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UNIT 121 On time/in time, At the end/in the end 1 page

A. On time and in time

On time = punctual, not late. If something happens on time, it happens at the time which was planned:

* The 11.45 train left on time. (=it left at 11.45)

* 'I'll meet you at 7.30.' 'OK, but please be on time.' (= don't be late, be there at 7.30) * The conference was very well organised. Everything began and finished on time.

The opposite of on time is late:

* Be on time. Don't be late.]

In time (for something/to do something) = soon enough

* Will you be home in time for dinner? (= soon enough for dinner)

* I've sent Jill her birthday present. I hope it arrives in time (for her birthday). (= soon enough for her birthday)

* I must hurry. I want to get home in time to see the football match on television.

(= soon enough to see the football match)

The opposite of in time is too late:

* I got home too late to see the football match.

You can say just in time (=almost too late):

* We got to the station just in time to catch the train.

* A child ran across the road in front of the car, but I managed to stop just in time.

B. At the end and in the end

At the end (of something) =at the time when something ends. For example:

at the end of the month, at the end of January, at the end of the match, at the end of the film, at the end of the course, at the end of the concert

* I'm going away at the end of January/at the end of the month.

* At the end of the concert, there was great applause.

* All the players shook hands at the end of the match. You cannot say 'in the end of something'. So you cannot say 'in the end of January' or 'in the end of the concert'.

The opposite of at the end is at the beginning:

at the beginning of January, at the beginning of the concert

In the end = finally

We use in the end when we say what the final result of a situation was:

* We had a lot of problems with our car. In the end we sold it and bought another one. (= finally we sold it)

* He got more and more angry. In the end he just walked out of the room.

* Jim couldn't decide where to go for his holidays. He didn't go anywhere in the end. The opposite of in the end is usually at first:

* At first we didn't like each other very much, but in the end we became good friends.




121.1 Complete the sentences with on time or in time.

1. The bus was late this morning but it's usually _on time._

2. The film was supposed to start at 8.30 but it didn't begin ---.

3. I like to get up --- to have a big breakfast before going to work.

4. We want to start the meeting --- so please don't be late.

5. I've just washed this shirt. I want to wear it this evening, so I hope it will be dry ---.

6. The train service isn't very good. The trains are rarely ---.

7. I nearly missed my flight this morning. I got to the airport just ---.

8. I nearly forgot that it was Joe's birthday. Fortunately I remembered ---.

9. Why are you never ---? You always keep everybody waiting.

121.2 Read the situations and make sentences using just in time.

1. A child ran across the road in front of your car. You saw the child at the last moment. (manage/stop) _I managed to stop just in time._

2. You were walking home without an umbrella. just after you got home, it started to rain very heavily. (get/home) ---.

3. Tim was going to sit on the chair you had just painted. You said, 'Don't sit in that chair!', so he didn't. (stop/him) I ---.

4. You went to the cinema. You were a bit late and you thought you would miss the beginning of the film. But the film began just as you sat down in the cinema. (get/cinema/beginning of the film) ---.

121.3 Complete the sentences using at the end + one of the following:

the course the interview the match the month the race

1. All the players shook hands _at the end of the match._

2. I normally get paid ---.

3. The students had a party ---.

4. Two of the runners collapsed ---.

5. To my surprise I was offered the job ---.

121.4 Write sentences with In the end. Use the verb in brackets.

1. We had a lot of problems with our car. (sell) _in the end we sold it._

2. Judy got more and more fed up with her job. (resign) ---.

3. I tried to learn German but I found it too difficult. (give up) ---.

4. We couldn't decide whether to go to the party or not. (not/go) ---.

121.5 Put in at or in.

1. I'm going away _at_ the end of the month.

2. It took me a long time to find a job --- the end I got a job in a hotel.

3. Are you going away --- the beginning of August or --- the end?

4. I couldn't decide what to buy Mary for her birthday. I didn't buy her anything --- the end.

5. We waited ages for a taxi. We gave up --- the end and walked home.

6. I'll be moving to a new address --- the end of September.

7. At first Helen didn't want to go to the theatre but she came with us --- the end.

8. I'm going away --- the end of this week.

9. '1 didn't know what to do.' 'Yes, you were in a difficult position. What did you do --- the end?'



