UNIT 92 Relative clauses (2)--clauses with or without who/that/which
A. Look again at these example sentences from Unit 91:
* The woman [who] lives next door is a doctor. (or The woman that lives...)
[The woman] lives next door. who(= the woman) is the subject
* Where is the cheese [that] was in the fridge? (or ... the cheese which was...)
[The cheese] was in the fridge. that(= the cheese) is the subject
You must use who/that/which when it is the subject of the relative clause. You cannot say 'The woman lives next door is a doctor' or 'Where is the cheese was in the fridge?'
B. Sometimes who/that/which is the object of the verb. For example:
*. The woman [who] I wanted to see was away on holiday.
I wanted to see [the woman]. who(= the woman) is the object. I is the subject
* Have you found the keys [that] you lost?
You lost [the keys]. that(= the keys) is the object. you is the subject
When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. So you can say:
* The woman I wanted to see was away. or The woman who I wanted to see...
* Have you found the keys you lost? or ... the keys that you lost?
* The dress Ann bought doesn't fit her very well. or The dress that Ann bought...
* Is there anything I can do? or ... anything that I can do?
Note that we say:
the keys you lost (not 'the keys you lost them')
the dress Ann bought (not 'bought it')
C. Notice the position of prepositions(in/at/with etc.) in relative clauses:
do you know the woman?--Tom is talking [to] her
-> Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking [to]?
the bed--I slept [in] it last night - wasn't very comfortable
-> The bed (that/which) I slept in last night wasn't very comfortable.
* Are these the keys (that/which) you were looking for?
* The woman (who/that) he fell in love with left him after a few weeks.
* The man (who/that) I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time.
In all these examples, you can leave out who/that/which.
Note that we say:
the books you were looking for (not 'the books you were looking for them')
D. You cannot use what in sentences like these:
* Everything (that) they said was true. (not 'Everything what they said ...')
* I gave her all the money (that) I had. (not '... all the money what I had')
What = the thing(s) that:
* Did you hear what they said? (= the things that they said)
92.1 In some of these sentences you don't need who or that. If you don't need these words, put them in brackets like this: (who) (that).
1. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. ('who' is necessary in this sentence)
2. Have you found the keys (that) you lost. (in this sentence you don't need 'that')
3. The people who we met at the party were very friendly.
4. The people who work in the office are very friendly.
5. The people who I talked to were very friendly.
6. What have you done with the money that I gave you?
7. What happened to the money that was on the table? Did you take it?
8. It was an awful film. It was the worst film that I've ever seen.
9. It was an awful experience. It was the worst thing that has ever happened to me.
92.2 Complete these sentences with a relative clause. Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses.
we hired a car
you're going to see a film
I invited some people to the par쇼
Ann is wearing a dress
you had to do some work
Tom recommended a hotel to us
you lost Same keys
we wanted to visit a museum
1. Have you found the keys _you lost ?_
2. 1 like the dress --- was shut when we got there.
3. The museum ---?
4. What's the name of the film --- couldn't come.
5. Some of the people ---?
6. Have you finished the work ---?
7. The car --- broke down after a few miles.
8. We stayed at a hotel ---.
92.3 Complete these sentences using a relative clause with a preposition.
we went to a party last night
you can rely on George
we were invited to a wedding
I work with a number of people
I applied for a job
you told me about a hotel
you were looking for some keys
I saw you with a man
1. Are these the keys _you were looking for?_
2. Unfortunately we couldn't go to the wedding ---.
3. I enjoy my job. I like the people ---.
4. What's the name of that hotel ---?
5. The party --- wasn't very enjoyable.
6. I didn't get the job ---.
7. George is a good person to know. He's somebody ---.
8. Who was that man --- in the restaurant?
92.4 Put in that or what. If the sentence is complete with or without that, write (that)--in brackets.
1. I gave her all the money _that_ I had.
2. They give their children everything --- they want.
3. Tell me --- you want and I'll try to get it for you.
4. Why do you blame me for everything --- goes wrong?
5. I won't be able to do much but I'll do the best --- I can.
6. I can only lend you ten pounds. It's all --- I've got.
7. I don't agree with --- you've just said.
8. I don't trust him. I don't believe anything --- he says.
UNIT 93 Relative clauses (3)--whose/whom/where
We use whose in relative clauses instead of his/her/their:
we saw some people - [their] car had broken down
-> We saw some people [whose] car had broken down.
