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UNIT 92 Relative clauses (2)--clauses with or without who/that/which

A. Look again at these example sentences from Unit 91:

* The woman [who] lives next door is a doctor. (or The woman that lives...)

[The woman] lives next door. who(= the woman) is the subject

* Where is the cheese [that] was in the fridge? (or ... the cheese which was...)

[The cheese] was in the fridge. that(= the cheese) is the subject

You must use who/that/which when it is the subject of the relative clause. You cannot say 'The woman lives next door is a doctor' or 'Where is the cheese was in the fridge?'

B. Sometimes who/that/which is the object of the verb. For example:

*. The woman [who] I wanted to see was away on holiday.

I wanted to see [the woman]. who(= the woman) is the object. I is the subject

* Have you found the keys [that] you lost?

You lost [the keys]. that(= the keys) is the object. you is the subject

When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. So you can say:

* The woman I wanted to see was away. or The woman who I wanted to see...

* Have you found the keys you lost? or ... the keys that you lost?

* The dress Ann bought doesn't fit her very well. or The dress that Ann bought...

* Is there anything I can do? or ... anything that I can do?

Note that we say:

the keys you lost (not 'the keys you lost them')

the dress Ann bought (not 'bought it')


C. Notice the position of prepositions(in/at/with etc.) in relative clauses:

do you know the woman?--Tom is talking [to] her

-> Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking [to]?

the bed--I slept [in] it last night - wasn't very comfortable

-> The bed (that/which) I slept in last night wasn't very comfortable.

* Are these the keys (that/which) you were looking for?

* The woman (who/that) he fell in love with left him after a few weeks.

* The man (who/that) I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time.

In all these examples, you can leave out who/that/which.

Note that we say:

the books you were looking for (not 'the books you were looking for them')

D. You cannot use what in sentences like these:

* Everything (that) they said was true. (not 'Everything what they said ...')

* I gave her all the money (that) I had. (not '... all the money what I had')

What = the thing(s) that:

* Did you hear what they said? (= the things that they said)




92.1 In some of these sentences you don't need who or that. If you don't need these words, put them in brackets like this: (who) (that).

1. The woman who lives next door is a doctor. ('who' is necessary in this sentence)

2. Have you found the keys (that) you lost. (in this sentence you don't need 'that')

3. The people who we met at the party were very friendly.

4. The people who work in the office are very friendly.

5. The people who I talked to were very friendly.

6. What have you done with the money that I gave you?

7. What happened to the money that was on the table? Did you take it?

8. It was an awful film. It was the worst film that I've ever seen.

9. It was an awful experience. It was the worst thing that has ever happened to me.

92.2 Complete these sentences with a relative clause. Use the sentences in the box to make your relative clauses.

we hired a car

you're going to see a film

I invited some people to the par쇼

Ann is wearing a dress

you had to do some work

Tom recommended a hotel to us

you lost Same keys

we wanted to visit a museum

1. Have you found the keys _you lost ?_

2. 1 like the dress --- was shut when we got there.

3. The museum ---?

4. What's the name of the film --- couldn't come.

5. Some of the people ---?

6. Have you finished the work ---?

7. The car --- broke down after a few miles.

8. We stayed at a hotel ---.

92.3 Complete these sentences using a relative clause with a preposition.

we went to a party last night

you can rely on George

we were invited to a wedding

I work with a number of people

I applied for a job

you told me about a hotel

you were looking for some keys

I saw you with a man

1. Are these the keys _you were looking for?_

2. Unfortunately we couldn't go to the wedding ---.

3. I enjoy my job. I like the people ---.

4. What's the name of that hotel ---?

5. The party --- wasn't very enjoyable.

6. I didn't get the job ---.

7. George is a good person to know. He's somebody ---.

8. Who was that man --- in the restaurant?

92.4 Put in that or what. If the sentence is complete with or without that, write (that)--in brackets.

1. I gave her all the money _that_ I had.

2. They give their children everything --- they want.

3. Tell me --- you want and I'll try to get it for you.

4. Why do you blame me for everything --- goes wrong?

5. I won't be able to do much but I'll do the best --- I can.

6. I can only lend you ten pounds. It's all --- I've got.

7. I don't agree with --- you've just said.

8. I don't trust him. I don't believe anything --- he says.



UNIT 93 Relative clauses (3)--whose/whom/where

A. Whose

We use whose in relative clauses instead of his/her/their:

we saw some people - [their] car had broken down

-> We saw some people [whose] car had broken down.

