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The main battles of the Kazakhs struggle with Zhonghar invasion in XVII-XVIII

In the spring of 1718 in 3 day battle Kazakhs defeated by Djungar armies on the river Ayaguz. In 1716-1718 the Russians introduced a string of forts on the edge of the steppe, in southern Siberia. The construction of the so-called Orenburg for­tified line was an expression of Russian concern with developments in the steppe, a concern which was heightened in 1723, when the Kalmyks crossed the Karatau to take control of the Talas valley. The Kazakhs were caught by surprise as they prepared to leave their winter campsites and fled, leaving most of their possessions and livestock. This attack began the Aqtaban Shubirindi, the Great Retreat. The Great Retreat started in 1723 when the Kalmyks crossed the Karatau to take control of the Talas valley. The Kazakhs were caught by surprise as they prepared to leave their winter campsites and fled, leaving most of their possessions and livestock. During their subsequent campaign, 1723-1725, the Kalmyks quickly captured the Syr Darya River basin from Yasi to Tashkent, forcing the Kazakhs to flee from their ancestral pasturelands. The Kalmyks continued to absorbed the territory; in 1728 they took over the land around Lake Tengiz, so posing a direct threat to Chimkent in the south. They also took control over Lake Balkhash and the lands of the Small and Middle Hordes in central Kazakhstan. By that time it was evident that without Russian assistance the Kazakhs couldn’t resist to the aggressive Kalmyks. In 1731 Abu’l Khayr, with his sons and deputies, swore their loyalty to the Russian empress. This action marked the end of an independent Kazakh state.

 

31. The assessment of Kazakhstan into Russian empire: the main stages and their features.

Relation of Kazakh-Russian in the beginning of XVIII century and at the end of XVII century was that Russia continued the aggressive policy. In the 50s of XVI century the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates have been liquidated. Thus, southeast borders of Russia have approached closely to the lands of the Kazakh khanate. In the end of XVI century on the Russian-Kazakh border has begun building of Russian cities, fortresses, advanced posts, the Cossack villages, redoubts and beacons. Some military constructions have been constructed directly in territory of Kazakhstan. In 1620 the Jaitsky small town (Uralsk), in 1645 Guryev (Atyrau) has been put. Russian government has begun at once practical realization of a problem of joining of Kazakhstan: in 1714 expedition of colonel Buhgoltsa goes to East Kazakhstan, building of fortresses in a valley of Ertis was an overall objective. In 1716 has been put fortress Omsk, also in 1917 - Zhelezinsky, in 1719 - Semipalatinsk, and in 1720 - Ust-Kamenogorsk. At the same time expedition Bekovich-Cherkassk investigated east coast of Caspian sea and has made a card of Priaralja(Ļščąšąėü˙). Petr I charges to I.Kirillov and the translator of Board of foreign affairs of Mametu Tevkelev to develop the project of reduction of Kazakhs in the Russian citizenship. However Petr I death has prevented realization of this project in a life. The Kazakh party in the beginning of XVIII century directs some embassies to Russia with the requirement to stop attacks of Russian citizens - Cossacks, the Bashkir, Kalmyk on Kazakh lands and the offer to conclude a military alliance against Zhongars. Russian government, on the one hand, promised to Kazakhs the help, with another, ordered to the Siberian administration not to quarrel with Zhongars and even to try to adjust with them trading relations. In the end 1731 Abulhair khan and batir Bogenbaj have directed the representatives to Middle zhuz, promising to khan Semeke to provide in case of acceptance of the Russian citizenship safety of region by means of Russian armies. Semeke has accepted the offer of ambassadors of Abulhair. In 1732 the structure of Russia included some part of the Middle zhuz. Semeke was going to observe the contract with the Russian empire: has made attacks on the Bashkir - feudal lords of the Russian citizens. Threat of Zhongaria has induced influential feudal lords of the Middle zhuz repeatedly to address to Russia with the request to accept them in its structure. Anna Ioanovna's reading and writing from June, 10th 1734ć. The request of Semeke and its supporters was satisfaction. In 1740 Abulmambet and influential sultan Ablaj have taken the oath of citizenship khan of Middle zhuz. The text of its oath did not differ from previous «oath promises». Sultan Ablaj in addition to that, encouraged Tatischev though the young sultan the hopes connected typing experience in political strike and with Tsins Empire. The Third under the account the oath of Abulhair on citizenship of Russia which has taken place in August 1742, had no that value which its oaths in 1731 had and 1738. Interest of Russian state to Kazakhstan has especially increased from second half 15-16 centuries, after an establishment trading and diplomatic relations of Russia with the Central Asian khanates.



 


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1272


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