UNIT 122 In/at/on (place) (1)

A. In

Study these examples:

in a room, in a building, in a box, in a garden, in a town/city, in a country

* There's no one in the room/in the building/in the garden.

* What have you got in your hand/in your mouth?

* When we were in Italy, we spent a few days in Venice. (not 'at Venice')

* I have a friend who lives in a small village in the mountains.

* Look at those people swimming in the pool/in the sea/in the river.

B. At

Study these examples:

at the bus stop, at the door, at the window, at the top (of the page), at the bottom (of the page), at the end of the street

* Who is that man standing at the bus stop/at the door/at the window?

* Turn left at the traffic lights/at the church/at the roundabout.

* Write your name at the top/at the bottom of the page.

* Angela's house is the white one at the end of the street.

* When you leave the hotel, please leave your key at reception.

C. On

Study these examples:

on the ceiling, on the wall, on the door, on the table, on her nose, on the floor, on a page

* I sat on the floor/on the ground on the grass/on a chair/on the beach.

* There's a dirty mark on the wall on the ceiling/on your nose/on your shirt.

* Have you seen the notice on the notice board/on the door?

* You'll find details of TV programmes on page seven (of the newspaper).

D. Compare in and at:

* There were a lot of people in the shop. It was very crowded.

but Go along this road, then turn left at the shop. (somebody giving directions) Compare in and on:

* There is some water in the bottle.

but There is a label on the bottle.

Compare at and on:

* There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is?

but There is a notice on the door. It says 'Do not disturb'.




122.1 Answer the questions about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

(bottle), (traffic lights), (arm), (door), (Paris), (wall), (top/ bottom /stairs), (gate), (end/queue), (beach)

1. Where's the label? _On the bottle._

2. Where is the car waiting? ---.

3. Where's the fly? ---.

4. a. Where's the notice? ---.

b. Where's the key? ---.

5. Where's the Eiffel Tower?. ---.

6. Where are the shelves? ---.

7. a. Where's the woman standing? ---.

b. And the cat? ---.

8. a. Where's the man standing? ---.

b. Where's the bird? ---.

9. Where's Tom standing? ---.

10. Where are the children playing?. ---.

122.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

the window your coffee the mountains that tree my guitar the river the island the next garage

1. Look at those people swimming _in the river._

2. One of the strings --- is broken.

3. There's something wrong with the car. We'd better stop ---.

4. Would you like sugar ---?

5. The leaves --- are a beautiful colour.

6. Last year we had a wonderful skiing holiday ---.

7. There's nobody living --- It's uninhabited.

8. He spends most of the day sitting --- and looking outside.

122.3 Complete the sentences with in, at or on.

1. Write your name _at_ the top of the page.

2. I like that picture hanging --- the wall the kitchen.

3. There was an accident --- the crossroads this morning.

4. I wasn't sure whether I had come to the right office. There was no name --- the door.

5. --- the end of the street there is a path leading to the river.

6. You'll find the sports results --- the back page of the newspaper.

7. I wouldn't like an office job. I couldn't spend the whole day sitting --- a desk.

8. My brother lives --- a small village . the south-west of England.

9. The man the police are looking for has a scar --- his right cheek.

10. The headquarters of the company are --- Milan.

11. Nicola was wearing a silver ring --- her little finger.



UNIT 123 In/at/on (place) (2)

A. In

We say that somebody/something is:

in a line/in a row/in a queue/in a street

in a photograph/in a picture/(look at yourself) in a mirror

in the sky/in the world

in a book/in a newspaper/in a magazine/in a letter (but 'on a page')

* When I go to the cinema, I prefer to sit in the front row.

* I live in King Street. Sarah lives in Queen Street.

* Who is the woman in that photograph? (not 'on that photograph')

* Have you seen this article in the paper (=newspaper)?

* It was a lovely day. There wasn't a cloud in the sky.

B. On

We say that somebody/something is:

on the left/on the right

on the ground floor/on the first floor/on the second floor etc.

on a map/on the menu (in a restaurant)/on a list, on a farm

* In Britain we drive on the left. (or . on the left-hand side.)

* Our flat is on the second floor of the building.

* Here's a shopping list. Don't buy anything that's not on the list.

* Have you ever worked on a farm?

We say that a place is on a river/on a road/on the coast:

* London is on the river Thames.

* Portsmouth is on the south coast of England. We say that a place is on the way to another place:

* We stopped at a small village on the way to London.

C. The corner

We say 'in the corner of a room', but 'at the corner (or on the corner) of a street':

* The television is in the corner of the room.

* There is a public telephone at/on the corner of the street.

D. The front and the back

We say in the front/in the back of a car:

* I was sitting in the back (of the car) when we crashed.

but at the front/at the back of a building/cinema/group of people etc.:

* The garden is at the back of the house.

* Let's sit at the front (of the cinema). (but 'in the front row'--see Section A)

* I was standing at the back, so I couldn't see very well.

Also on the front/on the back of a letter/piece of paper etc.:

* Write your name on the back of this envelope.




123.1 Answer the questions about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

(queue), (second floor), (corner), (corner), (front), (back/car), (mirror), (front), (back row), (left/right), (farm)

1. What's Sue doing?

She's standing _in a queue._

2. Sue lives in this building. Where's her flat exactly? ---.

3. Where is the woman standing? ---.

4. Where is the man standing? ---.

5. Where's the dog? ---.

6. What's the man doing?

He's looking ---.

7. Ann is in this group of people. Where is she? ---.

8. Tom is at the cinema. Where is he sitting? ---.

9. a. Where's the post office? ---.

b. And the bank? ---.

10. Where does Kate work? ---.

123.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

the west coast the world the front row the right the back of the envelope the sky the back of the class my way to work

1. it was a lovely day. There wasn't a cloud _in the sky._

2. In most countries people drive ---.

3. What is the tallest building ---?

4. I usually buy a newspaper --- in the morning.

5. San Francisco is --- of the United States.

6. We went to the theatre last night. We had seats ---.

7. I couldn't hear the teacher very well. She spoke quietly and I was sitting ---.

8. When you send a letter, it is a good idea to write your name and address ---.

123.3 Complete the sentences with in, at or on.

1. It can be dangerous when children play --- the street.

2. If you walk to the end of the street, you'll see a small shop --- the corner.

3. Is Tom --- this photograph? I can't find him.

4. My office is the first floor. It's --- the left as you come out of the lift.

5. We normally use the front entrance but there's another entrance --- the back.

6. A: Is there anything interesting --- the paper today?

B: Well, there's an unusual photograph --- the back page.

7. I love to look up at the stars --- the sky at night.

8. (in a restaurant) 'Where shall we sit?' 'Over there, --- the corner.'

9. When I'm a passenger in a car, I prefer to sit --- the front.

10. It's a very small village. You probably won't find it --- your map.

11. Paris is --- the river Seine.



UNIT 124 In/at/on (place) (3)

A. In bed/at home etc.

We say that somebody is in bed/in hospital/in prison:

* Mark isn't up yet. He's still in bed.

* Kay's mother is in hospital.

We say that somebody is at home/at work/at school/at university/at college:

* I'll be at work until 5.30 but I'll be at home all evening.

* Julia is studying chemistry at university.

Also at sea (= on a voyage). Compare at sea and in the sea:

* It was a long voyage. We were at sea for 30 days.

* I love swimming in the sea.

B. At a party/at a concert etc.

We say that somebody is at an event (at a party/at a conference etc.):

* Were there many people at the party/at the meeting?

* I saw Jack at a football match/at a concert last Saturday.