We use whose mostly for people:

* A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead)

* What's the name of the man whose car you borrowed? (you borrowed his car)

* A few days ago I met someone whose brother I went to school with. J went to school with his/her brother)

Compare who and whose:

* I met a man who knows you. (be knows you)

* I met a man whose sister knows you. (his sister knows you)

B. Whom

Whom is possible instead of who when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause (like the sentences in Unit 92B):

* The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. (I wanted to see her)

You can also use whom with a preposition (to whom/from whom/with whom etc.):

* The woman with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks. (he fell in love with her)

But we do not often use whom. In spoken English we usually prefer who or that, or nothing (see Unit 92). So we usually say:

* The man I saw. or The man who/that I saw.

* The woman he fell in love with. or The woman who/that he fell in love with.

For whom see also Units 94-95.

C. Where

You can use where in a relative clause to talk about a place:

the hotel--we stayed [there]--wasn't very clean

-> The hotel [there] we stayed wasn't very clean.

* I recently went back to the town where I was born. (or ... the town I was born in. or ... the town that I was born in.)

* I would like to live in a country where there is plenty of sunshine.

D. We say:

the day/the year/the time(etc.) something happens or the day/the year/the time(etc.) that something happens

* Do you still remember the day (that) we first met?

* The last time (that) I saw her, she looked very well.

* I haven't seen them since the year (that) they got married.

E. We say:

the reason something happens or the reason that/why something happens

* The reason I'm phoning you is to invite you to a party. (or The reason that I'm phoning .../The reason why I'm phoning ...)




93.1 You met these people at a party:

My mother writes detective stories.

My wife is an English teacher.

I won a restaurant.

My ambition is to limb Everest.

We've just I got married.

My parents used to work in a circus.

Later you tell a friend about the people you met. Complete the sentences using who ... or whose ...

1. I met somebody _whose mother writes detective stories.

2. I met a man ---.

3. I met a woman ---.

4. I met somebody ---.

5. I met a couple ---.

6. I met somebody ---.

93.2 Complete the sentences. Use the sentences in the box to make relative clauses with where.

I can buy some postcards there

Ann bought a dress there

John is staying there

I was born there

we can have a really good meal there

we had the car repaired there

1. I recently went back to the town _where I was born._

2. Do you know a restaurant ---?

3. Is there a shop near here ---?

4. I can't remember the name of the garage ---.

5. Do you know the name of the hotel ---?

6. Ann bought a dress which didn't fit her, so she took it back to the shop ---.

93.3 Complete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where.

1. What's the name of the man _who_ car you borrowed?

2. A cemetery is a place --- people are buried.

3. A pacifist is a person --- believes that all wars are wrong.

4. An orphan is a child --- parents are dead.

5. The place --- we spent our holidays was really beautiful.

6. This school is only for children --- first language is not English.

7. 1 don't know the name of the woman to --- I spoke on the phone.

93.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. They are like the ones in Sections D and E.

1. I'll always remember the day _I first met you._

2. I'll never forget the time ---.

3. The reason --- was that I didn't know your address.

4. Unfortunately I wasn't at home the evening ---.

5. The reason --- is that they don't need one.

6. 1989 was the year ---.



Unit 94 Relative clauses(4)--'extra information' clauses (1)

A. There are two types of relative clause. In these examples, the relative clauses are underlined. Compare:

#1 Type 1

* The woman _who lives next door_ is a doctor.

* Barbara works for a company _that makes washing machines._

* We stayed at the hotel _(that) Ann recommended to us._

In these examples, the relative clause tells you which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:

'The woman who lives next door' tells us which woman.

'A company that makes washing machines' tells us what kind of company.

'The hotel (that) Ann recommended tells us which hotel.

We do not use commas (,) with these clauses:

* We know a lot of people _who live in London._ (what kind of people)

#2 Type 2

* My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor.

* Colin told me about his new job, _which he's enjoying very much._

* We stayed at the Grand Hotel, _which Ann recommended to us._

In these examples, the relative clauses do not tell you which person or thing the speaker means. We already know which thing or person is meant: 'My brother Jim', 'Colin's new job' and 'the Grand Hotel'. The relative clauses in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing.

We use commas (,) in these clauses:

* My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor. (extra information about Jim)

B. In both types of relative clause we use who for people and which for things. But:

#1 Type 1

You can use that:

* Do you know anyone who/that speaks French and Italian?

* Barbara works for a company which/that makes washing machines.