We use whose mostly for people:
* A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead)
* What's the name of the man whose car you borrowed? (you borrowed his car)
* A few days ago I met someone whose brother I went to school with. J went to school with his/her brother)
Compare who and whose:
* I met a man who knows you. (be knows you)
* I met a man whose sister knows you. (his sister knows you)
Whom is possible instead of who when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause (like the sentences in Unit 92B):
* The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. (I wanted to see her)
You can also use whom with a preposition (to whom/from whom/with whom etc.):
* The woman with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks. (he fell in love with her)
But we do not often use whom. In spoken English we usually prefer who or that, or nothing (see Unit 92). So we usually say:
* The man I saw. or The man who/that I saw.
* The woman he fell in love with. or The woman who/that he fell in love with.
For whom see also Units 94-95.
You can use where in a relative clause to talk about a place:
the hotel--we stayed [there]--wasn't very clean
-> The hotel [there] we stayed wasn't very clean.
* I recently went back to the town where I was born. (or ... the town I was born in. or ... the town that I was born in.)
* I would like to live in a country where there is plenty of sunshine.
D. We say:
the day/the year/the time(etc.) something happens or the day/the year/the time(etc.) that something happens
* Do you still remember the day (that) we first met?
* The last time (that) I saw her, she looked very well.
* I haven't seen them since the year (that) they got married.
E. We say:
the reason something happens or the reason that/why something happens
* The reason I'm phoning you is to invite you to a party. (or The reason that I'm phoning .../The reason why I'm phoning ...)
93.1 You met these people at a party:
My mother writes detective stories.
My wife is an English teacher.
I won a restaurant.
My ambition is to limb Everest.
We've just I got married.
My parents used to work in a circus.
Later you tell a friend about the people you met. Complete the sentences using who ... or whose ...
1. I met somebody _whose mother writes detective stories.
2. I met a man ---.
3. I met a woman ---.
4. I met somebody ---.
5. I met a couple ---.
6. I met somebody ---.
93.2 Complete the sentences. Use the sentences in the box to make relative clauses with where.
I can buy some postcards there
Ann bought a dress there
John is staying there
I was born there
we can have a really good meal there
we had the car repaired there
1. I recently went back to the town _where I was born._
2. Do you know a restaurant ---?
3. Is there a shop near here ---?
4. I can't remember the name of the garage ---.
5. Do you know the name of the hotel ---?
6. Ann bought a dress which didn't fit her, so she took it back to the shop ---.
93.3 Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.
1. What's the name of the man _who_ car you borrowed?
2. A cemetery is a place --- people are buried.
3. A pacifist is a person --- believes that all wars are wrong.
4. An orphan is a child --- parents are dead.
5. The place --- we spent our holidays was really beautiful.
6. This school is only for children --- first language is not English.
7. 1 don't know the name of the woman to --- I spoke on the phone.
93.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. They are like the ones in Sections D and E.
1. I'll always remember the day _I first met you._
2. I'll never forget the time ---.
3. The reason --- was that I didn't know your address.
4. Unfortunately I wasn't at home the evening ---.
5. The reason --- is that they don't need one.
6. 1989 was the year ---.
Unit 94 Relative clauses(4)--'extra information' clauses (1)
A. There are two types of relative clause. In these examples, the relative clauses are underlined. Compare:
#1 Type 1
* The woman _who lives next door_ is a doctor.
* Barbara works for a company _that makes washing machines._
* We stayed at the hotel _(that) Ann recommended to us._
In these examples, the relative clause tells you which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:
'The woman who lives next door' tells us which woman.
'A company that makes washing machines' tells us what kind of company.
'The hotel (that) Ann recommended tells us which hotel.
We do not use commas (,) with these clauses:
* We know a lot of people _who live in London._ (what kind of people)
#2 Type 2
* My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor.
* Colin told me about his new job, _which he's enjoying very much._
* We stayed at the Grand Hotel, _which Ann recommended to us._
In these examples, the relative clauses do not tell you which person or thing the speaker means. We already know which thing or person is meant: 'My brother Jim', 'Colin's new job' and 'the Grand Hotel'. The relative clauses in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing.
