The history of Kazakhstan at the beginning of the XX century. The role of the first Kazakh press.
First kazakh’s press appeared in 1890’s. First newspapers called “Akmolinskie Vedomosti” and “Kirgizskaia Steapnaia Gazeta”. Three journals appeared briefly, without wide circulation: Serke, Qazaq-stan, and Alash. Of the three, Alash was the most long-lived; it published 22 numbers between November 26, 1916, and May 25, 1917.Two other Kazakh publications were more successful. AiKap first appeared in 1911 and ceased publication in 1915, issuing 88 numbers in all. It appeared monthly for two years, then switched to a bimonthly format and enjoyed a circulation of between 900 and 1,200 copies per issue. This gazette published articles by Kazakhs, Tatars, and Russians and tried to present a variety of viewpoints on any given issue, under the editorship of Muhammadjan Seralin (1871-1929). The other periodical, Qazaq, printed its first issue in 1913 and its last in 1918. After the February Revolution it became the official organ of the Alash Orda party and had a circulation of about 8,000 per month. Its editorial group consisted of Ali Khan Bukeikhanov, Mir Yakub Dulatov (Dulat uli, 1885-1937), and Ahmed Baitursunov (Baitursin uli, 1873-1937).Although the editors of At Êàð endorsed the idea of the settlement of the nomads, they requested an all-Kazakh conference, to be held in the winter of 1913-1914, to discuss how the sedentarization of the Kazakh population could best be achieved. The gazettes and their editorial staffs remained a lobbying group in the steppe until the Russian Revolution, when they established and staffed a shortlived Kazakh autonomous government. These writers may have helped frame public opinion, but were forced to stand helplessly aside during the popular unrest in the summer and fall of 1916.
90) The main priority is a multi-vector foreign policy
Through political methods, we provide non-confrontational presence in Kazakhstan and in the region of the world's leading political and economic powers. Today, Kazakhstan has a strategic partnership with Russia, the United States and China. Construction of a stable, predictable and constructive cooperation with these world powers in a permanent confrontation of different directions and contradictory interests in the region thanks to the authority of President Nursultan Nazarbayev and carefully thought-out foreign policy strategy. Thus, our diplomacy is strictly consistent with the economic potential and political opportunities in Kazakhstan. We have successfully solved the problem of providing a favorable external environment reforms in the country by establishing a stable and friendly relations, especially with neighboring states.Strategic achievements in this direction is the legal registration of the entire land border of Kazakhstan, which ended this year. This - the achievement of great importance, which opens up the possibility of a new quality of cooperation with our neighbors. Russia was, is and will be our key partner and ally. Our bilateral relations are characterized by scale, dynamic and high level of understanding. Between us was unique practice issues on a parity basis, in the interests of both countries.
Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1350