1. She looks bad. She should (be/have been) more careful about her health. 2. You shouldn't (miss/have missed) the chance. It was a brilliant opportunity for you. 3.1 think the policeman was right. She shouldn't (exceed/have exceeded) the speed. 4.1 ought to (bring/ have taken) the opera glasses. Now I see nothing. 5. It seems to me that he is a hot-temper person and often flies into a rage because of mere trifles. He should (control/ have controlled) his temper. 6. They should (clear/have cleared) up the problem long time ago. 7.1 ought not (to stay/have stayed) there long. The party was a failure. 8. You should (shave/have shaved) this beard of yours!
9. She should (be/have been) more attentive. Didn't she see a car on the right? 10. It's a secret. You ought not to (reveal/have revealed) it to anybody.
Exercise 17. Translate into English using modal verbs.
1. Тебе следовало позвонить ему вчера. 2. Ему не следовало говорить с ней таким тоном (tone). Его тон, должно быть, и обидел (hurt) ее. 3. Это должно было произойти. Всем известна его забывчивость (forgetfulness). 4. Она должна была выяснить все до того, как начинать работу. Теперь ей нужно многое переделывать. 5. Ей следовало принести все документы давным-давно. Теперь слишком поздно. 6. Детям нельзя смотреть фильмы ужасов, 7. Мне их проводить (see off)? — Нет, не нужно. Мне придется сделать это самому, 8. В чужой стране необходимо приспосабливаться (adapt oneself) к новым условиям жизни, 9. Зря ты купил это пальто. 10. Мы, должно быть, не заметили его в этой толпе (crowd). 11 „Нам не надо было спешить, поэтому мы решили пойти пешком. 12. Почему я должен это делать?
Exercise 18. Choose the right variant.
1. He says I (mustn't/needn't) do it. He has already done it. 2. You (needn't/mustn't) carry your driving license with you. 3.1 can show my student's card, and I (mustn't/needn't) pay to get in. 4. I've hurt my knee and the doctor says I (mustn't/needn't) play football for two weeks. 5. Copies (needn't/mustn't) be done without permission. 6. He is a very discreet person, you (needn't/ mustn't) be afraid of telling him anything. 7. He (needn't/mustn't) be said twice. 8. You (needn't/mustn't) answer the question if you don't want to. 9. It's a nonsmoking carriage. You (needn't/mustn't) smoke here. 10. She (needn't/mustn't) go to bed so late. Has she forgotten the doctor's instructions?
Exercise 19. Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with either didn't need (to) or needn't have (done).
1. You___ (go) into so many details. The report was too long. 2, She got up late because she was alone and she____(cook) breakfast for the whole family. 3. We ___(hurry): she wasn't ready yet. 4. He___(return) to the office so he took a taxi and went home. 5.1___ (take) a bus because Martin gave me a lift. 6. We___ (come) so early. Now we must wait. 7. She___(go) shopping so she went straight home. 8. You___(make) this remark, I am sure he felt hurt. 9. She was on holiday and she___(wake up) early. 10. He___(spend) so much money. Does he remember that he's got children?
Exercise 20. Translate into English using the verb ‘need’.
1. Зря ты сказал Майку об этом. 2, Его не надо об этом спрашивать. 3. Мне нужна ваша помощь. 4. Зря ты учил текст наизусть (by heart); учитель его не спрашивал. 5. Вечером температура упала, и он решил, что ему не нужно идти к врачу. 6. Разве ты не видишь, что ему надо подстричься? 7. Зря он отказался от приглашения. 8. Вы купили машину только год назад. Неужели ее надо красить? 9. Мне нужно наладить (fix) компьютер. 10. Джону не надо было ехать в Лондон, и он решил провести выходные в Брайтоне.
Exercise 21. RIGHT / WRONG – modal verbs. Find the mistake and correct it:
1. Fred doesn’t go to school so he has not to get up so early.
2. It’s very unlikely, but he might be prepared to help you.
3. You’d better to do as the doctor says and take the medicine.
4. Horses can sleeping standing.
5. Could you light a fire yourself when you were seven?
6. You shouldn’t eat all food at once.
7. You can to buy only second-hand books in that shop.
8. They want have to go there next week.
9. All drivers of cars should wear seat belts. Seat belts make driving much safer.
10. You needn’t to wait for me.
11. You may eat your supper so quickly. Do you want to get a stomach ache?
12. Cactus plants needn’t much water. That’s why they cannot grow in the dry desert.
13. You shouldn’t to try to crack nuts with your teeth.
14. We would rather you cooked dinner for us.
Exercise 22. Right/Wrong – modal verbs. Find the mistake and correct it:
1. You should have take part in that amateur performance.
2. You needn’t have paid you debt so soon. I don’t need this money so urgently.
3. Now will you please show me the office where am I to work.
4. I don’t have to attended all the lectures on history.
5. Dorian shook his head. “You must not ask me about that”.
6. Perhaps she was busy yesterday and couldn’t finish the task in time.
7. You might have gone by the side door: you boots are muddy.
8. These words were unexpected for me, so what could I to do?
9. You could has said at least that you didn’t agree with them. You are his brother.
10. I know I ought to help my sister about the house.
11. It’s dark. We’d better to switch on the light.
12. I’d rather have coffee than tea.
13. We would sooner had stayed at home that might.
14. I’d rather you had been present.
THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE IN UKRAINE.
The history of medicine in Ukraine begins with the history of folk medicine.
The first medical hospitals in Kyiv Rus were founded in the 11 th century and were mostly in the form of alms = houses attached to churches.
In the 14th and 15th centuries new hospitals were built and many physicians gave the first aid to the inhabitants of Ukraine and the soldiers of Bogdan Khmelnytsky's troops.
As the number of physicians was inadequate some medical schools which trailed specialists were opened. Kyiv Academy was founded in 1632. It played a prominent role in the development of the Ukrainian medicine. Many graduates of the Academy continued to enrich their knowledge abroad and received their doctors' degrees there. Many former students of this Academy have become the well-known scientists. They are the epidemiologist D. S. Samoilovych, the obstetrician N, M. Ambodyk-Maximovych, the podiatrist S. F. Chotovytsky, the anatomist 0. M. Shumlyansky and many .others.
At the end of the I8th and during the 19th centuries the medical departments were formed at the Universities of Kharkiv, Kyiv, Lviv and Odesa. The total number of physicians has increased m Ukraine. The medicine of Zemstvo was widely used at that time.
During the Crimean War (1854-1856), upon Pirogov's initiative the first detachment of nurses was trained and sent to Sevastopol to help its defenders. It gave the beginning of the organization "Red Cross".
In 1686 the first bacteriological station was organized in Odesa which was of great importance in the development of microbiology and epidemiology. The famous scientists I. I. Mechnikov and M. F. Gamaliya worked at this station and succeeded much in their investigations. Inspite of favourable conditions for the successful development of natural sciences in Russia many outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine. It is known that the brilliant scientist M. I. Pirogov and his followers, as V. O. Karavayev, O. F. Shimanovsky, M. V. Sklifosovsky and others made valuable contribution in the Ukrainian medicine.
The famous scientists V. P. Obraztsov and M. D. Strazhesko were founders of Kyiv therapeutist’ school. They made a huge progress in the field of cardiology Winch was done in the treatment of many eye diseases by the prominent scientist, academician V. P. Filatov who founded the Institute of Eye diseases in Odesa. Many other outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine whose names are well known m the world.
Answer the questions:
1. What does the history of medicine in Ukraine begin with?
2. When were the first medical hospitals founded in Kyiv?
3. What form were the first Kyiv hospitals in?
4. When were new hospitals built?
5. Whom did many physicians give the first aid to?
6. When was Kyiv Academy founded?
7. Where (did many physicians receive their doctors' degrees?
8. What former students of the Academy have become the well-known scientists?
9. What Universities were the medical departments founded at?
10. What medicine was widely used at that time?
11. When was the first detachment of nurses trained?
12. When and where was the, first bacteriological station organized?
PROMINENT SCIENTISTS AND PHYSICIANS OF UKRAINE
A well-known Ukrainian scientist О.М. Shumiyansky was the prominent anatomist-microscopist of the i8 th century. He was the first who discribed the -kidney texture.
O.M. Shumlyansky was born in 1748 'in the village Yakivtsi of Poltava region. His father was an Ukrainian Cossack-peasant. He graduated from the medical school in Petersburg and worked as a surgeon. Then he went abroad where he improved his education in the field of obstetrics and received his doctor's degree.
After his returning to Russia О.М. Shumlyansky became a professor of the medical surgical school in Moscow. He was the author of many research works in the fields of surgery and obstetrics.
The prominent surgeon and scientist M.V. Skliphosovsky (1836-1904) was born in Moldova and was brought up in a charity-school in Odcsa. After successful graduating from the University he wrote his thesis and became a professor of the Medical Academy in Petersburg. He was one of the organizers of the surgical school in Russia.
M. V. Skliphosovsky liked Ukraine and often visited Odesa and other Ukrainian towns. In 1871 he bought an estate in the outskirt of Poltava and rested there in summer. Then he removed to Poltava and worked as a physician at the regional hospital. It should be noted that, he took care about poor people. He treated them free of charge and tried to create favourable conditions in the hospital. A new school was built for poor children on his initiative and his daughter was a teacher there.
In his estate he cultivated his orchard and worked there; being in -old age.
The outstanding clinicist and scientist of Ukraine M.D. Strazhesko (1876-952) was an initiator in establishing Kyiv Institute of Clinical Medicine and worked there as the academician during a long period. Under the supervision of his teacher prof. V. P. Obraztsov he was the first to differentiate and describe the clinical picture of myocardial infarction.
M.D. Strazhesko was the author of many, classical works describing the heart and abdominal diseases. He used Pavlov's scientific-ideas in his clinic. In his research work he used the scientific, data from biochemistry, microbiology, physiology and other sciences. He paid much attention to the clinical researches of his patients.
In common with his teacher V.P. Obraztsov they worked out a new method of sliding palpation of abdominal cavity organs that won the world recognition.
Zabolotny Danylo Kyrylovych (1866-1929) was an microbiologist, epidemiologist, Presi dent of AS of the USSR (1928-1929). D.K. Zabolotny studied the plague pathogen in detail, described the plague type, inquired into a question on plague vaccine and serum production, and discovered the natural plague centers. Results of his research provided introduction of rational preventive measures and creation of plague vaccine establishments network.
Answer the questions:
1. What was O.M. Shumlyansky?
2. When and where was he born?
3. What school did he graduate from?
4. Where did1 he receive his doctor's degree?
5. Was he the. author of many research works?
6. What was M. V. Skliphosovsky?
7. Where was he brought up?
8. When did he become a professor of the Petersburg Academy?
9. Where did he remove then.
10. What did he do in Poltava?
11. What was M.D. Strazhesko?
12. Who was an initiator in establishing Kyiv Institute of Clinical Medicine?
13. Was he the author of many classical works?
14. What method did M.D.Strazhesko and his teacher V.P. Obraztsov work out?