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UNIT 121 On time/in time, At the end/in the end

A. On time and in time

On time = punctual, not late. If something happens on time, it happens at the time which was planned:

* The 11.45 train left on time. (=it left at 11.45)

* 'I'll meet you at 7.30.' 'OK, but please be on time.' (= don't be late, be there at 7.30) * The conference was very well organised. Everything began and finished on time.

The opposite of on time is late:

* Be on time. Don't be late.]

In time (for something/to do something) = soon enough

* Will you be home in time for dinner? (= soon enough for dinner)

* I've sent Jill her birthday present. I hope it arrives in time (for her birthday). (= soon enough for her birthday)

* I must hurry. I want to get home in time to see the football match on television.

(= soon enough to see the football match)

The opposite of in time is too late:

* I got home too late to see the football match.

You can say just in time (=almost too late):

* We got to the station just in time to catch the train.

* A child ran across the road in front of the car, but I managed to stop just in time.

B. At the end and in the end

At the end (of something) =at the time when something ends. For example:

at the end of the month, at the end of January, at the end of the match, at the end of the film, at the end of the course, at the end of the concert

* I'm going away at the end of January/at the end of the month.

* At the end of the concert, there was great applause.

* All the players shook hands at the end of the match. You cannot say 'in the end of something'. So you cannot say 'in the end of January' or 'in the end of the concert'.

The opposite of at the end is at the beginning:

at the beginning of January, at the beginning of the concert

In the end = finally

We use in the end when we say what the final result of a situation was:

* We had a lot of problems with our car. In the end we sold it and bought another one. (= finally we sold it)

* He got more and more angry. In the end he just walked out of the room.

* Jim couldn't decide where to go for his holidays. He didn't go anywhere in the end. The opposite of in the end is usually at first:

* At first we didn't like each other very much, but in the end we became good friends.




121.1 Complete the sentences with on time or in time.

1. The bus was late this morning but it's usually _on time._

2. The film was supposed to start at 8.30 but it didn't begin ---.

3. I like to get up --- to have a big breakfast before going to work.

4. We want to start the meeting --- so please don't be late.

5. I've just washed this shirt. I want to wear it this evening, so I hope it will be dry ---.

6. The train service isn't very good. The trains are rarely ---.

7. I nearly missed my flight this morning. I got to the airport just ---.

8. I nearly forgot that it was Joe's birthday. Fortunately I remembered ---.

9. Why are you never ---? You always keep everybody waiting.

121.2 Read the situations and make sentences using just in time.

1. A child ran across the road in front of your car. You saw the child at the last moment. (manage/stop) _I managed to stop just in time._

2. You were walking home without an umbrella. just after you got home, it started to rain very heavily. (get/home) ---.

3. Tim was going to sit on the chair you had just painted. You said, 'Don't sit in that chair!', so he didn't. (stop/him) I ---.

4. You went to the cinema. You were a bit late and you thought you would miss the beginning of the film. But the film began just as you sat down in the cinema. (get/cinema/beginning of the film) ---.

121.3 Complete the sentences using at the end + one of the following:

the course the interview the match the month the race

1. All the players shook hands _at the end of the match._

2. I normally get paid ---.

3. The students had a party ---.

4. Two of the runners collapsed ---.

5. To my surprise I was offered the job ---.

121.4 Write sentences with In the end. Use the verb in brackets.

1. We had a lot of problems with our car. (sell) _in the end we sold it._

2. Judy got more and more fed up with her job. (resign) ---.

3. I tried to learn German but I found it too difficult. (give up) ---.

4. We couldn't decide whether to go to the party or not. (not/go) ---.

121.5 Put in at or in.

1. I'm going away _at_ the end of the month.

2. It took me a long time to find a job --- the end I got a job in a hotel.

3. Are you going away --- the beginning of August or --- the end?

4. I couldn't decide what to buy Mary for her birthday. I didn't buy her anything --- the end.

5. We waited ages for a taxi. We gave up --- the end and walked home.

6. I'll be moving to a new address --- the end of September.

7. At first Helen didn't want to go to the theatre but she came with us --- the end.

8. I'm going away --- the end of this week.

9. '1 didn't know what to do.' 'Yes, you were in a difficult position. What did you do --- the end?'



UNIT 122 In/at/on (place) (1)

A. In

Study these examples:

in a room, in a building, in a box, in a garden, in a town/city, in a country

* There's no one in the room/in the building/in the garden.

* What have you got in your hand/in your mouth?

* When we were in Italy, we spent a few days in Venice. (not 'at Venice')

* I have a friend who lives in a small village in the mountains.

* Look at those people swimming in the pool/in the sea/in the river.

B. At

Study these examples:

at the bus stop, at the door, at the window, at the top (of the page), at the bottom (of the page), at the end of the street

* Who is that man standing at the bus stop/at the door/at the window?

* Turn left at the traffic lights/at the church/at the roundabout.

* Write your name at the top/at the bottom of the page.

* Angela's house is the white one at the end of the street.

* When you leave the hotel, please leave your key at reception.

C. On

Study these examples:

on the ceiling, on the wall, on the door, on the table, on her nose, on the floor, on a page

* I sat on the floor/on the ground on the grass/on a chair/on the beach.

* There's a dirty mark on the wall on the ceiling/on your nose/on your shirt.

* Have you seen the notice on the notice board/on the door?

* You'll find details of TV programmes on page seven (of the newspaper).

D. Compare in and at:

* There were a lot of people in the shop. It was very crowded.

but Go along this road, then turn left at the shop. (somebody giving directions) Compare in and on:

* There is some water in the bottle.

but There is a label on the bottle.

Compare at and on:

* There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is?

but There is a notice on the door. It says 'Do not disturb'.




122.1 Answer the questions about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

(bottle), (traffic lights), (arm), (door), (Paris), (wall), (top/ bottom /stairs), (gate), (end/queue), (beach)

1. Where's the label? _On the bottle._

2. Where is the car waiting? ---.

3. Where's the fly? ---.

4. a. Where's the notice? ---.

b. Where's the key? ---.

5. Where's the Eiffel Tower?. ---.

6. Where are the shelves? ---.

7. a. Where's the woman standing? ---.

b. And the cat? ---.

8. a. Where's the man standing? ---.

b. Where's the bird? ---.