C. In and at for buildings

You can often use in or at with buildings. For example, you can eat in a restaurant or at a restaurant. We usually say at when we say where an event takes place (for example, a concert, a film, a party, a meeting, a sports event):

* We went to a concert at the Royal Festival Hall.

* The meeting took place at the company's headquarters.

* The film I want to see is showing at the Odeon (cinema).

We say at the station/at the airport:

* Don't meet me at the station. I can get a taxi.

We say at somebody's house:

* I was at Judy's house last night. or I was at Judy's last night.

Also: at the doctor's, at the hairdresser's etc.

We use in when we are thinking about the building itself:

* The rooms in Judy's house are very small. (not 'at Judy's house')

* I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema. (not 'at the cinema')

D. In and at for towns etc.

We normally use in with cities, towns and villages:

* Tom's parents live in Nottingham. (not 'at Nottingham')

* The Louvre is a famous art museum in Paris. (not 'at Paris')

But you can use at or in when you think of the place as a point or station on a journey:

* Do you know if this train stops at (or in) Nottingham? (=at Nottingham station)

* We stopped at (or in) a small village on the way to London.

E. On a bus/in a car etc.

We usually say on a bus/on a train/on a plane/on a ship but in a car/in a taxi:

* The bus was very full. There were too many people on it.

* George arrived in a taxi.

We say on a bicycle/on a motorcycle/on a horse:

* Mary passed me on her bicycle.

For by bus/by car/by bicycle etc., see Unit 127.




124.1 Complete the sentences about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words below the pictures.

(the airport) (a train) (a conference) (hospital) (the hairdresser) (her bicycle),(New York) (the National Theatre)

1. You can hire a car _at the airport._

2. Dave is ---.

3. Tessa is ---.

4. Martinis ---.

5. Judy is ---.

6. I saw Mary ---.

7. We spent a few days ---.

8. We saw a play ---.

124.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + one of the following:

sea hospital bed the station the cinema the plane school prison the airport the Sports Centre

1. My train arrives at 11.30. Can you meet me _at the station?_

2. I didn't feel very well when I woke up, so I stayed ---.

3. I think I'd like to see a film. What's on --- this week?

4. Some people are --- for crimes that they did not commit.

5. 'What does your sister do? Has she got a job?' 'No, she's still ---.

6. I play basketball --- on Friday evenings.

7. A friend of mine was injured in an accident a few days ago. She's still ---.

8. Our flight was delayed. We had to wait --- for four hours.

9. I enjoyed the flight but the food --- wasn't very nice.

10. Bill works on ships. He is away --- most of the time.

124.3 Complete these sentences with in, at or on.

1. I didn't see you --- the party on Saturday. Where were you?

2. It was a very slow train. It stopped --- every station.

3. I don't know where my umbrella is. Perhaps I left it --- the bus.

4. Shall we travel --- your car or mine?

5. The exhibition --- the Museum of Modern Art finished on Saturday.

6. We stayed a very nice hotel when we were --- Amsterdam.

7. There were fifty rooms --- the hotel.

8. Tom is ill. He wasn't --- work today. He was --- home --- bed.

9. I wasn't in when you phoned. I was --- my sister's house.

10. It's always too hot --- my sister's house. The heating is always on too high.

11. I haven't seen Kate for some time. I last saw her --- Dave's wedding.

12. Paul lives --- London. He's a student --- London University.



UNIT 125 To/at/in/into

A. We say go/come/travel (etc.) to a place or event. For example:

go to America, go to bed, take (somebody) to hospital, return to Italy, go to the bank, come to my house, drive to the airport, go to a concert, be sent to prison

* When are your friends returning to Italy? (not 'returning in Italy')

* After the accident three people were taken to hospital.

In the same way we say: on my way to./a journey to./a trip to. welcome to. etc.:

* Welcome to our country! (not 'welcome in')

Compare to (for movement) and in/at (for position):

* They are going to France. but They live in France.

* Can you come to the party? but I'll see you at the party.

