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Phrasal verbs (2)



A Everyday situations

Here are some phrasal verbs in everyday situations. Come on, we're going now. Trevor dug up an old coin in the garden. You have to fill in your name and address. How did you get on in the test? I usually get up late on Sundays. I'm going out for the evening.

Melanie poured tea for the guests and handed the cakes round. Hurry up. We haven't got much time. David hit his head on a lamppost and knocked himself out. Mark picked up the cassette and put it in the player. You have to plug the machine in first. I'm going to throw these old clothes away. We were too tired to wash up after the meal. Sarah woke up suddenly in the night.


B Phrasal verbs and one-word verbs

Here are some phrasal verbs with the same meaning as a one-word verb (see also Unit 128B). They're going to bring in a new law against drinking and driving. (= introduce) How did the argument come about? (= happen) Emma isn't speaking to Matthew. They've fallen out. (= quarrelled) We've fixed up a meeting for next Tuesday. (= arranged) Trevor gave up playing football years ago. (= stopped) / had a pain in my arm, but it's gone away. (= disappeared) We heard the bomb go off jive miles away. (= explode) The traffic was held up by road works. (= delayed)

The United Nations was set up to settle conflicts peacefully. (= established) I'm trying to work out how much money I've spent. (= calculate)

C Business situations

Here are some examples of phrasal verbs in business situations.

If we're spending too much money, we'll have to cut back. (= spend less)

Our lawyers will draw up a new contract. (= write)

We mustn't fall behind in the race to develop new products. (= be slower than others)

The two sides were close to an agreement, but it fell through. (= didn't happen)

The company fought off a takeover by ICM Computers. (= managed to stop)

/ tried to ring Santiago, but I couldn't get through. (= make contact)

The company has laid off two hundred workers because of a lack of new orders.

The computer will print out the details.

The consultants put forward a proposal to reorganize the company. (= suggested)

I'll get the information for you. Can I ring you back in half an hour? (= phone again)

Sarah paid a visit to the client to try to sort out the difficulties. (= put right)

The company boss has stepped down after ten years in charge. (= left the job)

We are taking on the challenge of expanding overseas. (= accepting)

Large companies sometimes take over smaller ones. (= take control of)


 
 


Exercises

1 Phrasal verbs in everyday situations (A) Look at the pictures and say what is happening. Use these phrasal verbs: dig up, pick up, plug in, throw away, wash up Use these objects: the armchair, litter, the plates, the road, the television

They're throwing the armchair away.

1. ……………………………………………….. 3 …………………………………………..

2. ……………………………………………….. 4 ......................................................



Phrasal verbs and one-word verbs (B)

Rewrite the sentences replacing each underlined verb with a phrasal verb.

► We're trying to arrange a holiday together.
We're trying to fix up a holiday together.Nick says he's stopped smoking.

1 How did the accident happen?

2 I think Matthew and Emma have quarrelled.
i The problem isn't going to just disappear.

 

5 The government is introducing a new tax on computers.

6 Zedco want to establish a new sales office in Germany.

Business situations (C)

Complete the news article about Zedco. Put in these words: fallen behind, fell through, fight off, laying off, put forward, sort out, step down, taking over, taken on

Zedco Chief Executive Barry Douglas has (►) put forward a new plan designed to

(1) ……………………………………………… the company's problems. It is only twelve months since Zedco tried to

strengthen its position by (2)...................................................... Alpha Plastics. But the deal

(3) …………………………………… , and Alpha managed to (4)...................................... …………………. Zedco's attempts to

take control. Since then Zedco has performed poorly and has (5) ………………………………in the race for

market share. Managing Director James Ironside has had to (6) ……………………………… , and Barry

Douglas has (7) ……………………………… the task of rescuing the company. There are fears that the new
plan will mean (8).................................................... staff in order to reduce expenditure.


 

130 Phrasal verbs (3)

Here up has the sense of 'increasing', and on has the sense of connected'.

B Adverb meanings

Look at these adverbs and their meanings.

Remember that an adverb can have a number of different meanings.

down = becoming less on = continuing

turn down the music carry on working

bring down the cost oj living drive on a bit further

down = completely to the ground hang on/hold on a minute

knock a house down out = away, disappearing

cut down a tree wash out the dirt

down = stopping completely cross out a mistake

the car broke down blow out the candle

a factory closing down out = to different people

down = on paper hand out free tickets

copy down the words share out the winnings

write down the message out = aloud

note down the details read out the article

off = away, departing call out anxiously

set off on a journey out = from start to finish

jump in the car and drive off write out the whole list

see Emma off at the station work out the answer

the plane took off over = from start to finish

the pain is wearing off check your work over

off = disconnected think the problem over

switch off the heater up = increasing

cut off our electricity prices are going up

the caller rang off put up taxes

on = connected speak up so we can hear

switch on the kettle up = completely

turn on the TV eat up these chocolates

leave the lights on all night fill up with petrol

on = wearing count up the money

put a coat on tear up the paper
try the sweater on


130 Exercises

i Adverb meanings (B)

Look back at B and then write the meaning of the underlined words in these sentences.