9. Where's Tom standing? ---.

10. Where are the children playing?. ---.

122.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

the window your coffee the mountains that tree my guitar the river the island the next garage

1. Look at those people swimming _in the river._

2. One of the strings --- is broken.

3. There's something wrong with the car. We'd better stop ---.

4. Would you like sugar ---?

5. The leaves --- are a beautiful colour.

6. Last year we had a wonderful skiing holiday ---.

7. There's nobody living --- It's uninhabited.

8. He spends most of the day sitting --- and looking outside.

122.3 Complete the sentences with in, at or on.

1. Write your name _at_ the top of the page.

2. I like that picture hanging --- the wall the kitchen.

3. There was an accident --- the crossroads this morning.

4. I wasn't sure whether I had come to the right office. There was no name --- the door.

5. --- the end of the street there is a path leading to the river.

6. You'll find the sports results --- the back page of the newspaper.

7. I wouldn't like an office job. I couldn't spend the whole day sitting --- a desk.

8. My brother lives --- a small village . the south-west of England.

9. The man the police are looking for has a scar --- his right cheek.

10. The headquarters of the company are --- Milan.

11. Nicola was wearing a silver ring --- her little finger.



UNIT 123 In/at/on (place) (2)

A. In

We say that somebody/something is:

in a line/in a row/in a queue/in a street

in a photograph/in a picture/(look at yourself) in a mirror

in the sky/in the world

in a book/in a newspaper/in a magazine/in a letter (but 'on a page')

* When I go to the cinema, I prefer to sit in the front row.

* I live in King Street. Sarah lives in Queen Street.

* Who is the woman in that photograph? (not 'on that photograph')

* Have you seen this article in the paper (=newspaper)?

* It was a lovely day. There wasn't a cloud in the sky.

B. On

We say that somebody/something is:

on the left/on the right

on the ground floor/on the first floor/on the second floor etc.

on a map/on the menu (in a restaurant)/on a list, on a farm

* In Britain we drive on the left. (or . on the left-hand side.)

* Our flat is on the second floor of the building.

* Here's a shopping list. Don't buy anything that's not on the list.

* Have you ever worked on a farm?

We say that a place is on a river/on a road/on the coast:

* London is on the river Thames.

* Portsmouth is on the south coast of England. We say that a place is on the way to another place:

* We stopped at a small village on the way to London.

C. The corner

We say 'in the corner of a room', but 'at the corner (or on the corner) of a street':

* The television is in the corner of the room.

* There is a public telephone at/on the corner of the street.

D. The front and the back

We say in the front/in the back of a car:

* I was sitting in the back (of the car) when we crashed.

but at the front/at the back of a building/cinema/group of people etc.:

* The garden is at the back of the house.

* Let's sit at the front (of the cinema). (but 'in the front row'--see Section A)

* I was standing at the back, so I couldn't see very well.

Also on the front/on the back of a letter/piece of paper etc.:

* Write your name on the back of this envelope.




123.1 Answer the questions about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

(queue), (second floor), (corner), (corner), (front), (back/car), (mirror), (front), (back row), (left/right), (farm)

1. What's Sue doing?

She's standing _in a queue._

2. Sue lives in this building. Where's her flat exactly? ---.

3. Where is the woman standing? ---.

4. Where is the man standing? ---.

5. Where's the dog? ---.

6. What's the man doing?

He's looking ---.

7. Ann is in this group of people. Where is she? ---.

8. Tom is at the cinema. Where is he sitting? ---.

9. a. Where's the post office? ---.

b. And the bank? ---.

10. Where does Kate work? ---.

123.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

the west coast the world the front row the right the back of the envelope the sky the back of the class my way to work

1. it was a lovely day. There wasn't a cloud _in the sky._

2. In most countries people drive ---.

3. What is the tallest building ---?

4. I usually buy a newspaper --- in the morning.

5. San Francisco is --- of the United States.

6. We went to the theatre last night. We had seats ---.

7. I couldn't hear the teacher very well. She spoke quietly and I was sitting ---.

8. When you send a letter, it is a good idea to write your name and address ---.

123.3 Complete the sentences with in, at or on.

1. It can be dangerous when children play --- the street.

2. If you walk to the end of the street, you'll see a small shop --- the corner.

3. Is Tom --- this photograph? I can't find him.

4. My office is the first floor. It's --- the left as you come out of the lift.

5. We normally use the front entrance but there's another entrance --- the back.

6. A: Is there anything interesting --- the paper today?

B: Well, there's an unusual photograph --- the back page.

7. I love to look up at the stars --- the sky at night.

8. (in a restaurant) 'Where shall we sit?' 'Over there, --- the corner.'

9. When I'm a passenger in a car, I prefer to sit --- the front.

10. It's a very small village. You probably won't find it --- your map.

11. Paris is --- the river Seine.



UNIT 124 In/at/on (place) (3)

A. In bed/at home etc.

We say that somebody is in bed/in hospital/in prison:

* Mark isn't up yet. He's still in bed.

* Kay's mother is in hospital.

We say that somebody is at home/at work/at school/at university/at college:

* I'll be at work until 5.30 but I'll be at home all evening.

* Julia is studying chemistry at university.

Also at sea (= on a voyage). Compare at sea and in the sea:

* It was a long voyage. We were at sea for 30 days.

* I love swimming in the sea.

B. At a party/at a concert etc.

We say that somebody is at an event (at a party/at a conference etc.):

* Were there many people at the party/at the meeting?

* I saw Jack at a football match/at a concert last Saturday.

C. In and at for buildings

You can often use in or at with buildings. For example, you can eat in a restaurant or at a restaurant. We usually say at when we say where an event takes place (for example, a concert, a film, a party, a meeting, a sports event):

* We went to a concert at the Royal Festival Hall.

* The meeting took place at the company's headquarters.

* The film I want to see is showing at the Odeon (cinema).

We say at the station/at the airport:

* Don't meet me at the station. I can get a taxi.

We say at somebody's house:

* I was at Judy's house last night. or I was at Judy's last night.

Also: at the doctor's, at the hairdresser's etc.

