The stock of words in a language is increased over time by various procedures. In Russian the main procedures have been borrowing, affixation and composition.
Knowledge of the main principles of Russian affixation helps a student to extend her or his vocabulary, because it enables the student in many cases to understand the precise sense of a word and to recognise the word’s relationship with other words derived from the same root.
The student needs to be able to identify the basic components of a Russian verb, noun, or adjective, i.e. its prefix (if it contains one), root and suffix (again, if it contains one), e.g.
âõîäè´òü, to enter
ðaçâÿça´òü, to untie
ñòaêa´í, a glass
Similar principles apply in English, but they are in evidence in words of Greek or Latin origin (e.g. psycho/logy, trans/late, in/scrip/tion) rather than in the words of Germanic origin which constitute the bulk of the most common, everyday vocabulary of English. Some of the English prefixes and suffixes derived from Latin that are equivalent to Russian prefixes and suffixes are noted in the following sections.
It should be emphasised that while an understanding of Russian affixation and of the meanings of a word’s components aids recognition of words and retention of vocabulary, the principles of word-formation cannot be applied in a wholly predictable way. The foreign student must therefore check that a word whose form may be inferred from the principles given here does actually exist.
Diminutive, augmentative and expressive suffixes
Russian is rich in suffixes which either indicate the size, especially smallness, of an object or are indicative of the speaker’s attitude (which may be affectionate, tender, attentive or scornful, ironic, disparaging) towards it. Many suffixes may serve both a diminutive and an affectionate (hypocoristic) purpose. Note though that in certain nouns, or in some nouns when suffixes are used in certain meanings, the suffix has lost its original diminutive or hypocoristic function (e.g. when the noun ðó.÷êa means the handle of a door).
As a rule diminutives and augmentatives are of the same gender as the noun to which the suffix is attached, even when the suffix ends with a vowel normally associated with another gender. For example, the noun ãîðîäè.øêî, god-forsaken town, is masculine like ãî.ðîä even though nouns in -o are generally neuter.
Because they are highly expressive colloquial forms diminutives belong primarily to the colloquial register, although they are widely used in the literary variety of the written language and in folk poetry. They are less likely to be encountered in the neutral register and are generally altogether absent in the more formal varieties of higher register, especially academic and official.
The following lists of diminutive, augmentative and expressive suffixes are not exhaustive; they contain only some of the more productive suffixes.
Diminutive and hypocoristic suffixes
a diminutive of heightened expressiveness, used mainly with nouns denoting people and with proper names that are already in a diminutive form, e.g. Ca.øa:
Ca.øeíüêa Sasha dear
added to masculine nouns; may also convey scorn, e.g.
ãâî.çäèê little nail, tack
äî.ìèê little house, cottage
íî.ñèê spout (of jug, teapot)
ñòî.ëèê little table
ñòóäe.íòèê so-called student
diminutive form of suffix -èía when it denotes single specimens of an object, e.g.
ïeñ÷è.íêa grain of sand
ñîëî.ìèíêa piece of straw
÷aè.íêa tea leaf
Double diminutive suffixes
Some suffixes are really double diminutive suffixes. They may help to form nouns denoting particularly small objects or they may serve as terms of special endearment.
added to masculine nouns, e.g.
ëèñòî.÷eê tiny little leaf
öâeòî.÷eê little flower
added to neuter nouns, e.g.
ìeñòe.÷êî little place
ñëîâe.÷êî little word
added to feminine nouns, e.g.
çâ¸çäî÷êa tiny little star, asterisk
ñòðe.ëî÷êa tiny little arrow, little hand (e.g. on watch)
âîäè.÷êa nice little (bottle/drink of ) water
ñeñòðè.÷êa dear little sister
The augmentative suffix -èùe/-èùa
-èùe is added to masculine and neuter nouns, -èùa to feminine nouns, e.g.
ãîðîäè.ùe a very large town
áîðîäè.ùa a massive beard
The basic function of pejorative suffixes is to indicate scorn or contempt on the part of the speaker or writer towards the person or object in question. At the same time these suffixes may also have a quite different function, i.e. they may express affection in an ironic tone. The main pejorative suffixes are:
The suffix -è.øêa may be added to masculine animate and feminine nouns;
-è.øêî may be added to masculine inanimate and neuter nouns, e.g.