► I must get these ideas down in writing. on paper

1 Daniel finished all the cake ug.

2 I'm writing in pencil so I can rub out my mistakes.

3 Vicky didn't answer. She just went on reading.

4 I'll just read over what I've written.

5 A woman in the audience shouted something out

6 The water was turned off for about an hour today.

7 Nick's aggressive manner frightens people off.

8 The company wants to keep its costs down.

9 The embassy was burnt down by terrorists.

10 Someone will have to type all these figures out.

11 Social workers were giving out soup to the hungry.

12 Luckily Zedco's sales figures are moving up again.

13 The man was tall and dark. He had a blue jacket on.

14 Business is so bad that many firms have shut down.

2 Adverb meanings (B)

Put in the correct adverb.

► Melanie: Everything is so expensive. Prices seem to be going up all the time.
David: Yes, and the government is supposed to be bringing inflation down.

1 Laura: You shouldn't leave the television.......... all night.
Trevor: Sorry, I forgot. I usually turn it ...............

2 Vicky: I've written the wrong word here.
Rachel: Well, rub it

Vicky: I can't. It's in biro. I'll have to write the whole thing ……………. again.

3 Sarah: They're going to pull …………… this beautiful old building.

Mark: I know. Some protesters were handing ……………. leaflets about it.

4 Emma: Hold…………… a minute. I thought I heard someone call

Matthew: I think you must have imagined it.

3 Adverb meanings (B)


► I'm afraid the car has broken down 1 Why don't you………………………… . this coat? 3 I can't hear. Please ……………………….. 2 Look, the plane is …………………....... 4 We're just……………………….. on holiday.

What are they saying? Put in the phrasal verbs.


131 Verb + adverb + preposition

A Simple meanings

Look at these examples.

VERB ADVERB PREPOSITION

So you've come in from the cold.

The old man fell down on the pavement.

I couldn't get through to directory enquiries.

David decided to get up onto the roof.

It was nice to go out into the fresh air.

We look out over the sea.

Everyone looked up at the aeroplane.

Vicky ran away from the fire.

B Idiomatic meanings

A verb + adverb + preposition often has a special, idiomatic meaning which isn't clear

from the individual words. Look at these examples.

Tom often calls in on/drops in on us without warning. (= pays short visits)

You go on ahead. I'll soon catch up with you. (= reach the same place as)

The police are going to clamp down on drug dealers. (= take strong action against)

I'm afraid we've come up against another difficulty. (= be stopped by)

Did Claire's trip come up to/live up to her expectations? (= Was it as good as she expected?)

The country is crying out for a new leader. (= in great need of)

We need to cut hack on our spending. (= reduce)

I'm trying to lose weight. I have to cut down on puddings. (= reduce)

They should do away with these useless traditions. (= abolish)

You've got to face up to your responsibilities. You can't just ignore them. {- not avoid)

If plan A doesn't work, we've got plan B to fall back on. (= use if necessary)

I'm tired, Mark. I don't really feel up to going out. (= have enough energy for)

We can't go on holiday together if your dates don't fit in with mine. (= go together with)

The thief managed to get away with about £2,000 in cash. (= steal and take away)

The goods are damaged. We'll have to get on to our suppliers. (= contact)

You haven't packed your suitcase yet. You'd better get on with it. (= start, continue)

Mark doesn't really get on with Alan. They're always arguing. (= have a good relationship with)

/ have lots of little jobs to do, but I can never get round to actually doing them. (= find the right time for)

I can't make a promise and then go back on it, can I? (= break, fail to keep)

Matthew has decided to go in for the ten-mile 'Fun Run this year. (= enter, compete in)

Most of the audience had left in the interval, but the actors decided to go on with the show. (= continue)

If you hold on to the rope, you'll be perfectly safe. (= keep your hands around)

Daniel was walking so fast I couldn't keep up with him. (= go as fast as)

I'm looking forward to the trip. (= thinking ahead with pleasure about)

If you're going barefoot, look out for/watch out for broken glass. (= be careful about)

I got some money from the insurance company, but nothing could make up for losing

my wedding ring. (= compensate for) I'm not going to put up with this nonsense. (= tolerate) We've run out of milk, I'm afraid. (= We have none left.) Are you going to send away for your free gift? (= write to ask for)


131Exercises

1 Simple meanings (A)

Put in these words: away from, down on, in from, out into, through to, up at, up onto

► To reach the light bulb, Trevor had to get up onto the table.

1 Nick hurt himself when he was skating. He fell........................................... . the ice.

2 It was a very long tunnel, but we finally came........................................................ the sunshine.

3 Wondering if it was going to rain, Vicky looked ................................................ the clouds.

4 People were running.............................................. the gunman as fast as they could.

5 I'm trying to phone my secretary, but I can't get......................................................... the office.

6 When I've come........................................ the cold, I just want to sit by the fire.

2 Idiomatic meanings (B)

Put in a verb + adverb + preposition which means the same as the expression in brackets.

► I'm afraid this product doesn't live up to (be as good as) the claims made in the advertisement.