We use commas (,) in these clauses:
* My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor. (extra information about Jim)
B. In both types of relative clause we use who for people and which for things. But:
#1 Type 1
You can use that:
* Do you know anyone who/that speaks French and Italian?
* Barbara works for a company which/that makes washing machines.
You can leave out that/who/which when it is the object (see Unit 92):
* We stayed at the hotel (that/which) Ann recommended.
* This morning I met somebody (that/who) I hadn't seen for ages.
We do not often use whom in this type of clause (see Unit 93B).
#2 Type 2
You cannot use that:
* John, who (not 'that') speaks French and Italian, works as a tourist guide.
* Colin told me about his new job, which (not 'that') he's enjoying very much.
You cannot leave out who or which:
* We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us.
You can use whom (when it is the object):
* This morning I met Diane, whom (or who) I hadn't seen for ages.
In both types of relative clause you can use whose and where:
* We met some people whose car had broken down.
* What's the name of the place where you spent your holiday?
* Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.
* Mrs Bond is going to spend a few weeks in Sweden, where her daughter lives.
94.1 Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a relative clause (Type 2). Sometimes the clause goes in the middle of the sentence, sometimes at the end. You will need to use who(m)/whose/which/where.
1. Ann is very friendly. (She lives next door.) _Ann, who lives next door, is very friendly._
2. We stayed at the Grand Hotel. (Ann recommended it to us.) _We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us._
3. We went to Sandra's party. (We enjoyed it very much.) We went to Sandra's party ---.
4. 1 went to see the doctor. (He told me to rest for a few days.) ---.
5. John is one of my closest friends. (I have known him for a very long time.) John ---.
6. Sheila is away from home a lot. (Her job involves a lot of travelling.) ---.
7. The new stadium will be opened next month. (It can hold 90,000 people.) The ---.
8. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol. (It is only 30 miles away.) ---.
9. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. (My brother lives there.) ---.
94.2 Read the information and complete the sentences. Use a relative clause. Sometimes the clause tells us which thing or person (Type 1); sometimes it only gives us extra information (Type 2). Use commas where necessary.
1. There's a woman living next door. She's a doctor.
The woman _who lives next door is a doctor._
2. I've got a brother called Jim. He lives in London. He's a doctor.
My brother Jim, _who lives in London, is a doctor._
3. There was a strike at the car factory. It lasted ten days. It is now over.
The strike at the car factory ---.
4. I was looking for a book this morning. I've found it now.
I've found ---.
5. London was once the largest city in the world, but the population is now falling.
The population of London ---.
6. A job was advertised. A lot of people applied for it. Few of them had the necessary qualifications. Few of ---.
7. Margaret has a son. She showed me a photograph of him. He's a policeman.
Margaret showed me ---.
94.3 In some of these sentences you can use which or that; in others, only which is possible. Cross out that if only which is possible. Also, put commas(,) where necessary.
1. Jane works for a company _which/that_ makes shoes. (both possible, no commas)
2. Colin told me about his new job, _which/that_ he's enjoying very much. (only which is possible; comma necessary)
3. My office _which/that_ is on the second floor of the building is very small.
4. The office _which/that_ I'm using at the moment is very small.
5. She told me her address _which/that_ I wrote down on a piece of paper.
6. There are some words _which/that_ are very difficult to translate.
7. The sun _which/that_ is one of millions of stars in the universe provides us with heat and light.
1. He works very hard. It's not _surprising_ that he's always tired.
2. I've got nothing to do. I'm ---.
3. The teacher's explanation was ---. Most of the students didn't understand it.
4. The kitchen hadn't been cleaned for ages. It was really ---.
5. I seldom visit art galleries. I'm not particularly --- in art.
6. There's no need to get --- just because I'm a few minutes late.
7. The lecture was ---. I fell asleep.
8. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn't ---.
9. I've been working very hard all day and now I'm ---.
10. I'm starting a new job next week. I'm quite --- about it.
11. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very ---.
12. Liz is a very --- person. She knows a lot, she's travelled a lot and she's done lots of different things.
UNIT 98 Adjectives: word order (a nice new house), Adjectives after verbs (You look tired)
A. Sometimes we use two or more adjectives together:
* My brother lives in a nice new house.