We use in when we are thinking about the building itself:

* The rooms in Judy's house are very small. (not 'at Judy's house')

* I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema. (not 'at the cinema')

D. In and at for towns etc.

We normally use in with cities, towns and villages:

* Tom's parents live in Nottingham. (not 'at Nottingham')

* The Louvre is a famous art museum in Paris. (not 'at Paris')

But you can use at or in when you think of the place as a point or station on a journey:

* Do you know if this train stops at (or in) Nottingham? (=at Nottingham station)

* We stopped at (or in) a small village on the way to London.

E. On a bus/in a car etc.

We usually say on a bus/on a train/on a plane/on a ship but in a car/in a taxi:

* The bus was very full. There were too many people on it.

* George arrived in a taxi.

We say on a bicycle/on a motorcycle/on a horse:

* Mary passed me on her bicycle.

For by bus/by car/by bicycle etc., see Unit 127.




124.1 Complete the sentences about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

(the airport) (a train) (a conference) (hospital) (the hairdresser) (her bicycle),(New York) (the National Theatre)

1. You can hire a car _at the airport._

2. Dave is ---.

3. Tessa is ---.

4. Martinis ---.

5. Judy is ---.

6. I saw Mary ---.

7. We spent a few days ---.

8. We saw a play ---.

124.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

sea hospital bed the station the cinema the plane school prison the airport the Sports Centre

1. My train arrives at 11.30. Can you meet me _at the station?_

2. I didn't feel very well when I woke up, so I stayed ---.

3. I think I'd like to see a film. What's on --- this week?

4. Some people are --- for crimes that they did not commit.

5. 'What does your sister do? Has she got a job?' 'No, she's still ---.

6. I play basketball --- on Friday evenings.

7. A friend of mine was injured in an accident a few days ago. She's still ---.

8. Our flight was delayed. We had to wait --- for four hours.

9. I enjoyed the flight but the food --- wasn't very nice.

10. Bill works on ships. He is away --- most of the time.

124.3 Complete these sentences with in, at or on.

1. I didn't see you --- the party on Saturday. Where were you?

2. It was a very slow train. It stopped --- every station.

3. I don't know where my umbrella is. Perhaps I left it --- the bus.

4. Shall we travel --- your car or mine?

5. The exhibition --- the Museum of Modern Art finished on Saturday.

6. We stayed a very nice hotel when we were --- Amsterdam.

7. There were fifty rooms --- the hotel.

8. Tom is ill. He wasn't --- work today. He was --- home --- bed.

9. I wasn't in when you phoned. I was --- my sister's house.

10. It's always too hot --- my sister's house. The heating is always on too high.

11. I haven't seen Kate for some time. I last saw her --- Dave's wedding.

12. Paul lives --- London. He's a student --- London University.



UNIT 125 To/at/in/into

A. We say go/come/travel (etc.) to a place or event. For example:

go to America, go to bed, take (somebody) to hospital, return to Italy, go to the bank, come to my house, drive to the airport, go to a concert, be sent to prison

* When are your friends returning to Italy? (not 'returning in Italy')

* After the accident three people were taken to hospital.

In the same way we say: on my way to./a journey to./a trip to. welcome to. etc.:

* Welcome to our country! (not 'welcome in')

Compare to (for movement) and in/at (for position):

* They are going to France. but They live in France.

* Can you come to the party? but I'll see you at the party.

B. Been to

We usually say 'I've been to a place':

* I've been to Italy four times but I've never been to Rome.

* Ann has never been to a football match in her life.

* Jack has got some money. He has just been to the bank.

C. Get and arrive

We say 'get to a place':

* What time did they get to London/get to work/get to the party?

But we say 'arrive in ...' or 'arrive at ...' (not 'arrive to').

We say 'arrive in a country or town/city':

* When did they arrive in Britain/arrive in London?

For other places (buildings etc.) or events, we say 'arrive at':

* What time did they arrive at the hotel/arrive at the party/arrive at work?

D. Home

We do not say 'to home'. We say go home/come home/get home/arrive home/on the way home etc. (no preposition):

* I'm tired. Let's go home. (not 'go to home')

* I met Caroline on my way home.

But we say 'be at home', 'stay at home', 'do something at home' etc. See Units 73C and 124A.

E. into

'Go into ...', 'get into...' etc. = 'enter' (a room/a building/a car etc.):

* She got into the car and drove away.

* A bird flew into the kitchen through the window.

We sometimes use in (instead of into):

* Don't wait outside. Come in the house. (or Come into the house.)

Note that we say 'enter a building/enter a room' etc. (not 'enter into')

The opposite of into is out of:

* She got out of the car and went into a shop.

Note that we usually say 'get on/off a bus/a train/a plane':

* She got on the bus and I never saw her again.




125.1 Put in to/at/in/into where necessary. If no preposition is necessary leave an empty space (-).

1. Three people were taken _to_ hospital after the accident.

2. I met Caroline on my way (-) home. (no preposition)

3. We left our luggage --- the station and went to find something to eat.

4. Shall we take a taxi--- the station or shall we walk?

5. I must go --- the bank today to change some money.

6. The river Rhine flows --- the North Sea.

7. I'm tired. As soon as I get --- home, I'm going bed.

8. 'Have you got your camera?' 'No, I left it --- home.'

9. Marcel is French. He has just returned --- France after two years --- Brazil.

10. Are you going --- Linda's party next week?

11. Carl was born --- Chicago but his family moved --- New York when he was three. He still lives --- New York.

12. Have you ever been --- China?

13. I had lost my key but I managed to climb --- the house through a window.

14. We got stuck in a traffic jam on our way --- the airport.

15. We had lunch --- the airport while we were waiting for our plane.

16. Welcome --- the hotel. We hope you enjoy your stay here.

17. What do you say to someone visiting your town or country? Welcome ---!

125.2 Have you been to these places? If so, how many times? Choose three of the places and write a sentence using been to.

Athens Australia Ireland London Paris Rome Sweden the United States

1. (example answers) _I've never been to Australia./I've been to Australia three times._

2 ---.

3. ---.

4. ---.