1 I'll just call at the garage. I don't want to.......................... (have none left) petrol.

2 If you want a catalogue, I'll ............................................................ (write to ask for) one.

3 We'd better ................................................... (be careful about) sheep in the road.

4 1 ....... (think ahead with pleasure about) seeing you again soon, Emma.

5 The teacher was dictating so fast we couldn't.................................................................... (go as fast as) her.

6 Why should we have to ...................................................... (tolerate) this awful noise?

7 It's half past twelve. I'd better ........................................................... (start) making lunch.

8 Do you think the committee will ........................................................ (change) their earlier decision?

9 There was a problem with the cheque, so I decided to ......................................................................... (contact) my bank

immediately.

10 I always like to …………………...................................... (enter) quiz competitions.

11 I'm trying to..................... ………………....... (reduce) the amount of coffee I drink.

12 I might lose my job. And I haven't got any savings to ………………………….. (use if necessary).

13 I've been meaning to reply to Rachel's letter, but I haven't managed
to (find the right time for) it yet.

14 An apology alone cannot (compensate for) all the inconvenience.

] Idiomatic meanings (B)

What might you say in these situations? Use the words in brackets.

► You're tired. You can't go jogging, (don't feel up)
I don't feel up to jogging.

1 You like Melanie. The two of you are very friendly. (I get)

2 You might go and see David. It would be a short visit, (might drop)

3 You don't mind what you do. You'll do the same as everyone else. (I'll fit)

4 You are too slow. Matthew is too far ahead of you. (can't catch up)

5 The sunny weather is nice. Last week was terrible, (is making up)


TEST 22 Verbs with prepositions and adverbs (Units 126-131)

Test 22A

Put the words in the right order to form a statement.

► I won't forget the titles of the books, down / I've / them / written
I've written them down.

1 I'll give you the money, for III must / my ticket / pay

2 I have to look smart, going to / I'm / on / put / that expensive grey coat 1 bought

3 Anna rang, invited / lunch / she's / to / us

4 Peter's got the photos, at / he's / looking / them

5 I wasn't allowed to go. from / leaving / me / prevented / the police

6 This programme is boring, going to / I'm / it / off / turn

Test 22 B

Decide which word is correct.

► I'm not speaking to Oliver. I've fallen out with him.
a) away b) back c) out d) through

1 Everyone complained ……………… the awful food.
a) about b) for c) on d) over

2 You don't need this word. You should cross it
a) down b) out c) over d) up

3 It's late. How much longer are you going to go ………………. working?
a) along b) on c) through d) with

4 My shoes are dirty. I'd better take them .……………... before I come in.
a) away b) off c) on d) up

5 The bus journey costs more now. They've put the fares .………….

a) down b) out c) over d) up

6 We all laughed ........................ the cartoon.

a) at b) for c) on d) to

7 We'd all decided to go on holiday together, but the plan fell……………….. , I'm afraid.
a) away b) back c) out d) through

8 I suppose you're being nice to make ……………… the awful way you behaved yesterday,
a) away of b) down on c) in with d) up for

Test 22C

Write the correct sentence.

► Could you be a little quieter, please? I'm-trying-to concentrate at- my work.
I'm trying to concentrate on my work.

1 You haven't answered all the questions. You've-left one-away.

2 Where is Bigbury? I've-never-heard-about it.


3 The children were frightened of the dog. They ran out of it.

4 Michelle has got the job. You must congratulate her for her success.

5 My sister is in computers. She's going to set out her own company.

6 I like Peter. He reminds me about an old school friend of mine.

7 Adrian has a suggestion. He wants to put it ahead at the meeting.

Test 22 D

Read the story and write the missing words. Use one word only in each space.

This true story is about a policeman in New York City who had a girlfriend he cared ( ►)/(?)' very much. I

don't know if you regard New York City (1)………………………… a dangerous place, but the hero of our

story certainly did, and he warned his girlfriend (2) ………………………… the danger of walking the streets

alone and the need to (3) ……………………….. out for muggers. But as he also believed

(4)……………………………..being prepared for the worst, he bought a can of gas that would protect his

girlfriend (5)…………………………. muggers. It certainly seemed worth spending a few dollars

(6) ………………………….. . The idea is that you point the thing (7)……………………….. your attacker and

spray him with the gas, which knocks him (8)........................ ……………. . On the day he bought the gas, the

policeman and his girlfriend had arranged to go (9)………………………….for the evening. So he was

looking (10) ……………………….. to giving her the can later on. When he got home from work, he had a

bath and then sprayed some deodorant on himself. He knew nothing more until he

(11)…………………………..... up in hospital the next day. He had picked (12)………………………. the wrong

can and sprayed himself with the gas.

Test 22E

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets. ► I'm trying to find my diary, (looking) I'm looking for my diary.

1 You're too young to stop working, (give)

2 This bag is Janet's, (belongs)

3 Everyone continued working as usual, (carried)

4 They talked about the plan, (discussed)

5 I haven't got any money left, (run)

6 I told the police what the problem was. (explained)

7 I wouldn't tolerate such terrible conditions, (put)

8 They'll have to postpone the game, (off)



Date: 2014-12-22; view: 993


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