B. Been to

We usually say 'I've been to a place':

* I've been to Italy four times but I've never been to Rome.

* Ann has never been to a football match in her life.

* Jack has got some money. He has just been to the bank.

C. Get and arrive

We say 'get to a place':

* What time did they get to London/get to work/get to the party?

But we say 'arrive in ...' or 'arrive at ...' (not 'arrive to').

We say 'arrive in a country or town/city':

* When did they arrive in Britain/arrive in London?

For other places (buildings etc.) or events, we say 'arrive at':

* What time did they arrive at the hotel/arrive at the party/arrive at work?

D. Home

We do not say 'to home'. We say go home/come home/get home/arrive home/on the way home etc. (no preposition):

* I'm tired. Let's go home. (not 'go to home')

* I met Caroline on my way home.

But we say 'be at home', 'stay at home', 'do something at home' etc. See Units 73C and 124A.

E. into

'Go into ...', 'get into...' etc. = 'enter' (a room/a building/a car etc.):

* She got into the car and drove away.

* A bird flew into the kitchen through the window.

We sometimes use in (instead of into):

* Don't wait outside. Come in the house. (or Come into the house.)

Note that we say 'enter a building/enter a room' etc. (not 'enter into')

The opposite of into is out of:

* She got out of the car and went into a shop.

Note that we usually say 'get on/off a bus/a train/a plane':

* She got on the bus and I never saw her again.




125.1 Put in to/at/in/into where necessary. If no preposition is necessary leave an empty space (-).

1. Three people were taken _to_ hospital after the accident.

2. I met Caroline on my way (-) home. (no preposition)

3. We left our luggage --- the station and went to find something to eat.

4. Shall we take a taxi--- the station or shall we walk?

5. I must go --- the bank today to change some money.

6. The river Rhine flows --- the North Sea.

7. I'm tired. As soon as I get --- home, I'm going bed.

8. 'Have you got your camera?' 'No, I left it --- home.'

9. Marcel is French. He has just returned --- France after two years --- Brazil.

10. Are you going --- Linda's party next week?

11. Carl was born --- Chicago but his family moved --- New York when he was three. He still lives --- New York.

12. Have you ever been --- China?

13. I had lost my key but I managed to climb --- the house through a window.

14. We got stuck in a traffic jam on our way --- the airport.

15. We had lunch --- the airport while we were waiting for our plane.

16. Welcome --- the hotel. We hope you enjoy your stay here.

17. What do you say to someone visiting your town or country? Welcome ---!

125.2 Have you been to these places? If so, how many times? Choose three of the places and write a sentence using been to.

Athens Australia Ireland London Paris Rome Sweden the United States

1. (example answers) _I've never been to Australia./I've been to Australia three times._

2 ---.

3. ---.

4. ---.

125.3 Put in to/at/in where necessary. If no preposition is necessary leave an empty space (-).

1. What time does this train get _to_ London?

2. What time does this train arrive --- London?

3. What time did you get --- home last night?

4. What time do you usually arrive --- work in the morning?

5. When we got --- the cinema, there was a long queue outside.

6. I arrived --- home feeling very tired.

125.4 Write sentences using got into/out of/on/off.

1. You were walking home. A friend passed you in her car. She saw you, stopped and offered you a lift. She opened the door. What did you do? _I got into the car._

2. You were waiting for the bus. At last your bus came. The doors opened. What did you do then? I ---.

3. You drove home in your car. You arrived at your house and parked the car. What did you do then? ---.

4. You were travelling by train to Manchester. When the train got to Manchester, what did you do? ---.

5. You needed a taxi. After a few minutes a taxi stopped for you. You opened the door. What did you do then? ---.

6. You were travelling by air. At the end of your flight the plane landed at the airport and stopped. The doors were opened, you took your bag and stood up. What did you do then? ---.



UNIT 126 On/in/at (other uses)

A. On holiday etc.

(be/go) on holiday/on business/on a trip/on a tour/on a cruise etc.:

* Tom's away at the moment. He's on holiday in France. (not' in holiday')

* Did you go to Germany on business or on holiday?

* One day I'd like to go on a world tour.

Note that you can also say: 'go to a place for a holiday/for my holiday(s)':

* Tom has gone to France for a holiday. (not 'for holiday')

* Where are you going for your holidays next summer?

B. Other expressions with on

on television/on the radio:

* I didn't watch the news on television, but I heard it on the radio. on the phone/telephone:

* You can't phone me. I'm not on the phone. (= I haven't got a phone.)

* I've never met her but I've spoken to her on the phone.

(be/go) on strike/on a diet:

* There are no trains today. The railway workers are on strike.

* I've put on a lot of weight. I'll have to go on a diet.

(be) on fire:

* Look! That car is on fire!

on the whole (= in general):

* Sometimes I have problems at work but on the whole I enjoy my job.

on purpose (= intentionally):

* I'm sorry. I didn't mean to annoy you. I didn't do it on purpose.

But: by mistake/by chance/by accident (see Unit 127).

C. Expressions with in

in the rain/in the sun (=sunshine)/in the shade/in the dark in bad weather etc.:

* We sat in the shade. It was too hot to sit in the sun.

* Don't go out in the rain. Wait until it stops.

(write) in ink/in biro/in pencil:

* When you do the exam, you're not allowed to write in pencil.

Also: in words, in figures, in BLOCK LETTERS etc.:

* Please fill in the form in block letters.

(pay) in cash:

* I paid the bill in cash. but I paid by cheque by credit card (see Unit 127).

(be/fall) in love (with somebody):

* Have you ever been in love with anybody?

in (my) opinion:

* In my opinion, the film wasn't very good.

D. At the age of... etc.

We say: at the age of .../at a speed of .../at a temperature of ... etc. For example:

* Jill left school at 16. or ... at the age of 16.

* The train was travelling at 120 miles an hour. or ... at a speed of 120 miles an hour.

* Water boils at 100 degrees celsius.




126.1 Complete the sentences using on + one of the following:

business strike a tour the whole television fire holiday a diet the phone purpose

1. Look! That car is _free!_ Somebody call the fire brigade.

2. It's difficult to contact Sarah because she's not ---.

3. Workers at the factory have gone --- for better pay and conditions.

4. Soon after we arrived, we were taken --- of the city.

5. A: I'm going --- next week.

B: Are you? Where are you going? Somewhere nice?

6. I feel lazy this evening. Is there anything worth watching ---?

7. I'm sorry. It was an accident. I didn't do it ---.

8. George has put on a lot of weight recently. I think he should go ---.

9. Jane's job involves a lot of travelling. She often has to go away ---.

10. A: How did your exams go?

B: Well, there were some difficult questions but --- they were OK.

126.2 Complete the sentences using in + one of the following:

block letters cash my opinion the shade cold weather love pencil

1. He likes to keep warm, so he doesn't go out much ---.

2. Diane never uses a pen. She always writes ---.

3. They fell --- with each other almost immediately and were married in a few weeks.

4. Please write your address clearly, preferably ---.

5. I don't like the sun. I prefer to sit ---.

6. Ann thought the restaurant was OK, but --- it wasn't very good.

7. I hardly ever use a credit card or cheques. I prefer to pay for things ---.

126.3 Put in the correct preposition: on, in, at, or for.

1. Water boils _at_ 100 degrees celsius.

2. When I was 14, I went --- a trip to France organised by my school.

3. I wouldn't like his job. He spends most of his time talking --- the phone.

4. Julia's grandmother died recently --- the age of 79.

5. Can you turn the light on, please? I don't want to sit --- the dark.

6. We didn't go --- holiday last year. We stayed at home.

7. I'm going to Scotland --- a short holiday next month.

8. I won't be here next week. I'll be --- holiday.

9. He got married --- 17, which is rather young to get married.

10. There was an interesting programme --- the radio this morning.

11. my opinion, violent films should not be shown --- television.

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