* In the kitchen there was 'a beautiful large round wooden table.
Adjectives like new/large/round/wooden are fact adjectives. They give us factual information about age, size, colour etc.
Adjectives like nice/beautiful are opinion adjectives. They tell us what somebody thinks of something or somebody.
Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives.
a nice(opinion) long(fact) summer holiday
an interesting(opinion) young(fact) man
an delicious(opinion) hot(fact) vegetable soup
a beautiful(opinion) large round wooden(fact) table
B. Sometimes we use two or more fact adjectives. Very often (but not always) we put fact adjectives in this order:
1. how big? -> 2. how old? -> 3. what color? -> 4. where from? -> 5. what is it made of? -> NOUN
a tall young man (1 -> 2)
a large wooden table (1 -> 5)
big blue eyes (1 -> 3)
an old Russian song (2 -> 4)
a small black plastic bag (1 -> 3 -> 5)
an old white cotton shirt (2 -> 3 -> 5)
Adjectives of size and length (big/small/tall/short/long etc.) usually go before adjectives of shape and width (round/fat/thin/slim/wide etc.): a large round table a tall thin girl a long narrow street
When there are two colour adjectives, we use and:
a black and white dress
a red, white and green flag
but a long black dress (not 'a long and black dress')
C. We say 'the first two days', 'the next few weeks', 'the last ten minutes' etc.:
* I didn't enjoy the first two days of the course. (not 'the two first days')
* They'll be away for the next few weeks. (not 'the few next weeks')
D. We use adjectives after be/get/become/seem:
* Be careful!
* I'm tired and I'm getting hungry.
* As the film went on, it became more and more boring.
* Your friend seems very nice.
We also use adjectives to say how somebody/something looks, feels, sounds, tastes or smells:
* You look tired./I feel tired./She sounds tired.
* The dinner smells good.
* This tea tastes a bit strange.
But to say how somebody does something you must use an adverb (see Units 99-100):
* Drive carefully! (not 'Drive careful')
* Susan plays the piano very well. (not 'plays...very good')
98.1 Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position.
1. a beautiful table (wooden/round) _a beautiful round wooden table_.
2. an unusual ring (gold) ---.
3. a new pullover (nice) ---.
4. a new pullover (green) ---.
5. an old house (beautiful) ---.
6. black gloves (leather) ---.
7. an American film (old) ---.
8. a long face (thin) ---.
9. big clouds (black) ---.
10. a sunny day (lovely) ---.
11. a wide avenue (long) ---.
12. a metal box (black/small) ---.
13. a big cat (fat/black) ---.
14. a little village (old/lovely) ---.
15. long hair (black/beautiful) ---.
16. an old painting (interesting/French) ---.
17. an enormous umbrella (red/yellow) ---.
98.2 Write the following in another way using the first .../the next ..../the last ...
1. the first day and the second day of the course _the first two days of the course_
2. next week and the week after _the next two weeks_
3. yesterday and the day before yesterday ---
4. the first week and the second week of September ---
5. tomorrow and a few days after that ---
6. questions 1, 2 and 3 of the examination ---
7. next year and the year after ---
8. the last day of our holiday and the two days before that ---
98.3 Complete each sentence with a verb (in the correct form) and an adjective from the boxes.
verb: feel smell look seem smell sound taste
adjective: awful fine nice interesting upset wet
1. Ann _seemed upset_ this morning. Do you know what was wrong?
2. I can't eat this. I've just tried it and it ---.
3. I wasn't very well yesterday but I --- today.
4. What beautiful flowers! They --- too.
5. You --- Have you been out in the rain?
6. Jim was telling me about his new job. It --- quite ---, much better than his old job.
98.4 Choose the correct word.
1. This tea tastes a bit _strange._ (strange/strangely)
2. I always feel --- when the sun is shining. (happy/happily)
3. The children were playing --- in the garden. (happy/happily)
4. The man became --- when the manager of the restaurant asked him to leave. (violent/violently)
5. You look --- Are you all right? (terrible/terribly)
6. There s no point in doing a job if you don t do it ---. (proper/properly)
UNIT 99 Adjectives and adverbs (1) (quick/quickly)
A. Look at these examples:
* Our holiday was too short - the time went very quickly.
* The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident.
Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many adverbs are made from an adjective + -1y: