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UNIT 114 Unless As long as and provided/providing

A. Unless

Study this example situation:

The club is for members only.

You can't go in unless you are a member.

This means:

'You can't go In except if you are a member.' or 'You can go in only if you are a member.'

Unless ='except if'

Some more examples of unless:

* I'll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late. (= except if I have to work late)

* Don't tell Sue what I said unless she asks you. (= except if she asks you)

* 'Shall I tell Sue what you said?' 'Not unless she asks you.' (= only if she asks you)

* I don't like fish. I wouldn't eat it unless I was extremely hungry. (= except if I was extremely hungry)

We often use unless in warnings:

* We'll be late unless we hurry. (= except if we hurry)

* Unless you work much harder, you won't pass the exam.

* I was told I wouldn't pass the exam unless I worked harder.

Instead of unless it is often possible to say if ... not:

* Don't tell Sue what I said if she doesn't ask you.

* We'll be late if we don't hurry.

B. As long as etc.

as long as or so long as All these expressions mean 'if' or 'on condition that'.

provided (that) or providing (that) All these expressions mean 'if' or 'on condition that'.

For example:

* You can use my car as long as you drive carefully.

* You can use my car so long as you drive carefully.

(= you can use my car but you must drive carefully--this is a condition)

* Travelling by car is convenient provided (that) you have somewhere to park.

* Travelling by car is convenient providing (that) you have somewhere to park.

(= but only if you have somewhere to park)

* Providing (that) she studies hard, she'll pass her exams.

* Provided (that) she studies hard, she'll pass her exams.

(= she must study hard - if she does this, she will pass)

C. When you are talking about the future, dr, not use will after unless/as long as/provided providing. Use a present tense (see also Unit 25):

* We'll be late unless we hurry. (not 'unless we will hurry')

* Providing she studies hard, she will pass the exam. (not 'providing she will study')




114.1 Write a new sentence with the same meaning. Use unless in your sentence.

1. You must work much harder or you won't pass the exam.

_You won't pass, the exam unless you work much harder._

2. Listen carefully or you won't know what to do.

You won't know what to do ---.

3. She must apologize to me or I'll never speak to her again.

I'll ---.

4. You have to speak very slowly or he won't be able to understand you.

5. The company must offer me more money or I'm going to look for another job.

114.2 Write a new sentence with the same meaning. Use unless in your sentence.

1. You are allowed into the club only if you're a member.

_You aren't allowed into the club unless you're a member._

2. I'm going to the party only if you go too.

I'm not going ---.

3. The dog will attack you only if you move suddenly.

4. He'll speak to you only if you ask him a question.

5. The doctor will see you today only if it's an emergency.

114.3 Choose the correct word or expression for each sentence.

1. You can use my car _unless/as long as_ you drive carefully. (as long as is correct)

2. I'm playing tennis tomorrow _unless/providing_ it's raining.

3. I'm playing tennis tomorrow _unless/providing_ it's not raining.

4. I don't mind if you come in late _unless/as long as_ you come in quietly.

5. I'm going now _unless/provided_ you want me to stay.

6. I don't watch television _unless/as long as_ I've got nothing else to do.

7. Children are allowed to use the swimming pool _unless/provided_ they are with an adult.

8. _Unless/provided_ they are with an adult, children are not allowed to use the swimming pool.

9. We can sit here in the corner _unless/as long as_ you'd rather sit over there by the window.

10. A: Our holiday cost a lot of money.

B: Did it? Well, that doesn't matter _unless/as long as_ you enjoyed yourselves.

114.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.

1. We'll be late unless _we hurry._

2. I like hot weather unless ---.

3. I like hot weather provided ---.

4. Kate reads a newspaper every day as long as ---.

5. I don't mind walking home as long as ---.

6. I like to walk to work in the morning unless ---.

7. We can meet tomorrow unless ---.

8. You can borrow the money providing ---.

9. You won't achieve anything unless ---.



UNIT 115 As (reason and time)

A. As (reason)

As sometimes means 'because':

* As it was a public holiday, all the shops were shut. (= because it was a public holiday)

* As they live near us, we see them quite often.

* We watched television all evening as we had nothing better to do. d We also use as to say that two things happened at the same time. See Section B.

B. As (time)

You can use as when two things happen at the same time:

* I watched her as she opened the letter. ('I watched' and 'she opened' at the same time)

* As they walked along the street, they looked in the shop windows.

* Can you turn off the light as you go out, please? (= on your way out of the room)

Or you can say that something happened as you were doing something else (= in the middle of doing something else):

* Jill slipped as she was getting off the bus.

* The thief was seen as he was climbing over the wall.

Most often we use as when two short actions happen at the same time:

* George arrived as Sue left. (= he arrived and Sue left at the same time)

* We all waved goodbye to Liz as she drove away in her car.

But we also use as when two things happen together over a longer period of time:

* As the day went on, the weather got worse.

* I began to enjoy the job more as I got used to it.

You can also use just as (= exactly at that moment):

* Just as I sat down, the phone rang.

* Just as we were going out, it started to rain.

* I had to leave just as the conversation was getting interesting.

For the past continuous (was getting/were going etc.) see Unit 6.

C. As, when and while

We use as only if two things happen at the same time. We use when (not 'as') if one thing happens after another. Compare when and as:

* When I got home, I had a bath. (not 'as I got home')

* As I walked into the room, the phone started ringing. (= at the same time)

We use as (time) for actions and happenings. As + a situation (not an action) usually means 'because' (see Section A):

* As we were asleep, we didn't hear the doorbell. (=because we were asleep)

* As they live near me, I see them quite often. (=because they live near me)

You cannot use as for time in sentences like this. You have to use while or when:

* The doorbell rang while we were asleep. (not 'as we were asleep')

* Angela got married when she was 23. (not 'as she was 23')




115.1 What does as mean in these sentences? (because), (at the same time as)

1. As they live near us, we see them quite often. (because)

2. Jill slipped as she was getting off the bus. (at the same time as)

3. As I was tired, I went to bed early.

4. Unfortunately, as I was parking the car, I hit the car behind.

5, As we climbed the hill, we got more and more tired.

6. We decided to go out to cat as we had no food at home.

7. As we don't use the car very often, we've decided to sell it.

115.2 (Section A) join a sentence from List A with one from List B. Begin each sentence with As.

A: 1. yesterday was a public holiday

2. it was a nice day

3. we didn't want to wake anybody up

4. the door was open

5. none of us had a watch

B: 1. I walked in

2. we came in very quietly

3. all the shops were shut

4. we didn't know what time it was

5. we went for a walk by the sea

1. _As yesterday was a public holiday, all the shops were shut._

2. ---.

3. ---.

4. ---.

5. ---.

115.3 (Section B) Use as to join a sentence from List A with one from List B.

A: 1. we all waved goodbye to Liz

2. we all smiled

3. I burnt myself

4. the crowd cheered

5. a dog ran out in front of the car

B: 1. we were driving along the road

2. I was taking a hot dish out of the oven

3. she drove away in her ear

4. we posed for the photograph

5. the two teams ran onto the field

1. _We all waved goodbye to Liz as she drove a in her car._


3. ---.

4. ---.

5. ---.

115.4 Put in as or when. Sometimes you can use either as or when.

1. Angela got married _when_ she was 23.

2. My camera was stolen --- I was on holiday.

3. He dropped the glass --- he was taking it out of the cupboard.

4. --- I left school, I went to work in a shop.

5. The train slowed down --- it approached the station.

6. I used to live near the sea --- I was a child.

115.5 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.

1. I saw you as ---.

2. It began to rain just as ---.

3. As I didn't have enough money for a taxi, ---.

4. Just as I took the photograph, ---.



UNIT 116 Like and as

A. Like = 'similar to', 'the same as'. Note that you cannot use as in this way:

* What a beautiful house! It's like a palace. (not 'as a palace')

* 'What does Sandra do?' 'She's a teacher, like me.' (not 'as me')

* Be careful! The floor has been polished. It's like walking on ice. (not 'as walking')

* It's raining again. I hate weather like this. (not 'as this')

In these sentences, like is a preposition. So it is followed by a noun (like a palace), a pronoun (like me/like this) or ~ing (like walking).

You can also say 'like (somebody/something) doing something':

* 'What's that noise?' 'It sounds like a baby crying.'

B. Sometimes like = 'for example':

* Some sports, like motor racing, can be dangerous.

You can also use such as (= for example):

* Some sports, such as motor racing, can be dangerous.


C. We use as (not 'like') before a subject + verb:

* I didn't move anything. I left everything as I found it.

* They did as they promised. (= They did what they promised.)

Compare like and as in these sentences:

* You should have done it like this. (like + pronoun)

* You should have done it as I showed you. (as + subject + verb)

We also say as you know/as I said/as she expected/as I thought etc.:

* As you know, it's Tom's birthday next week. (= you know this already)

* Jane failed her driving test, as she expected. she expected this before)

Note that we say as usual/as always:

* You're late as usual.

D. As can also be a preposition but the meaning is different from like. Compare:

#1 as

* Brenda Casey is the manager of a company. As the manager, she has to make many important decisions. ('As the manager' = in her position as the manager)

* During the war this hotel was used as a hospital. (so it really was a hospital)


* Mary Stone is the assistant manager. Like the manager (Brenda Casey), she also has to make important decisions. ('Like the manager' = similar to the manager)

* Everyone is ill at home. Our house is like a hospital. (it isn't really a hospital)

As (preposition) = 'in the position of', 'in the form of' etc.:

* A few years ago I worked as a bus driver. (not 'like a bus driver')

* We've got a garage but we haven't got a car, so we use the garage as a workshop.

* Many English words (for example, 'work' and 'rain') can be used as verbs or nouns.

* London is all right as a place to visit, but I wouldn't like to live there.

* The news of her death came as a great shock.

We say regard ... as:

* I regard her as my best friend.




116.1 (Sections A, B and Q Put in like or as.

1. It's raining again. I hate weather _like_ this.

2. Jane failed her driving test _as_ she expected.

3. Do you think Carol looks --- her mother?

4. He really gets on my nerves. I can't stand people --- him.

5. Why didn't you do it --- I told you to do it?

6. 'What does Bill do?' 'He's a student --- most of his friends.'

7. Why do you never listen? Talking to you is --- talking to the wall.

8. --- I said yesterday, I'm thinking of changing my job.

9. Tom's idea seemed a good one, so we did --- he suggested.

10. It's a difficult problem. I never know what to do in situations --- this.

11. I'll phone you tomorrow --- usual, OK?

12. This tea is awful. It tastes --- water.

13. Suddenly there was a terrible noise. It was --- a bomb exploding.

14. She's a very good swimmer. She swims --- a fish.

15. I'm afraid I can't meet you on Sunday --- we arranged.

16. We met Keith last night. He was very cheerful --- always.

116.2 (Sections A and D) Complete the sentences using like or as + one of the following:

a beginner blocks of ice a palace a birthday present a problem a child a church winter a tourist guide

1. This house is beautiful. It's _like a palace._

2. Margaret once had a part-time job ---.

3. My feet are really cold. They're ---.

4. I've been learning Spanish for a few years but I still speak ---.

5. 1 wonder what that building with the tower is. It looks ---.

6. My brother gave me this watch --- a long time ago.

7. It's true that we disagree about some things but I don't regard this ---.

8. It's very cold for the middle of summer. It's ---.

9. He's 22 years old but he sometimes behaves ---.

116.3 (All sections) Put in like or as.

1. Your English is very fluent. I wish I could speak --- you.

2. Don't take my advice if you don't want to. You can do --- you like.

3. You waste too much time doing things --- sitting in cafes all day.

4. 1 wish I had a car --- yours.

5. There's no need to change your clothes. You can go out --- you are.

6. My neighbour's house is full of interesting things. It's --- a museum.

7. 1 think I preferred this room --- it was, before we decorated it.

8. When we asked Sue to help us, she agreed immediately --- I knew she would.

9. Sharon has been working --- a waitress for the last two months.

10. While we were on holiday, we, spent most of our time doing energetic things --- sailing, water skiing and swimming.

11. You're different from the other people I know. I don't know anyone --- you.

12. We don't need all the bedrooms in the house, so we use one of them --- a study.

13. --- her father, Catherine has a very good voice.

14. The news that Sue and Jim were getting married came --- a complete surprise to me.

15. At the moment I've got a temporary job in a bookshop. It's OK --- a temporary job but I wouldn't like to do it permanently.



UNIT 117 As if

A. You can use as if to say how somebody or something looks/sounds/feels etc.:

* That house looks as if it's going to fall down.

* Ann sounded as if she had a cold, didn't she?

* I've just come back from holiday but I feel tired and depressed. I don't feel as if I've just had a holiday.


* You look tired. (look + adjective)

You look as if you haven't slept. (look + as if + subject + verb)

* Tom sounded worried. (sound + adjective)

Tom sounded as if he was worried. (sound + as if + subject + verb)

You can use as though instead of as if:

* Ann sounds as though she's got a cold. (= as if she's got a cold.)

B. You can also say It looks/sounds/smells as if (or as though):

* Sandra is very late, isn't she? It looks as if she isn't coming.

* We took an umbrella with us because it looked as if it was going to rain.

* Do you hear that music next door? It sounds as if they're having a party.

* It smells as though someone has been smoking in here.

After It looks/sounds/smells, many people use like instead of as if/as though:

* It looks like Sandra isn't coming.

C. You can use as if with other verbs to say how somebody does something:

* He ran as if he was running for his life.

* After the interruption, the speaker carried on talking as if nothing had happened.

* When I told them my plan, they looked at me as if I was mad.

D. After as if we sometimes use the past when we are talking about the present.

For example:

* I don't like Norma. She talks as if she knew everything.

The meaning is not past in this sentence. We use the past ('as if she knew') because the idea is not real: Norma does not know everything. We use the past in the same way with if and wish (see Unit 38).

Some more examples:

* She's always asking me to do things for her--as if I didn't have enough to do. (I do have enough to do)

* Harry's only 40. Why do you talk about him as if he was an old man? (he isn't an old man)

When you use the past in this way, you can use were instead of was:

* Why do you talk about him as if he were an old man?

* They treat me as if I were (or was) their own son. (I'm not their son)




117.1 Use the sentences in the box to make sentences with as if.

it has just been cut I'm going to be sick he hadn't eaten for a week she was enjoying it she had hurt her leg he meant what he was saying he needs a good rest she didn't want to come

1. Mark looks very tired. He looks _as if he needs a good rest._

2. Sue was walking with difficulty. She looked ---.

3. I don't think he was joking. He looked ---.

4. The grass is very short. It looks ---.

5. Peter was extremely hungry and ate his dinner very quickly.

He ate ---.

6. Carol had a bored expression on her face during the concert.

She didn't look ---.

7. I've just eaten too many chocolates. Now I'm feeling ill.

I feel ---.

8. I phoned Emma and invited her to the party but she wasn't very enthusiastic about it.

She sounded ---.

117.2 What do you say in these situations? Use You look/You sound/I feel as if... Use the words in brackets to make your sentence.

1. You meet Bill. He has a black eye and some plasters on his face.

You say to him: _You look as if you've been in a fight._ (be/a fight)

2. Christine comes into the room. She looks absolutely terrified.

You say to her: What's the matter? You ---. (see/a ghost)

3. Sarah is talking to you on the phone about her new job and she sounds very happy about it.

You say to her: ---. (enjoy/it)

4. You have just run one kilometre. You are absolutely exhausted.

You say to a friend: I ---. (run/a marathon)

117.3 Make sentences beginning It looks as if .../It sounds as if ...

you had a good time there's been an accident they are having an argument it's going to rain she isn't coming we'll have to walk

1. Sandra said she would be here an hour ago. You say: _It looks as if she isn't coming._

2. The sky is full of black clouds. You say: It ---.

3. You hear two people shouting at each other next door.

You say: ---.

4. You see an ambulance, some policemen and two damaged cars at the side of the road.

You say: ---.

5. You and a friend have just missed the last bus home.

You say: ---.

6. Sue and Dave have just been telling you about all the interesting things they did while they were on holiday. You say: ---.

117.4 These sentences are like the ones in Section D. Complete each sentence using as if

1. Brian is a terrible driver. He drives _as if he were_ the only driver on the road.

2. I'm 20 years old, so please don't talk to me --- a child.

3. Steve has only met Nicola once but he talks about her --- a close friend.

4. It was a long time ago that we first met but I remember it --- yesterday.



UNIT 110 For, during and while

A. For and during

We use for + a period of time to say bow long something goes on:

for two hours, for a week, for ages For example:

* We watched television for two hours last night.

* Victoria is going away for a week in September.

* Where have you been? I've been waiting for ages.

* Are you going away for the weekend?

We use during + noun to say when something happens (not how long):

during the film during our holiday during the night

For example:

* I fell asleep during the film.

* We met a lot of people during our holiday.

* The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night.

With a 'time word' (for example, the morning/the afternoon/the summer), you can usually say in or during:

* It must have rained in the night. (or ... during the night.)

* I'll phone you sometime during the afternoon. (or ... in the afternoon.)

You cannot use during to say how long something goes on:

* It rained for three days without stopping. (not 'during three days')

Compare during and for:

* I fell asleep during the film. I was asleep for half an hour.

B. During and while


We use during + noun:

I fell asleep during the film.

Compare during and while in these examples:

* We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday.

* Robert suddenly began to feel ill during the examination.

We use while + subject + verb:

* I fell asleep while I was watching television.

* We met a lot of interesting people while we were on holiday.

* Robert suddenly began to feel ill while he was doing the examination.

Some more examples of while:

* We saw Amanda while we were waiting for the bus.

* While you were out, there was a phone call for you.

* Christopher read a book while I watched television.

When you are talking about the future, use the present (not 'will') after while:

* I'll be in London next week. I hope to see Tom while I'm there. (not 'while I will be there')

* What are you going to do while you are waiting? (not 'while you will be waiting')

See also Unit 25.




118.1. Put in for or during.

1. It rained _for_ three days without stopping.

2. I fell asleep _during_ the film.

3. I went to the theatre last night. I met Lucy --- the interval.

4. Martin hasn't lived in Britain all his life. He lived in Brazil --- four years.

5. Production at the factory was seriously affected --- the strike.

6. I felt really ill last week. I could hardly eat anything --- I three days.

7. I waited for you --- half an hour and decided that you weren't coming.

8. Sue was very angry with me. She didn't speak to me --- a week.

9. We usually go out at weekends, but we don't often go out --- the week.

10. Jack started a new job a few weeks ago. Before that he was out of work --- six months.

11. I need a change. I think I'll go away --- a few days.

12. The President gave a long speech. She spoke --- two hours.

13. We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn't had anything to eat --- the journey.

14. We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn't had anything to eat --- eight hours.

118.2 Put in during or while.

1. We met a lot of people _while_ while. we were on holiday.

2. We met a lot of people _during_ our holiday.

3. I met Mike --- I was shopping.

4. --- we were in Paris, we stayed at a very comfortable hotel.

5. --- our stay in Paris, we visited a lot of museums and galleries.

6. The phone rang three times --- we were having dinner.

7. The phone rang three times --- the night.

8. I had been away for many years. --- that time, many things had changed.

9. What did they say about me --- I was out of the room?

10. Jack read a lot of books and magazines --- .I. he was ill.

11. I went out for dinner last night. Unfortunately, I began to feel ill --- the meal and had to go home.

12. Please don't interrupt me --- I'm speaking.

13. There were many interruptions --- the President's speech.

14. Can you lay the table --- I get the dinner ready?

15. We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn't had anything to eat --- we were travelling.

118.3 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.

1. I fell asleep while _I was watching television._

2. I fell asleep during _the film._

3. I hurt my arm while ---.

4. Can you wait here while ---?

5. Most of the students looked bored during ---.

6. I was asked a lot of questions during ---.

7. Don't open the car door while ---.

8. The lights suddenly went out during ---.

9. It started to rain during ---.

10. It started to rain while ---.



UNIT 119 By and until, By the time...

A. By (+ a time) ='not later than':

* I posted the letter today, so they should receive it by Monday. (= on or before Monday, not later than Monday)

* We'd better hurry. We have to be at home by 5 o'clock. (=at or before 5 o'clock, not later than 5 o'clock)

* Where's Sue? She should be here by now. (=now or before now - so she should have arrived already)

You cannot use until with this meaning:

* Tell me by Friday whether or not you can come to the party. (not 'Tell me until Friday')

B. We use until (or till) to say bow long a situation continues:

* 'Shall we go now?' 'No, let's wait until (or till) it stops raining.'

* I couldn't get up this morning. I stayed in bed until half past ten.

* I couldn't get up this morning. I didn't get up until half past ten.

Compare until and by:

#1 until

Something continues until a time in the future:

* Fred will be away until Monday. (so he'll be back on Monday)

* I'll be working until 11. 30. (so I'll stop working at 11.30)

#2 by

Something happens by a time in the future:

* Fred will be back by Monday. (= he'll be back not later than Monday)

* I'll have finished my work by 11. 30. (I'll finish my work not later than 11. 30)

C. You can say 'by the time something happens'. Study these examples:

* It's not worth going shopping now. By the time we get to the shops, they will be closed. (= the shops will close between now and the time we get there)

* (from a letter) I'm flying to the United States this evening. So by the time you receive this letter, I'll be in New York. (= I will arrive in New York between now and the time you receive this letter)

* Hurry up! By the time we get to the cinema, the film will already have started.

You can say 'by the time something happened"(for the past):

* Jane's car broke down on the way to the party last night. By the time she arrived, most of the other guests had gone. (= it took her a long time to get to the party and most of the guests went home during this time)

* I had a lot of work to do yesterday evening. I was very tired by the time I finished. (= it took me a long time to do the work and I became more and more tired during this time)

* We went to the cinema last night. It took us a long time to find somewhere to park the car. By the time we got to the cinema, the film had already started.

Also by then or by that time:

* Jane finally arrived at the party at midnight, but by then (or by that time), most of the guests had gone.




119.1 Make sentences with by.

1. I have to be at home not later than 5 o'clock. _I have to be at home by 5 o'clock._

2. I have to be at the airport not later than 10.30. 1 have to be at the airport ---.

3. Let me know not later than Saturday whether you can come to the party.

Let me know ---.

4. Please make sure that you're here not later than 2 o'clock.

Please ---.

5. If we leave now, we should arrive not later than lunchtime.

119.2 Put in by or until.

1. Fred has gone away. He'll be away _until_ Monday.

2. Sorry, but I must go. I have to be at home _by_ 5 o'clock.

3. I've been offered a job. I haven't decided yet whether to accept it or not. I have to decide --- Thursday.

4. I think I'll wait --- Thursday before making a decision.

5. It's too late to go shopping. The shops are only open --- 5. 30. They'll be closed now.

6. I'd better pay the phone bill. It has to be paid --- tomorrow.

7. Don't pay the bill today. Wait --- tomorrow.

8. A: Have you finished redecorating your house?

B: Not yet. We hope to finish --- the end of the week.

9. A: I'm going out now. I'll be back at 4.30. Will you still be here?

B: I don't think so. I'll probably have gone out --- then.

10. I'm moving into my new flat next week. I'm staying with a friend --- then.

11. I've got a lot of work to do. --- the time I finish, it will be time to go to bed.

12. If you want to do the exam, you should enter --- 3 April.

119.3 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use by or until.

1. Fred is away at the moment. He'll be away _until Monday._

2. Fred is away at the moment. He'll be back _by Monday._

3. I'm just going out. I won't be very long. Wait here ---.

4. I'm going shopping. It's 4.30 now. I won't be very long. I'll be back ---.

5. If you want to apply for the job, your application must be received ---.

6. Last night I watched TV ---.

119.4 Read the situations and complete the sentences using By the time ...

1 Jane was invited to a party but she got there much later than she intended.

_By the time she got to the party_, most of the other guests had gone.

2. I had to catch a train but it took me longer than expected to get to the station.

---, my train had already gone.

3. I saw two men who looked as if they were trying to steal a car. I called the police but it was some time before they arrived.

---, the two men had disappeared.

4. A man escaped from prison last night. It was a long time before the guards discovered what had happened.

---, the escaped prisoner was miles away.

5. I intended to go shopping after finishing my work. But I finished my work much later than expected.

---, it was too late to go shopping.



UNIT 120 At/on/in (time)

A. Compare at, on and in:

* They arrived at 5 o'clock.

* They arrived on Friday.

* They arrived in October./They arrived in 1968.

We use:

at for the time of day:

at 5 o'clock, at 11.45, at midnight, at lunchtime, at sunset etc.

on for days and dates:

on Friday/on Fridays, on 12 March 1991, on Christmas Day, on my birthday

in for longer periods (for example, months/years/seasons):

in October, in 1968, in the 18th century, in the past, in (the) winter, in the 1970s, in the Middle Ages, in (the) future

B. We use at in these expressions:

at night: I don't like going out at night.

at the weekend/at weekends: Will you be here at the weekend?

at Christmas/at Easter(but on Christmas Day): Do you give each other presents at Christmas?

at the moment/at present: Mr Benn is busy at the moment/at present.

at the same time: Liz and I arrived at the same time.

Note that we usually ask 'What time ... ?' (not usually 'At what time...?):

* What time are you going out this evening?

C. We say:

in the morning(s), in the afternoon(s), in the evening(s)

* I'll see you in the morning.

* Do you work in the evenings?


on Friday morning(s), on Sunday afternoon(s), on Monday evening(s) etc.

* I'll be at home on Friday morning.

* Do you usually go out on Saturday evenings?

D. We do not use at/on/in before last/next/this/every:

* I'll see you next Friday. (not 'on next Friday')

* They got married last March.

E. In a few minutes/in six months etc. = a time in the future

* The train will be leaving in a few minutes. (= a few minutes from now)

* Jack has gone away. He'll be back in a week. (= a week from now)

* She'll be here in a moment. (= a moment from now)

You can also say 'in six months' time', 'in a week's time' etc.:

* They're getting married in six months' time. (or ... in six months.)

We also use in... to say how long it takes to do something:

* I learnt to drive in four weeks. it took me four weeks to learn)




120.1 Complete the sentences. Each time use at, on or in + one of the following.

the evening the moment Sundays about 20 minutes 21 July 1969 he Middle Ages 1492 the 1920s 11 seconds Christmas the same time night

1. Columbus made his first voyage from Europe to America _in 1492._

2. In Britain most people do not work ---.

3. If the sky is clear, you can see the stars ---.

4. After working hard during the day, I like to relax ---.

5. The first man walked on the moon ---.

6. It's difficult to listen if everyone is speaking ---.

7. Jazz became popular in the United States ---.

8. I'm just going out to the shop. I'll be back ---.

9. (on the phone) 'Can I speak to Clare?' 'I'm afraid she's not here ---.'

10. In Britain people send each other cards ---.

11. Many of Europe's great cathedrals were built ---.

12. Bob is a very fast runner. He can run 100 metres ---.

120.2 Put in at, on or in where necessary. Leave an empty space (-) if no preposition is necessary.

1. a. I'll see you _on_ Friday.

b. I'll see you (-) next Friday. (no preposition)

2. a. What are you doing --- Saturday?

b. What are you doing --- the weekend?

3. a. They often go out --- the evenings.

b. They often go out --- Sunday evenings

4. a. Do you work --- Wednesdays?

b. Do you work--- every Wednesday?

5. a. We usually have a holiday --- the summer.

b. We often have a short holiday --- Christmas.

6. a. Pauline got married --- 1991.

b. Pauline got married --- 18 May 1991.

c. Chris is getting married --- this year.

120.3 Put in at, on or in.

1. Mozart was born in Salzburg --- 1756.

2. I haven't seen Kate for a few days. I last saw her --- Tuesday.

3. The price of electricity is going up --- October.

4. I've been invited to a wedding --- 14 February.

5. Hurry up! We've got to go --- five minutes.

6. I'm busy just now but I'll be with you --- a moment.

7. Jenny's brother is an engineer but he's out of work --- the moment.

8. There are usually a lot of parties --- New Year's Eve.

9. I hope the weather will be nice --- the weekend.

10. Saturday night I went to bed --- 11 o'clock.

11. I don't like travelling --- night.

12. We travelled overnight to Paris and arrived --- 5 o'clock --- the morning.

13. The course begins --- 7 January and ends sometime --- April.

14. It was quite a short book and easy to read. I read it --- a day.

15. I might not be at home --- Tuesday morning but I'll probably be there --- the afternoon.

16. My car is being repaired at the garage. It will be ready --- two hours.

17. The telephone and the doorbell rang --- the same time.

18. Mary and Henry always go out for a meal --- their wedding anniversary.

19. Henry is 63. He'll be retiring from his job --- two years' time.



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