This suffix is applied mainly to feminine nouns. The form –îíêa follows hushing consonants, which may result from a consonant change in the root of the noun when the suffix is added.
áaá¸íêa foul old hag (or dear old woman!)
ëîøaä¸íêa wretched nag
êíèæî.íêa dreadful book
ñîáa÷î.íêa cur (or a dog one is fond of !)
Task 6. Use the word at the end of each gap to form a new word with which to fill the gap. Make sure to take into consideration forms using various prefixes and suffixes, as well as negative forms.
In the centre of the room, clamped to an upright easel, stood the full-length portrait of a young man of _____ (ORDINARY) personal beauty, and in front of it, some little _____ (DISTANT) away, was sitting the artist himself, Basil Hallward, whose sudden _____ (APPEAR) some years ago caused, at the time, such public _____ (EXCITE), and gave rise to so many strange conjectures. As the painter looked at the _____ (GRACE) and comely form he had so _____ (SKILL) mirrored in his art, a smile of ______ (PLEASE) passed across his face, and seemed about to linger there. But he _____ (SUDDEN) started up, and, closing his eyes, placed his fingers upon the lids, as though he sought to _____ (PRISON) within his brain some curious dream from which he feared he might _____ (WAKE).
CHAPTER 6 FRUSTRATION
This reading is also taken from an introductory psychology textbook. It is about an unpleasant feeling that all of us experience from time to time. This feeling is called "frustration.”
Getting into the Topic
• Have you ever felt really frustrated? Describe a frustrating experience you had recently.
• How did you react to the situation?
Getting on Overview of the Reading Selection
Scan the reading to complete the headings in the outline.
• People have a different tolerance of pain. Some can tolerate a lot of pain, while others complain when they have a simple headache. Do you have a high tolerance of pain? How about your tolerance of frustration? Do you have a higher tolerance of frustration than the other members of your family?
READ THE SELECTION: FIRST TIME
Read to get a general understanding of each section. Do not stop to look up words in the dictionary.
(1) "The trouble with Ellen is that she's a frustrated actress." "The trouble with Bill is that he's a frustrated athlete." How often do we hear such statements? Time and time again. When women and men cannot satisfy a goal— such as the desire to be an actress or an athlete—they are said to be frustrated. Frustration, it is generally agreed, can often lead to trouble.
(2) To psychologists, the word "frustration," which is so important in the study of the human personality, refers to the blocking of goals and desires by some kind of obstacle. On a very simple level, our goal to get somewhere on time may be blocked or frustrated by a flat tire. On a more complex level, our goal to be an actress or athlete may be blocked or frustrated by a number of possible obstacles.
(3) In everyday language, however, the term "frustration" also refers to the unpleasant feelings that result from the blocking of our goals. That is, it refers to the feelings we experience when something interferes with our wishes, . hopes, plans, and desires.
athlete: person who is trained or skilled in sports
obstacle: something that blocks a desire
SOURCES OF FRUSTRATION
(4) Frustration is a universal experience; nobody can possibly go through life without experiencing it many times for many reasons. Our environment is full of events that prevent us from satisfying our goals. Even our own bodies and personalities make frustration inevitable. The possible sources of frustration are usually broken down into four categories:
Physical obstacles—such as a drought that frustrates a farmer's attempts to produce a good crop. Or a broken alarm clock, traffic jam, or flat tire that prevents us from getting to class on time. How many such obstacles there are in the world!
Social circumstances—such as when a person does not return our feelings or affection. Or problems in our society such as discrimination, crime, and unemployment that frustrate our desire for equality, physical security, and economic security.
Personal shortcomings. We may have a desire to dance as well as our friends but have "two left feet." Or we may have a desire to speak a foreign language fluently but lack the necessary persistence.
Conflicts. A conflict occurs when we have two or more goals that cannot be satisfied at the same time. For example, a woman wants to leave college for a year to try painting—but she also wants to please her family by remaining in school. The person in conflict experiences uncertainty, hesitation, and the feeling of being "torn." These feelings are an essential part of conflicts and are what make conflicts such an unpleasant part of life.