (Main Part) Conclusion
Thesis Argument Illustration Conclusion
The units of teaching Monologues are:
§ The statement level, i.e. producing a sentence;
§ The utterance level, i.e. producing an utterance of a particular common type;
§ The discourse level, i.e. producing a connected extended text.
The aim of TM in a secondary school is to develop the skills of producing logically and communicatively motivated monologues of different levels.
The tasks of TM include the formation of speaking skills of:
· Retelling the text;
· Giving the description, narration, information, evaluation;
· Disclosing the topic suggested in logical succession;
· Giving the grounds, accounting for one’s ideas, introducing elements of argumentation.
Scheme of speech generation:
Level 1 – motivation.
Level 2 – forming –a phase of inner speech which includes making up a plan of an utterance in key with the intention.
Level 3 – realization – outer speech, when articulation and intonation mechanisms are at work.
Psychological characteristics of a Monologue:
1) Subject/topic centered;
5) Being addressed to the public;
6) Language correctness.
Linguistic peculiarities of a Monologue:
· Two-member sentences;
· Extended sentences;
· More complicated syntax, a variety of sentence
Techniques and chief stages of teaching monologue
1) Traditional, which has 3 stages:
· Stage I – combination of speech patterns into an utterance;
· Stage II – independent composition of an utterance;
· Stage III – producing a monologue of a discourse (text) level;
2) Text-centered, which is based on a text: after prof. Passov:
· Stage I – preparatory- before you read;
· Stage I –textual;
Stage One is aimed at the development of the skill of building up a sentence (or a sentence-pattern). It is the first time the language material is drilled in topic-centered exercises.
Ex-ses to be used here:
1. Imitation and substitution ex-ses aimed at filling of the speech pattern with the vocabulary of the topic:
· e.g. I don’t like the cold weather (hot, stifling, rainy, nasty).
· Sa what you did in summer:
Last summer I went to the Crimea
traveled to the Carpathians
made a trip to Kiev
flew to the village
2. Extension ex-ses to teach pupils to give additional information about the same:
· There is a lot of work on a farm.- There is always a lot of work for the farmers in the fields on a farm in spring.
3. Ex-ses on modifying a speech pattern, aimed at teaching pupils to use various speech patterns in the suggesting situation:
E.g. The teacher suggests talking about their native place; he starts a sentence, the pupils continue: We live in…
Our town is…
It is located…
4. ex-ses on construction of structures after the model and independently.
5. “Give it a name” or “Guess what it is”-ex-ses.
6. Say the opposite.
Stage Two - Development of the skills of building up an utterance ( above the sentence level). Ex-ses are aimed at developing the skills of composing elementary logical utterances about an object or phenomenon.
Succession of Props:
· At the elementary level:visuality – text – situation – topic/problem;
· At the intermediate level:situation – visuality – text – topic;
· At the senior level:text – speech situation – visuality ( a series of pictures, a TV-films, a film-strip) – topic/problem.
The communicative types of utterances are built up according to different logical schemes: descriptionbegins with naming an object, then its quality is defined; informationbegins with stating where and when the scene is laid: so does narration, which, besides, contains some evaluative remarks.
The most effective are the following props:
a) Logical-semantic schemes, or incomplete sentences which determine the succession of composing an utterance of particular communicative types.
Content Vocabulary to be used
Name kinds of summer rest. We can spend our holidays….
Choose a preferable one for you. I prefer…
Say why. It is in…
… is the most preferable…
b) Plan (outline) of an utterance which predetermines its structure.
c) Pictures (of an object or situational ones);
d) Situations (real or teaching),
e) Independent work with cards at the lesson, e.g. each pupil gets a separate task:
In summer the farmers have to work very In summer there is …(a lot of work in the field
quickly. and the garden.
Say why, using the scheme suggested. The weather …(may change)
It is difficult … (to work in bad weather).
So… ( the farmers must work very quickly).
Describe the town you live in to your friend, Our town is….
who has come to visit you. It has…
+ strip-stories There are…
Stage Three - development of the skill of producing a topic-based utterance. Ex-ses of this level imply the highest degree of independence.Natural stimuli in these ex-ses are: pictures, film strips, texts, topics, situations, pupil’s background and life experience.
Ex-ses used here are:
1. The ex-ses, aimed at producing an utterance based on a picture and accompanying text.
2. Ex-ses, aimed at producing an utterance based on a picture or a series of pictures (or a film-strip) without an accompanying text.
3. ex-ses, aimed at producing an utterance based on what has been heard or read. Pupils do oral communicative ex-se on the plot of the text:
· read and say what you have found out;
· read and say what you could foresee and why;
· read and compare (find differences and similarities).
4. ex-ses aimed at producing an utterance based on the topic.
5. ex-ses aimed at thinking of a title to the story (picture) and discussing it with friends.
6. ex-ses aimed at making up texts of postcards.
7. ex-ses aimed at illustrating a proverb.
8. ex-ses aimed at making up a story (by analogy, in different persons, according to the plan, using the key-words).
9. ex-ses aimed at commenting on the story, event/ speech – after you read activities.
10. Draw a map of your dream town/ favourite district or street. Label it with the necessary symbols. The task for the friends is to find a school/library/factory…. And to explain how we can get there.
11. “A Town Survey”. Team or pair work: Go to the factory and ask how many people work there; what they produce; salary; vacations; privileges….or Go to your avourite café and ask the sales-man/woman what the most popular dish/dessert is; what the “busiest” hours are; salary, customs… and tell about it to your classmates.
12. time-line of your life.
1980 1984 1986 1990 1997 2000 2004 2006
Was born a sister school The Crimea Uni Fell in love married baby
14. Collages : What are you afraid of:
“A Sign Language”: collect the signs and describe their place and discuss their rules: