Kazakhstan during the civil war in 1918-1920 years and establishment of Soviet power.
Using the Czechoslovak uprising ataman Dutov took Orenburg in July 1918. against the Soviet authorities, together with the Government Alash Horde. Most whites have had foreign help interveners. Night March 29, 1918 belokazaki mastered the Urals. In Kazakhstan, formed part of the local population, called «Muslim» .29 in May 1918 released a decree ARCEC Kremlin on the mobilization of workers on the basis of universal conscription. In autumn 1918, in Bukeevskoy Horde was the first exemplary Kazakh Soviet cavalry regiment. In 1920 in Turkestan was proclaimed the first forced recruitment of indigenous people. In May 1920, by decision of the Council of Labor and Defense of the Russian Federation were called to the army of 25 thousand workers of non-Russian National children aged 19-35 years. Much organizational work was carried out by an extraordinary Commissioner steppe edges Dzhangildin, voenkom Turgai county Imanov, as well as Argancheev Aliev, Rozybakiev and others help Aktyubinsk Front expedition was sent Dzhangildin transmitted fighters ammunition and weapons. In January. 1919, the spacecraft was liberated Orenburg and Uralsk. Politics «military communism» in the years of civil war in Kazakhstan. (1918-1920gg). «Military Communism» - a system of temporary, emergency, civil war also forced up. Measures that amount is the peculiarity of the economic policy of the Soviet State in 1918-1920. In other words - it Superfast conversion to communism with the help of emergency measures. The main features of policy of military communism were: Nationalization of the entire industry. The transition in ownership of all former Soviet state of private enterprises. Centralization of economy, when the economy is subject to all necessary fronts. The prohibition of private trade. Food allotment, ie, must surrender all peasants State fixed price all «surplus» of bread, except required needs to families. Countervailing wage workers and employees. Politics «Military Communism» not only withdraw Soviet state of economic ruin in the years of civil war, but also greatly exacerbated it. By the end of civil war, the livestock population has declined by 11 million. A gross yield of grain decreased by 3 times. The situation in the economy has affected the lives of people. Especially farmers - the main producers of food. Evidence of dissatisfaction with the peasants have become widespread unrest in the villages. Go to the NEP has helped to redress the situation.
38.Islamization and the introduction of Shari’a law by the end of the seventeen century.
The Battle of Talas in 751 between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Dynasty for control of Central Asia was the turning point initiating mass conversion into Islam in the region. Islamization of the region has had profound impact on the native cultures in the region moulding them as a part of Islamic civilization. Islamization in the region has also had the effect of blending Islam into native cultures, creating new forms of Islamic practices, known as folk Islam. Until the Mongol invasion of Central Asia in 13th century, Samarkand, Bukhara and Urgench flourished as centers of Islamic learning, culture and art in the region. Mongol invasion halted the process for a half century.Central Asian Islamic scientists and philosophers, including Al-Khwarzimi, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Farabi, and Avicenna made an important impact on the development of European science in the ensuing centuries. Sharia is an Arabic word meaning ‘way’ or ‘path’. In Arabic, the collocation ‘Šarīʿat Allāh’ (God’s Law) is traditionally used not only by Muslims, but also Christians and Jews. Sharia refers to the legal framework within which the public and private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence and for Muslims living outside the domain. Sharia deals with many aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business, contracts, family, sexuality, hygiene, and social issues. Islamic law is now the most widely used religious law, and one of the three most common legal systems of the world alongside common law and civil law. During the Islamic Golden Age, classical Islamic law may have influenced the development of common law, and also influenced the development of several civil law institutions. When sharia began its formation in the deserts of Arabia about 1,400 years ago, the time Islam was born, a sense of community did not exist. Life in the desert was nomadic and tribal, thus the only factor that tied people together into various tribes was through common ancestry. However, the nature of Islam challenged that ideology and brought all those who professed their submission to Islam into the Ummah. Additionally, Islam was not just a religion but a way of life. Laws had to be instilled so the doctrines of sharia took root. All who are Muslim are judged by sharia – regardless of the location or the culture.
39.The role and place of “Alash Orda” movement in the history of Kazakhstan. A. Bokeihanov and his role in the history of Kazakhstan.
In order to develop a program of action in the circumstances prevailing after the October Revolution of 1917 December 5-13 in the second Orenburg. All Caucasian congress. It was attended by delegates from all over Kazakhstan: Bukeevskoy Horde Uralskaya, Turgay, Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Semirechje, Samarkand, from the Altai region. The organizers were A. Bukeyhanov, A. Baytursynov, I. Omarov, S. Doschanov, M. Dulatov. Chairman of the congress was B. Kullman, with the opening of the congress delegates to reports from the field, which basically said that the south of Kazakhstan is covered hunger. The people scattered, local authorities are not able to bring order, having discussed these reports the first exit point of the resolution called for "the people for an end to partisan combat and for unity." On the agenda were made following issues: related to the autonomy of Siberia, Turkestan and South-Eastern Union, the autonomy of the Siberian regions, the police, the national council, education, the National Fund, the People's Court, auls’ management, the food issue. The central issue at the convention was the establishment of the Kazakh autonomy. Report on the autonomy Bukeyhanov made his report and the issue of autonomy of the Kazakh were transferred to the special commission. It was formed by the interim Council on «Alash Orda» of 25 members, 10 seats, of which offered Russian and other peoples of the province. The seat of Alash-Horde was determined Semipalatinsk. for the post of Head of Government, the President of All the Kazakh people's council was elected on a competitive basis A. Bukeyhanov.
40. The role of the Great Silk Way on the territory of Kazakhstan and it’s in cultural and economic development of the region.
The Great Silk Road - one of the most significant achievements in the history of world civilization. Extensive network of caravan routes crossing Europe and Asia from the Mediterranean to China and served in an era of Antiquity and Middle Ages an important means of trade relations and dialogue between the cultures of East and West. The most extensive part of the road passed through the territory of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. Asian Silk Road station, if it move from west to east, coming from Shashai (Tashkent) via Turbat in Isfidzhab, Sairam. From Isfidzhaba caravans were on the east through the town of Taraz in Sharab and Buduhket. From Taraz eastward path walked by Kulanu, passed through Suyab through the Issyk-Kul, Ili Valley, Kayalyk (capital karlukskih dzhagbu). From Isfidzhaba in Arsubaniket to Arysi through Shavgar, Yangikent. The Silk Road served initially for the export of Chinese silk. In turn, of Rome, Byzantium, India, Iran, the Arab
Caliphate, and later from Europe and Russia went on the myrrh and frankincense, cardamom and nutmeg, ginseng and gall python, carpets and paintings, diamonds and jasper, ivory and «rybi tusks», ingots of gold and silver, furs, coins, and many others On the Silk Road extended cultivated crops: grapes, peaches and melons, spices and sugar, fruit and vegetables and herbs. Silk Road extending not only products but also the fashion for art styles, and getting to the prepared soil in a particular ethno-cultural environment, are widely available. Along with the proliferation of products, scientific and technological innovation, culture samples in applied arts, architecture, wall paintings Silk Road on the east and west spread the art of music and dance, visual representations, a kind of "stage" the Middle Ages. For example, Iranian, Sogdian and Turkish actors brought a lot of choreographic culture of China. When the excavation of historical monuments throughout the Silk Road found numerous tangible confirmation of the development and cross-fertilization of musical and theatrical cultures of different peoples. The Silk Road spread religious teachings and ideas, various missionaries transferred their faith in the overseas country. From India via Central Asia and East Turkistan came to Buddhism, from Syria, Iran and Arabia, spread Christianity and then Islam. Along with Buddhism on the Silk Road coming from the West to the East, Nestorian Christianity spread wing. The basis of the Silk way carry to II century BC when the Chinese ambassador Chzhan Tsjan has visited the countries of the Central Asia with diplomatic mission. Till II century BC the way from Europe to Asia broke at borders of China as ranges of Asia - Tien Shan, Kun-Lun, Karakorum, Hindu Kush, the Himalayas - hid the most ancient Chinese civilization from other world. To open the richest western direction the case has helped. The goods on the Great Silk Way went basically from the east on the West. And, as it follows from the name, silk was the main goods in this list. Thanks to the ease, the compactness, enormous demand and dearness it was an ideal subject of trade for long-distance transportation. In the Middle Ages the Venetian merchant Marco Polo named these caravan tracks silk. And into a scientific turn the term «Great silk way» in 1877 was entered by German researcher Ferdinand Rihtgofen in the fundamental work "China".