125.3 Put in to/at/in where necessary. If no preposition is necessary leave an empty space (-).

1. What time does this train get _to_ London?

2. What time does this train arrive --- London?

3. What time did you get --- home last night?

4. What time do you usually arrive --- work in the morning?

5. When we got --- the cinema, there was a long queue outside.

6. I arrived --- home feeling very tired.

125.4 Write sentences using got into/out of/on/off.

1. You were walking home. A friend passed you in her car. She saw you, stopped and offered you a lift. She opened the door. What did you do? _I got into the car._

2. You were waiting for the bus. At last your bus came. The doors opened. What did you do then? I ---.

3. You drove home in your car. You arrived at your house and parked the car. What did you do then? ---.

4. You were travelling by train to Manchester. When the train got to Manchester, what did you do? ---.

5. You needed a taxi. After a few minutes a taxi stopped for you. You opened the door. What did you do then? ---.

6. You were travelling by air. At the end of your flight the plane landed at the airport and stopped. The doors were opened, you took your bag and stood up. What did you do then? ---.



UNIT 126 On/in/at (other uses)

A. On holiday etc.

(be/go) on holiday/on business/on a trip/on a tour/on a cruise etc.:

* Tom's away at the moment. He's on holiday in France. (not' in holiday')

* Did you go to Germany on business or on holiday?

* One day I'd like to go on a world tour.

Note that you can also say: 'go to a place for a holiday/for my holiday(s)':

* Tom has gone to France for a holiday. (not 'for holiday')

* Where are you going for your holidays next summer?

B. Other expressions with on

on television/on the radio:

* I didn't watch the news on television, but I heard it on the radio. on the phone/telephone:

* You can't phone me. I'm not on the phone. (= I haven't got a phone.)

* I've never met her but I've spoken to her on the phone.

(be/go) on strike/on a diet:

* There are no trains today. The railway workers are on strike.

* I've put on a lot of weight. I'll have to go on a diet.

(be) on fire:

* Look! That car is on fire!

on the whole (= in general):

* Sometimes I have problems at work but on the whole I enjoy my job.

on purpose (= intentionally):

* I'm sorry. I didn't mean to annoy you. I didn't do it on purpose.

But: by mistake/by chance/by accident (see Unit 127).

C. Expressions with in

in the rain/in the sun (=sunshine)/in the shade/in the dark in bad weather etc.:

* We sat in the shade. It was too hot to sit in the sun.

* Don't go out in the rain. Wait until it stops.

(write) in ink/in biro/in pencil:

* When you do the exam, you're not allowed to write in pencil.

Also: in words, in figures, in BLOCK LETTERS etc.:

* Please fill in the form in block letters.

(pay) in cash:

* I paid the bill in cash. but I paid by cheque by credit card (see Unit 127).

(be/fall) in love (with somebody):

* Have you ever been in love with anybody?

in (my) opinion:

* In my opinion, the film wasn't very good.

D. At the age of... etc.

We say: at the age of .../at a speed of .../at a temperature of ... etc. For example:

* Jill left school at 16. or ... at the age of 16.

* The train was travelling at 120 miles an hour. or ... at a speed of 120 miles an hour.

* Water boils at 100 degrees celsius.




126.1 Complete the sentences using on + one of the following:

business strike a tour the whole television fire holiday a diet the phone purpose

1. Look! That car is _free!_ Somebody call the fire brigade.

2. It's difficult to contact Sarah because she's not ---.

3. Workers at the factory have gone --- for better pay and conditions.

4. Soon after we arrived, we were taken --- of the city.

5. A: I'm going --- next week.

B: Are you? Where are you going? Somewhere nice?

6. I feel lazy this evening. Is there anything worth watching ---?

7. I'm sorry. It was an accident. I didn't do it ---.

8. George has put on a lot of weight recently. I think he should go ---.

9. Jane's job involves a lot of travelling. She often has to go away ---.

10. A: How did your exams go?

B: Well, there were some difficult questions but --- they were OK.

126.2 Complete the sentences using in + one of the following:

block letters cash my opinion the shade cold weather love pencil

1. He likes to keep warm, so he doesn't go out much ---.

2. Diane never uses a pen. She always writes ---.

3. They fell --- with each other almost immediately and were married in a few weeks.

4. Please write your address clearly, preferably ---.

5. I don't like the sun. I prefer to sit ---.

6. Ann thought the restaurant was OK, but --- it wasn't very good.

7. I hardly ever use a credit card or cheques. I prefer to pay for things ---.

126.3 Put in the correct preposition: on, in, at, or for.

1. Water boils _at_ 100 degrees celsius.

2. When I was 14, I went --- a trip to France organised by my school.

3. I wouldn't like his job. He spends most of his time talking --- the phone.

4. Julia's grandmother died recently --- the age of 79.

5. Can you turn the light on, please? I don't want to sit --- the dark.

6. We didn't go --- holiday last year. We stayed at home.

7. I'm going to Scotland --- a short holiday next month.

8. I won't be here next week. I'll be --- holiday.

9. He got married --- 17, which is rather young to get married.

10. There was an interesting programme --- the radio this morning.

11. my opinion, violent films should not be shown --- television.

12. I wouldn't like to go --- a cruise. I think I'd get bored.

13. I mustn't eat too much. I'm supposed to be --- a diet.

14. In Britain, children start school --- the age of five.

15. There was panic when people realized that the building was --- fire.

16. The Earth travels round the Sun --- a speed of 107,000 kilometres an hour.

17. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Not every minute, but --- the whole, yes.'

18. When you write a cheque, you have to write the amount --- words and figures.



UNIT 127 By

We use by in a number of different ways:

A. We use by. in many expressions to say bow we do something. For example, you can:

send something by post, do something by hand, pay by cheque/by credit card (but pay in cash)

or something can happen by mistake/by accident/by chance (but do something on purpose):

* Did you pay by cheque or in cash?

* We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.

In these expressions we use by + noun without 'a' or 'the'. We say by chance/by cheque etc. (not 'by a chance/by a cheque').

B. In the same way we use by. to say how somebody travels:

by car/by train/by plane/by boat/by ship/by bus/by bicycle etc.

and by road/by rail/by air/by sea/by underground

* Liz usually goes to work by bus.

* Do you prefer to travel by air or by train?

But we say 'on foot':

* Did you come here by car or on foot?

You cannot use by if you say 'my car'/'the train' 'a taxi' etc. We use by + noun without ,a/the/my' etc. We say:

by car but in my car (not 'by my car')

by train but on the train (not 'by the train')

We use in for cars and taxis:

* They didn't come in their car. They came in a taxi.

We use on for bicycles and public transport (buses, trains etc.):

* We travelled on the 6.45 train.

C. We say 'something is done by somebody/something' (passive-see Units 41-43):

* Have you ever been bitten by a dog?

* The programme was watched by millions of people.

Compare by and with:

* The door must have been opened with a key. (not 'by a key') (= somebody used a key to open it)

* The door must have been opened by somebody with a key.

We say 'a play by Shakespeare', 'a painting by Rembrandt', 'a novel by Tolstoy' etc.

* Have you read any books by Agatha Christie?

D. By also means next to/beside:

* Come and sit by me. (= beside me)

* 'Where's the light switch?' 'By the door.'

E. Note the following use of by ...:

* Clare's salary has just gone up from 1,000 pounds a month to 1,100 pounds. So it has increased by 100 pounds/by ten per cent.

* John and Roger had a race over 100 metres. Roger won by about five metres.




127.1 Complete the sentences using by + one of the following:

chance chance cheque hand ,mistake satellite

1. We hadn't arranged to meet. We met _by chance._

2. I didn't intend to take your umbrella. I took it ---.

3. I didn't put the pullover in the washing machine. I washed it ---.

4, If you haven't got any cash, you can pay ---.

5. The two cities were connected --- for a television programme.

6. I never suspected anything. It was only --- that I found out what had happened.

127.2 Put in by, in or on.

1. Liz usually goes to work _by_ bus.

2. I saw Jane this morning. She was --- the bus.

3. How did you get here? Did you come --- train?

4. How did you get here? Did you come --- the train?

5. I decided not to go --- car. I went --- my bike instead.

6. I didn't feel like walking home, so I came home --- a taxi.

7. Sorry we're late. We missed the bus, so we had to come --- foot.

8. How long does it take to cross the Atlantic --- sea?

127.3 Write three sentences like the examples. Write about a book, a song, a painting, a film etc.

1. _'War and Peace' is a book by Tolstoy._

2. _'Romeo and Juliet' is a play by Shakespeare._

3. ---.

4. ---.

5. ---.

127.4 Put in the correct preposition: by, in, on or with.

1. Who is that man standing --- the window?

2. I managed to put the fire out --- a fire extinguisher.

3. The plane was badly damaged --- lightning.

4. These photographs were taken --- a friend of mine.

5. These photographs were taken --- a very good camera.

6. I don't mind going --- car but I don't want to go your car.

7. Shall we get a taxi or shall we go --- foot?

8. What's that music? I know it's --- Beethoven but I can't remember what it's called.

9. There was a small table --- the bed a lamp and a clock it.

10. Our team lost the game only because of a mistake --- one of our players.

127.5 Complete the sentences using by.

1. Clare's salary was 1,000 pounds a month. Now it is 1,100 pounds.

Her salary _has increased by 100 pounds a month._

2. My daily newspaper used to cost 50 pence. From today it costs 60 pence.

The price has gone up ---.

3. There was an election. Helen got 25 votes and Norman got 23.

Helen won ---.

4. I went to Kate's house to see her but she had gone out five minutes before I arrived.

I missed ---.



UNIT 128 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.)

A. Noun + for...

cheque FOR (a sum of money):

* They sent me a cheque for 75 pounds.

demand FOR/a need FOR ...:

* The firm closed down because there wasn't enough demand for its product.

* There's no excuse for behaviour like that. There's no need for it.

reason FOR ...:

* The train was late but nobody knew the reason for the delay. (not 'reason of)

B. Noun+ of...

an advantage/a disadvantage OF ...:

* The advantage of living alone is that you can do what you like.

but we usually say: 'there is an advantage in (or to) doing something':

* There are many advantages in (or to) living alone.

a cause OF ...:

* Nobody knows what the cause of the explosion was.

a photograph/a picture/a map/a plan/a drawing (etc.) OF ...:

* She showed me some photographs of her family.

* I had a map of the town, so I was able to find my way around.

C. Noun + in...

an increase/a decrease/a rise/a fall IN (prices etc.):

* There has been an increase in the number of road accidents recently.

* Last year was a bad year for the company. There was a big fall in sales.

D. Noun+ to ...

damage TO ...:

* The accident was my fault, so I had to pay for the damage to the other car.

an invitation TO ... (a party/a wedding etc.):

* Did you get an invitation to the party?

a solution TO (a problem)/a key TO (a door)/an answer TO (a question)/a reply TO (a letter)/a reaction TO ...

* Do you think we'll find a solution to the problem? (not 'a solution of the problem')

* I was surprised at her reaction to my suggestion.

an attitude TO ... (or TOWARDS ...):

* His attitude to his Job is very negative. or His attitude towards his Job.

E. Noun + with .../between ...

a relationship/a connection/contact WITH ...:

* Do you have a good relationship with your parents?

* The police want to question a man in connection with the robbery.

but: a relationship/a connection/contact/a difference BETWEEN two things or people:

* The police believe that there is no connection between the two crimes.

* There are some differences between British and American English.




128.1 Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first.

1. What caused the explosion? What was the cause _of the explosion?_

2. We're trying to solve the problem. We're trying to find a solution ---.

3. Sue gets on well with her brother. Sue has a good relationship ---.

4. Prices have gone up a lot. There has been a big increase ---.

5. I don't know how to answer your question. I can't think of an answer ---.

6. I don't think that a new road is necessary. I don't think there is any need ---.

7. The number of people without jobs fell last month. Last month there was a fall ---.

8. Nobody wants to buy shoes like these any more. There is no demand ---.

9. In what way is your job different from mine? What is the difference ---?

128.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following nouns + the correct preposition.

cause connection invitation map reason damage contact key pictures reply

1. On the wall there were some pictures and a _map of_ the world.

2. Thank you for the --- your party next week.

3. Since she left home two years ago, she has had little --- her family.

4. I can't open this door. Have you got a --- the other door?

5. The --- the fire at the hotel last night is still unknown.

6. I wrote to Jim last week, but I still haven't received a --- my letter.

7. The two companies are completely independent. There is no --- them.

8. Jane showed me some old --- the city as it looked 100 years ago.

9. Carol has decided to give up her job. I don't know her --- doing this.

10. It wasn't a bad accident. The --- the car wasn't serious.

128.3 Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.

1. There are some differences _between_ British and American English.

2. Everything can be explained. There's a reason --- everything.

3. If I give you the camera, can you take a photograph --- me?

4. Money isn't the solution --- every problem.

5. There has been an increase --- the amount of traffic using this road.

6. When I opened the envelope, I was delighted to find a cheque --- 500 pounds.

7. The advantage --- having a car is that you don't have to rely on public transport.


8. There are many advantages --- being able to speak a foreign language.

9. When Paul left home, his attitude --- his parents seemed to change.

10. Bill and I used to be good friends but I don't have much contact --- him now.

11. There has been a sharp rise --- the cost of living in the past few years.

12. I'm sorry I haven't written to you for so long. The reason --- this is that I've been ill.

13. What was Emma's reaction --- the news?

14. Ken showed me a photograph --- the house where he lived as a child.

15. The company has rejected the workers' demands --- a rise pay.

16. What was the answer --- question 3 in the test?

17. The fact that Jane was offered a job has no connection --- the fact that her cousin is the managing director.


UNIT 129 Adjective + preposition (1)

A. It was nice of you to ...

nice/kind/good/generous/polite/silly/stupid etc. OF somebody (to do something):

* Thank you. It was very nice/kind of you to help me.

* It is stupid of her to go out without a coat in such cold weather.

but (be) nice/kind/good/generous/polite/friendly/cruel etc. TO somebody:

* They have always been very nice/kind to me. (not 'with me')

* Why were you so unfriendly to Tessa?

B. Adjective + about/with

angry/annoyed/furious ABOUT something

angry/annoyed/furious WITH somebody FOR doing something

* It's stupid to get angry about things that don't matter.

* Are you annoyed with me for being late?

excited/worried/upset/nervous/happy etc. ABOUT something:

* Are you excited about going on holiday next week?

* Carol is upset about not being invited to the party.

delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed WITH something:

* I was delighted with the present you gave me.

* Were you disappointed with your exam results?]

C. Adjective + at/by/with

surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished AT/BY something:

* Everybody was surprised at (or by) the news.

* I hope you weren't shocked by (or at) what I said.

impressed WITH/BY somebody/something:

* I'm very impressed with (or by) her English. It's very good.

fed up/bored WITH something:

* I don't enjoy my job any more. I'm fed up with it./I'm bored with it.]

D. sorry about/for

sorry ABOUT something:

* I'm sorry a out t e noise last night. We were having a party.

but usually sorry FOR doing something:

* I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday.

You can also say 'I'm sorry I (did something)':

* I'm sorry I shouted at you yesterday.

We say 'to feel/to be sorry FOR somebody':

* I feel sorry for George. He has a lot of problems.]



129.1 Write sentences using nice of ..., kind of ... etc.

1. I went out in the cold without a coat.

2. Sue offered to drive me to the airport.

3. I needed money and Ian gave me some.

4. They didn't invite us to their party.

5. Can I help you with your luggage?

6. Kevin didn't thank me for the present.

7. They've had an argument and now they refuse to speak to each other.]

(silly) _That was silly of you._

(nice) That was --- her.

(generous) That ---.

(not very nice) That wasn't ---.

(very kind) --- you.

(not very polite) ---.

(a bit childish) ---.

129.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following adjectives + the correct preposition:

annoyed annoyed astonished bored excited impressed kind sorry

1. We're all _excited about_ going on holiday next week.

2. Thank you for all your help. You've been very --- me.

3. I wouldn't like to be in her position. I feel --- her.

4. What have I done wrong? Why are you --- me?

5. Why do you always get so --- little things?

6. I wasn't very --- the service in the restaurant. We had to wait ages before our food arrived.

7. John isn't happy at college. He says he's --- the course he's doing.

8. I had never seen so many people before. I was --- the crowds.

129.3 Put in the correct preposition.

1. I was delighted _with_ the present you gave me.

2. It was very nice --- you to do my shopping for me. Thank you very much.

3. Why are you always so rude --- your parents? Can't you be nice them?

4. It was a bit careless --- you to leave the door unlocked when you went out.

5. They didn't reply to our letter, which wasn't very polite --- them.

6. We always have the same food every day. I'm fed up --- it.

7. I can't understand people who are cruel --- animals.

8. We enjoyed our holiday, but we were a bit disappointed --- the hotel.

9. I was surprised --- the way he behaved. It was completely out of character.

10. I've been trying to learn Spanish but I'm not very satisfied --- my progress.

11. Linda doesn't look very well. I'm worried --- her.

12. Are you angry --- what happened?

13. I'm sorry --- what I said. I hope you're not angry --- me.

14. The people next door are furious --- us making so much noise last night.

15. Jill starts her new job next week. She's quite excited --- it.

16. I'm sorry --- the smell of paint in this room. I've just decorated it.

17. I was shocked --- what I saw. I'd never seen anything like it before.

18. The man we interviewed for the job was intelligent but we weren't very impressed --- his appearance.

19. Are you still upset --- what I said to you yesterday?

20. He said he was sorry --- the situation but there was nothing he could do.

21. I felt sorry --- the children when we went on holiday. It rained every day and they had to spend most of the time indoors.



UNIT 130 Adjective + preposition (2)

A. Adjective + of (1)

afraid/frightened/terrified/scared OF ...:

* 'Are you afraid of dogs?' 'Yes, I'm terrified of them.'

fond/proud/ashamed/jealous/envious OF ....:

* Why are you always so jealous of other people?

suspicious/critical/tolerant OF ...:

* He didn't trust me. He was suspicious of my intentions.

B. Adjective + of (2)

aware/conscious OF ...

* 'Did you know he was married?' 'No, I wasn't aware of that.'

capable/incapable OF ...

* I'm sure you are capable of passing the examination.

full OF./short OF ...

* The letter I wrote was full of mistakes. (not 'full with')

* I'm a bit short of money. Can you lend me some?

typical OF ...

* He's late again. It's typical of him to keep everybody waiting.

tired OF ...:

* Come on, let's go! I'm tired of waiting. (= I've had enough of waiting)

certain/sure OF or ABOUT ...:

* I think she's arriving this evening but I'm not sure of that. (or . sure about that.)

