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Conditionals (3)



A Introduction

David: How was your camping holiday? Mike: Well, it would have been all right

if it hadn't rained all the time. Harriet: If we'd gone two weeks earlier,

we'd have had better weather.


If it hadn't rained and if we'd gone two weeks earlier are imaginary situations in the past. It did rain, and they didn't go two weeks earlier.

B Type 3: If we had gone earlier, we would have had better weather

IF-CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE

if Past perfect would have

If we 'd gone earlier, we 'd have had better weather.

If Matthew had phoned her, Emma wouldn't have been so annoyed.

If you hadn't made that mistake, you 'd have passed your test.

If David had been more careful, he wouldn't have fallen.

Note the verb in the past perfect (e.g. had been). We do not use would in the if-clause. NOT If David would have been more careful, he would have-fallen.

The main clause often has would have. We can also use could have or might have.

If I'd had my mobile yesterday, I could have contacted you.

We just caught the train. If we'd stopped to buy a paper, we might have missed it.

The short form 'd can be either had or would.

If you'd rung me, I'd have come to see you. (= If you had rung me, I would have come to see you.)

C The use of type 3

We use type 3 conditionals to talk about things in the past happening differently from the way they really happened. This sometimes means criticizing people or pointing out their mistakes.

If you'd been a bit more careful, you wouldn't have cut yourself.

If Matthew had set his alarm clock, he wouldn't have overslept. We can also use this structure to express regret about the past.

If I hadn't fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have got the job.

D Type 2 and type 3

Compare these examples.

Type 2: If you planned things properly, you wouldn't get into a mess. (You don't plan.)

Type 3: If you had planned things properly, you wouldn't have got into a mess. (You didn't plan.)

We can mix types 2 and 3.

If you had planned things at the start, we wouldn't be in this mess now.

If you hadn't left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.

If Matthew was more sensible, he would have worn a suit to the interview.

If I didn't have all this work to do, I would have gone out for the day.


146 Exercises

1 Type 3 (A-C)

Complete the conversation. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use the past perfect or would have.

Nick: United didn't play very well today.

Tom: We were awful. But if Hacker (►) had taken (take) that easy chance,

(►) we would have won (we / win).
Nick: We didn't deserve to win. It (1). (be) pretty unfair if Rangers

(2)(lose).
Tom: Hacker was dreadful. My grandmother (3) ........................................... (score) if

(4) ........................................... (she / be) in that position.

Nick: And if Burley (5)................................................... (not / be) asleep, he (6)



(not / give) a goal away.
Tom: If Johnson (7)......................... (not / be) injured when we needed him most,

(8) ..(it/be) different.

Nick: Yes, (9)(we / beat) them if (10) (he / be) fit.

2 Type 3 (A-C)

Comment on each situation using a type 3 conditional with if. Use would have, could have or might have.

? In a bookshop yesterday Daniel saw a book he really wanted. The only problem was that he didn't have
any money. Daniel would have bought the book if he had had any money.

? Rita often goes to concerts at the town hall, although not to every one. There was one on Saturday, but
she didn't know about it. Rita might have gone to the concert if she had known about it.

 

1 On Sunday the guests had to have their lunch inside. Unfortunately it wasn't warm enough to have it
outside............................................................................................................

2 There was a bomb scare last Tuesday. Sarah wanted to fly to Rome, but she wasn't able to. The airport
was closed........................................................................................................

3 Laura has only met Nick once, and it's possible she wouldn't recognize him. He passed her yesterday,
but he had a crash-helmet on......................................................................................

4 Sarah has been quite busy, and she hasn't watered her plants for some time. As a result, they've died.

5 Nick likes ice hockey, but he didn't have a ticket to the game last week, so unfortunately he wasn't able
to get in..........................................................................................................................

3 Type 2 and type 3 (D)

Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use the past simple, the past perfect, would, or would have.

► Mike: You look tired.

Harriet: Well, if you hadn't woken (you / not / wake) me up in the middle of the night, I wouldn't be (I / not be) so tired.

1 Rita: Is Trevor a practical person?

Laura: Trevor? No, he isn't. If ........... . (he / be) practical,

.(he / put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It took him ages.

2 Tom: Why are you sitting in the dark?

David: Let's just say that if................................................. (I / pay) my electricity bill last month,

.............................................. (I / not be) in the dark now.

3 Matthew: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was play basketball.
Emma: If ................................................. (you / love) me,

.(you / not / leave) me here all alone on my birthday.


 

147 Review of conditionals

There are three main types of conditional. Study the examples. Type 1: if... the present simple ... will/can/might, etc

If we win today, we'll go to the top of the league. (We may win, or we may not.) Type 2: if ... the past simple ... would/could/might

If Johnson was in the team, I'd feel more confident. (Johnson isn't in the team.) Type 3: if ... the past perfect ... would have/could have/might have

If Johnson had played, we'd have won. (Johnson didn't play.)

Here are some more examples with different verb forms. Type 1 If I'm going shopping, I'll need some money.

If the disco has finished, we might be able to get some sleep.

You should stay in bed if you feel unwell. Type 2 If I didn't like this pudding, I wouldn't eat it.

If the video recorder was working, we could watch a film.

The alarm might go off if we tried to get in through a window. Type 3 If we'd dropped the piano, it would have been a disaster.

If Vicky had come to the theme park with us last week, she might have enjoyed it.

We could have given you a lift if we'd known you were coming this way.

B Other conditional sentences

As well as the three main types, there are other types of conditional sentence. For example, we can use two present-tense verbs (see Unit 144D). If you ring this number, no one answers.

We can also use a present-tense verb and an imperative. If you need any help, just ask. If you drink, don't drive.

We can use be going to.

If it's going to rain, I'd better take an umbrella.

If they try to cut down the trees, there's going to be a big protest.

We can mix types 2 and 3 (see Unit 146D).

If Matthew had booked a table, we wouldn't be standing here in a queue. If you needed help, you should have asked me.


147Exercises

1 Types 1, 2 and 3 (A)

Match the sentences and join them with if. Say what type they are.

► I went to bed earlier. I'll try to follow them.

1 The twins had worn different clothes. You might not be warm enough.

2 You tell me what the instructions say. I wouldn't have bought it.

3 People used public transport. I wouldn't sleep.

4 You don't wear a sweater. There'd be less pollution.

5 I hadn't seen the product advertised. We could have told them apart.

If I went to bed earlier, I wouldn't sleep. type 2
I

2 3 4 5

2 Types l, 2 and 3 (A)

Adam is a music student. He rents a room from Mr Day. Put in the correct forms.

Mr Day: Can't you stop playing that trumpet? You're making an awful noise.

Adam: Well, if (►) I don't practise (I / not practise), I won't pass my exam.

Mr Day: But why at night? It's half past twelve. If (1).. (you / play) it in the

daytime, (2). (I / not / hear) you because I'd be at work.

If (3). (you / tell) me about this trumpet when you first came here,

(4)(I/ not / let) you have the room. I'm afraid it's becoming a

nuisance. If (5) ................................................. (you / not / play) so loud,

(6) .. (it / not / be) so bad.

Adam: I'm sorry, but you can't play a trumpet quietly.

Mr Day: If (7). (I / realize) a year ago what you were going to do, then

(8) .................... (I / throw) you out long ago.

If (9).. (you / go) on making this noise at night,

(10) ...... (I / have) to complain to your college.

3 Conditionals (A-B)

What might you say in these situations? Use a conditional sentence.

► You think Emma should book a seat on the train. The alternative is having to stand.
If Emma doesn't book a seat on the train, she'll have to stand.

1 You didn't know how unpopular lason was when you invited him to your party.

2 Warn your friend not to put too many tins into the plastic bag or it'll break.

3 You haven't got a pen, so you can't write down the address.

4 You should have started your project earlier. You're so far behind now.

5 Your friend might need some help. If so, tell her to give you a ring.

6 The automatic result of the door opening is the fan coming on.



Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1732


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