C. Adjective+ at/ to/ from/ in/ on/with /for

good/bad/excellent/brilliant/hopeless (etc.) AT ...:

* I'm not very good at repairing things. (not 'good in repairing things')

married/engaged TO ...:

* Linda is married to an American. (not 'married with')

but * Linda is married with three children. she is married and has three children)

similar TO ...:

* Your writing is similar to mine.

different FROM (or TO) ...:

* The film was different from what I'd expected. (or ... different to what I'd expected.)

interested IN ...:

* Are you interested in art?

keen ON ...:

* We stayed at home because Cathy wasn't very keen on going out.

dependent ON ... (but 'independent OF ...'):

* I don't want to be dependent on anybody.

crowded WITH (people etc.):

* The city centre was crowded with tourists. (but 'full of tourists')

famous FOR ...:

* The Italian city of Florence is famous for its art treasures.

responsible FOR ...:

* Who was responsible for all that noise last night?




130.1 Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first one.

1. There were lots of tourists in the city centre. The city centre was crowded _with tourists._

2. There was a lot of furniture in the room. The room was full ---.

3. I don't like sport very much. I'm not very keen ---.

4. We haven't got enough time. We're a bit short ---.

5. I'm not a very good tennis player. I'm not very good ---.

6. Catherine's husband is Russian. Catherine is married ---.

7. I don't trust Robert. I'm suspicious ---.

8. My problem is not the same as yours. My problem is different ---.

130.2 Complete the sentences with one of the following adjectives + the correct preposition:

afraid different interested proud responsible similar sure

1. I think she's arriving this evening but I'm not _sure of_ that.

2. Your camera is --- mine but it isn't exactly the same.

3. Don't worry. I'll look after you. There's nothing to be ---.

4. 'Do you want to watch the news on television?' 'No, I'm not --- the news.'

5. The editor is the person who is --- what appears in a newspaper.

6. Mrs Davis is a very keen gardener. She's very --- her garden and loves showing it to visitors.

7. I was surprised when I met her for the first time. She was --- what I expected.

130.3 Put in the correct preposition.

1. The letter I wrote was full _of_ mistakes.

2. My home town is not especially interesting. It's not famous --- anything.

3. Kate is very fond --- her younger brother.

4. I don't like going up ladders. I'm afraid --- heights.

5. You look bored. You don't seem 'interested --- what I'm saying.

6. Did you know that Liz is engaged --- a friend of mine?

7. I'm not ashamed --- what I did. In fact I'm quite proud --- it.

8. I suggested we should all go out for a meal but nobody else was keen --- the idea.

9. These days everybody is aware --- the dangers of smoking.

10. The station platform was crowded --- people waiting for the train.

11. She's much more successful than I am. Sometimes I feel a bit jealous --- her.

12. I'm tired --- doing the same thing every day. I need a change.

13. Do you know anyone who might be interested --- buying an old car?

14. We've got plenty to eat. The fridge is full --- food.

15. She is a very honest person. I don't think she is capable --- telling a lie.

16. I'm not surprised she changed her mind at the last moment. That's typical --- her.

17. Our house is similar --- yours. Perhaps yours is a bit larger.

18. John has no money of his own. He's totally dependent --- his parents.

130.4 Write sentences about yourself. Are you good at these things or not? Use:

brilliant very good quite good not very good hopeless

1. (repairing things) _I'm not very good at repairing things._

2. (telling jokes) ---.

3. (mathematics) ---.

4. (remembering names) ---.



UNIT 131 Verb + preposition (1) at and to

A. Verb + at

look/have a look/stare/glance (etc.) AT ...:

* Why are you looking at me like that?

laugh/smile AT ...:

* I look stupid with this haircut. Everybody will laugh at me.

aim/point (something) AT..., shoot/fire (a gun) AT... (='in the direction of'):

* Don't point that knife at me. It's dangerous.

* We saw some people with guns shooting at birds.

B. Verb + to

talk/speak TO (somebody) ('with' is also possible but less usual):

* Who was that man you were talking to?

* Can I speak to Jane, please?

listen TO ...:

* We spent the evening listening to music. (not 'listening music')

write (a letter) TO ...:

* Sorry I haven't written to you for such a long time.

but phone/telephone somebody (no preposition):

* Did you phone your father yesterday? (not 'phone to your father')

invite (somebody) TO (a party/a wedding etc.):

* They only invited a few people to their wedding.

C. Some verbs can be followed by at or to, with a difference of meaning. For example:

shout AT somebody (when you are angry):

* She got very angry and started shouting at me.

shout TO somebody (so that they can bear you):

* She shouted to me from the other side of the street.

throw something AT somebody/something (in order to bit them):

* Somebody threw an egg at the minister.

throw something TO somebody (for somebody to catch):

* Judy shouted 'Catch!' and threw the keys to me from the window.

D. Explain/describe/apologize

We say explain something (TO somebody):

* Can you explain this word to me? (not 'explain me this word')

also: 'explain (to somebody) that/what/how/why ...':

* I explained to them what I wanted them to do. (not 'I explained them')

Describe is similar:

* Let me describe to you what I saw.

Note that we say 'apologize TO somebody (for ...)':

* He apologized to me. (not 'He apologized me')

but 'thank somebody (for something)', 'ask somebody (for something)':

* He asked me for money. (not 'He asked to me')




131.1 Complete the sentences. Choose one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition:

explain invite laugh listen point glance speak throw throw write

1. I look stupid with this haircut. Everybody will _laugh at_ me.

2. I don't understand what this means. Can you _explain_ it _to_ me?

3. I --- my watch to see what the time was.

4. We've been --- the party but unfortunately we can't go.

5. Please --- me! I've got something important to tell you.

6. Don't --- stones --- the birds! It's cruel.

7. If you don't want to eat that sandwich, --- it --- the birds. They'll eat it.

8. Sally and Kevin had an argument and now they're not --- one another.

9. I --- Joanna last week but she hasn't replied to my letter yet.

10. Be careful with those scissors! Don't --- them --- me!

131.2 Put in to or at where necessary.

1. They only invited a few people _to_ their wedding.

2. Look --- these flowers. Aren't they pretty?

3. Please don't shout --- me! Be nice to me!

4. I saw Sue as I was cycling along the road. I shouted --- her but she didn't hear me.

5. Don't listen --- what he says. He doesn't know what he's talking about.

6. Can I speak --- you for a moment? There's something I want to ask you.

7. Do you think I could have a look --- your newspaper, please?

8. I'm a bit lonely. I need somebody to talk ---.

9. She was so angry she threw a chair --- me.

10. The woman sitting opposite me on the train kept staring --- me.

131.3 You ask somebody to explain some things that you don't understand. Write sentences using explain (something) to me or explain to me (how/what ... etc.).

1. (I don't understand this word.) _Can you explain this word to me?_

2. (I don't understand what you mean.) _Can you explain to me what you mean?_

3. (I don't understand this question.) Can you explain ---.

4. (I don't understand the system.) Can ---.

5. (I don't understand how this machine works.) ---.

6. (I don't understand what your problem is.) ---.

131.4 Put in to where necessary. If the sentence is already complete, leave an empty space (-)

1. I know who she is but I've never spoken _to_ her.

2. George won't be able to help you, so there's no point in asking (-) him.

3. I like to listen --- the radio while I'm having breakfast.

4. We'd better phone --- the restaurant to reserve a table.

5. I apologized --- Bridget for the misunderstanding.

6. Don't forget to write --- me while you're away.

7. I thanked --- everybody for all the help they had given me.

8. I explained --- everybody what they had to do.

9. Mike described --- me how the accident happened.

10. I'd like to ask --- you some questions.



UNIT 132 Verb + preposition (2) about/for/of/after

A. Verb + about

talk ABOUT .../read ABOUT .../tell somebody ABOUT .../have a discussion ABOUT...

* We talked about a lot of things at the meeting.

but 'discuss something' (no preposition):

* We discussed a lot of things at the meeting. (not 'discussed about')

also: 'do something ABOUT something' (= do something to improve a bad situation):

* If you're worried about the problem, you should do something about it.

B. Care about, care for and take care of

care ABOUT somebody/something (= think that somebody/something is important):

* He's very selfish. He doesn't care about other people.

We say 'care what/where/how' (etc.) (without 'about'):

* You can do what you like. I don't care what you do.

care FOR somebody/something:

i) = like something (usually in questions and negative sentences):

* Would you care for a cup of coffee? (= Would you like ...?)

* I don't care for very hot weather. (= I don't like ...)

ii) = look after somebody:

* Albert is 85 and lives alone. He needs somebody to care for him.

take care OF ... (= look after):

* Have a nice holiday. Take care of yourself! (= look after yourself)

C. Verb + for

ask (somebody) FOR...

* I wrote to the company asking them for more information about the job.

but * I asked her a question./They asked me the way to the station. (no preposition)

apply (TO a person, a company etc.) FOR (a job etc.):

* I think this job would suit you. Why don't you apply for it?

wait FOR .../wait FOR something to happen:

* Don't wait for me. I'll join you later.

* I'm not going out yet. I'm waiting for the rain to stop.

search (a person/a place/a bag etc.) FOR ...:

* I've searched (the house) for my keys but I still can't find them.

leave (a place) FOR (another place):

* I haven't seen her since she left (home) for work this morning. (not 'left to work')

D. Look for and look after

look FOR ... (= search for, try to find):

* I've lost my keys. Can you help me to look for them?

look AFTER ... (= take care of):

* Albert is 85 and lives alone. He needs somebody to look after him. (not 'look for')

* You can borrow this book if you promise to look after it.




132.1 Put in the correct preposition. If no preposition is needed, leave the space empty (-)

1. I'm not going out yet. I'm waiting _for_ the rain to Stop.

2. You're always asking me --- money. Ask somebody else for a change.

3. I've applied --- a job at the factory. I don't know if I'll get it.

4. If I want a job at the factory, who do I apply ---?

5. I've searched everywhere --- John but I haven't been able to find him.

6. I don't want to talk --- what happened last night. Let's forget it.

7. I don't want to discuss --- what happened last night. Let's forget it.

8. We had an interesting discussion --- the problem but we didn't reach a decision.

9. We discussed --- the problem but we didn't reach a decision.

10. I don't want to go out yet. I'm waiting --- the post to arrive.

11. Keith and Sonia are touring Europe. They're in Rome at the moment, but tomorrow they leave --- Venice.

12. The roof of the house is in very bad condition. I think we ought to do something --- it.

13. We waited --- Jim for half an hour but he never came.

14. Tomorrow morning I have to catch a plane. I'm leaving my house --- the airport at 7.30.

132.2 Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + preposition:

apply ask do leave look search talk wait

1. Police are _searching for_ the man who escaped from prison.

2. We're still --- a reply to our letter. We haven't heard anything yet.

3. George likes his job but he doesn't --- it much.

4. When I'd finished my meal, I --- the waiter . the bill.

5. Kate is unemployed. She has --- several jobs but she hasn't had any luck.

6. If something is wrong, why don't you --- something it?

7. Linda's car is very old but it's in excellent condition. She --- it well.

8. Diane is from Boston but now she lives in Paris. She --- Boston --- Paris

when she was 19.

132.3 Put in the correct preposition after care. If no preposition is needed, leave the space empty (-)

1. He's very selfish. He doesn't care _about_ other people.

2. Are you hungry? Would you care --- something to eat?

3. She doesn't care --- the examination. She's not worried whether she passes or falls.

4. Please let me borrow your camera. I promise I'll take good care --- it.

5. 'Do you like this coat?' 'Not really. I don't care --- the colour.'

6. Don't worry about arranging our holiday. I'll take care --- that.

7. I want to have a good holiday. I don't care --- the cost.

8. I want to have a good holiday. I don't care --- how much it costs.

132.4 Complete the sentences with look for or look after. Use the correct form of look.

1. I _looked for_ my keys but I couldn't find them anywhere.

2. Kate is --- a job. I hope she finds one soon.

3. Who --- you when you were ill?

4. I'm --- Elizabeth. Have you seen her?

5. All the car parks were full, so we had to --- somewhere to park.

6. A baby-sitter is somebody who --- other people's children.



UNIT 133 Verb + preposition (3) about and of

Some verbs can be followed by about or of, usually with a difference of meaning:

A. dream ABOUT ...:

* I dreamt about you last night. (when I was asleep)

dream OF being something/doing something (= imagine):

* I often dream of being rich.

* 'Don't tell anyone what I said.' 'No, I wouldn't dream of it.' (=I would never do it)

Date: 2015-02-03; view: 800

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UNIT 119 By and until, By the time... | Year of diplomatic breakthrough on Syria
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