You can leave out that/who/which when it is the object (see Unit 92):

* We stayed at the hotel (that/which) Ann recommended.

* This morning I met somebody (that/who) I hadn't seen for ages.

We do not often use whom in this type of clause (see Unit 93B).

#2 Type 2

You cannot use that:

* John, who (not 'that') speaks French and Italian, works as a tourist guide.

* Colin told me about his new job, which (not 'that') he's enjoying very much.

You cannot leave out who or which:

* We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us.

You can use whom (when it is the object):

* This morning I met Diane, whom (or who) I hadn't seen for ages.

In both types of relative clause you can use whose and where:

* We met some people whose car had broken down.

* What's the name of the place where you spent your holiday?

* Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.

* Mrs Bond is going to spend a few weeks in Sweden, where her daughter lives.




94.1 Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a relative clause (Type 2). Sometimes the clause goes in the middle of the sentence, sometimes at the end. You will need to use who(m)/whose/which/where.

1. Ann is very friendly. (She lives next door.) _Ann, who lives next door, is very friendly._

2. We stayed at the Grand Hotel. (Ann recommended it to us.) _We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us._

3. We went to Sandra's party. (We enjoyed it very much.) We went to Sandra's party ---.

4. 1 went to see the doctor. (He told me to rest for a few days.) ---.

5. John is one of my closest friends. (I have known him for a very long time.) John ---.

6. Sheila is away from home a lot. (Her job involves a lot of travelling.) ---.

7. The new stadium will be opened next month. (It can hold 90,000 people.) The ---.

8. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol. (It is only 30 miles away.) ---.

9. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. (My brother lives there.) ---.

94.2 Read the information and complete the sentences. Use a relative clause. Sometimes the clause tells us which thing or person (Type 1); sometimes it only gives us extra information (Type 2). Use commas where necessary.

1. There's a woman living next door. She's a doctor.

The woman _who lives next door is a doctor._

2. I've got a brother called Jim. He lives in London. He's a doctor.

My brother Jim, _who lives in London, is a doctor._

3. There was a strike at the car factory. It lasted ten days. It is now over.

The strike at the car factory ---.

4. I was looking for a book this morning. I've found it now.

I've found ---.

5. London was once the largest city in the world, but the population is now falling.

The population of London ---.

6. A job was advertised. A lot of people applied for it. Few of them had the necessary qualifications. Few of ---.

7. Margaret has a son. She showed me a photograph of him. He's a policeman.

Margaret showed me ---.

94.3 In some of these sentences you can use which or that; in others, only which is possible. Cross out that if only which is possible. Also, put commas(,) where necessary.

1. Jane works for a company _which/that_ makes shoes. (both possible, no commas)

2. Colin told me about his new job, _which/that_ he's enjoying very much. (only which is possible; comma necessary)

3. My office _which/that_ is on the second floor of the building is very small.

4. The office _which/that_ I'm using at the moment is very small.

5. She told me her address _which/that_ I wrote down on a piece of paper.

6. There are some words _which/that_ are very difficult to translate.

7. The sun _which/that_ is one of millions of stars in the universe provides us with heat and light.




Relative clauses (5)--'extra information' clauses (2)

A. Prepositions + whom/which

In 'extra information' clauses (see Unit 94-Type 2) you can use a preposition before whom (for people) and which (for things). So you can say:

to whom/with whom/about which/for which etc.:

* Mr Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan.

* Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost.

In spoken English we often keep the preposition after the verb in the relative clause. When we do this, we normally use who (not 'whom') for people:

* This is Mr Carter, who I was telling you about.

* Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which I'd never been to before.

B. All of/most of etc. + whom/which

Study these examples:

Mary has three brothers. All of them are married. (2 sentences)

-> Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married. (1 sentence)

They asked me a lot of questions. I couldn't answer most of them. (2 sentences)

-> They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn't answer. (1 sentence)

In the same way you can say:

none of/neither of/any of/either of + whom (people)

none of/neither of/any of/either of which (things)

some of/many of/much of/(a) few of + which (things)

some of/many of/much of/(a) few of whom (people

both of/half of/each of/one of/two of (etc.) + whom (people)

both of/half of/each of/one of/two of (etc.) + which (things)

* Tom tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him.

* Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office.

* They've got three cars, two of which they never use.

* Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with.

C. Which (not 'what')

Study this example:

[Jim passed his driving test.] [This] surprised everybody. (2 sentences)

[Jim passed his driving test,] _[which] surprised everybody._(relative clause)(1 sentence)

In this example, which = 'the fact that he passed his driving test'. You must use which (not 'what') in sentences like these:

* Sheila couldn't come to the party, which was a pity. (not '...what was a pity')

* The weather was very good, which we hadn't expected. (not '...what we hadn't


For what, see also Units 91C and 92D.




95.1 Make two sentences from one using a relative clause. Use the sentence in brackets to make the relative clause.

1. Mr Carter is very interested in our plan. (I spoke to him on the phone last night.)

_Mr Carter, to whom I spoke on the phone last night, is very interested in our plan._

2. This is a photograph of our friends. (We went on holiday with these friends.)

This is a photograph ---.

3. The wedding took place last Friday. (Only members of the family were invited to it.)

The wedding ---.

4. Sheila finally arrived. (We had been waiting for her.)

5. We climbed to the top of the tower. (We had a beautiful view from there.)

95.2 Write sentences with all of/most of etc. + whom/which.

1. Mary has three brothers. (All of her brothers are married.)

_Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married._

2. We were given a lot of information. (Most of the information was useless.)

We were given ---.

3. There were a lot of people at the party. (I had met only a few of these people before.)

4. I have sent her two letters. (She has received neither of these letters.)

5. Ten people applied for the job. (None of these people were suitable.)

6. Kate has got two cars. (She hardly ever uses one of them.)

7. Norman won 50,000 pounds. (He gave half of this to his parents.)

8. Julia has two sisters. (Both of her sisters are teachers.)

95.3 join a sentence from Box A with a sentence from Box B to make a new sentence. Use which.


1. Sheila couldn't come to party.

2. Jill isn't on the phone.

3. Nell has passed his examinations.

4. Our flight was delayed.

5. Ann offered to let me stay in her house.

6. The street I live in is very noisy at night.

7. Our car has broken down.


1. This was very nice of her.

2. This means we can't go away tomorrow.

3. This makes it difficult to contact her.

4. This makes it difficult to steep.

5. This was a pity.

6. This is good news.

7. This meant we had to wait four hours at the airport.

1. Sheila couldn't come to the party, _which was a pity._

2. Jill isn't ---.

3. ---.

4. ---.

5. ---.

6. ---.

7. ---.



UNIT 96 ~ing and ~ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident)

A. A clause is a part of a sentence. Some clauses begin with ~ing or ~ed. For example:

Do you know the woman _talking to Tom?_(~ing clause)

The boy _injured in the accident_(~ed clause) was taken to hospital

B. We use ~ing clauses to say what somebody (or something) is doing (or was doing) at a particular time:

* Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (the woman is talking to Tom)

* Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (police are investigating the crime)

* Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)

* I was woken up by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)

When you are talking about things (and sometimes people), you can use an ~ing clause to say what something does all the time, not just at a particular time. For example:

* The road joining the two villages is very narrow. (the road joins the two villages)

* 1 live in a pleasant room overlooking the garden. (the room overlooks the garden)

* Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with 'T'? (the name begins with 'T')

C. ~ed clauses have a passive meaning:

* The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. (the boy was injured in the accident)

* Some of the people invited to the party can't come. (the people have been invited to the party)

Injured and invited are past participles. Many verbs have past participles that do not end in ~ed (made, bought, stolen etc.):

* Most of the goods made in this factory are exported. (the goods are made.

* The police never found the money stolen in the robbery. (the money was stolen)

You can use left in this way, with the meaning 'not used, still there':

* We've spent nearly all our money. We've only got a little left. For irregular past participles, see Appendix 1.

D. We often use ~ing and ~ed clauses after there is/there was etc.:

* There were some children swimming in the river.

* Is there anybody waiting?

* There was a big red car parked outside the house.




96.1 Make one sentence from two. Use the information in brackets to make an ~ing clause. Sometimes the ~ing clause goes in the middle of the new sentence; sometimes it goes at the end.

1. I was woken up by a bell. (The bell was ringing.)

_I was woken up by a bell ringing._

2. 1 didn't talk much to the man. (The man was sitting next to me on the plane.)

3. The taxi broke down. (The taxi was taking us to the airport.)

The ---.

4. At the end of the street there is a path. (The path leads to the river.)

5. A new factory has just opened in the town. (The factory employs 500 people.)

6. The company sent me a brochure. (The brochure contained all the information I needed.)

96.2 Make one sentence from two, beginning as shown. Each time make an ~ed clause.

1. A boy was injured in the accident. He was taken to hospital.

_The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital._.

2. A window was broken in the storm last night. It has now been repaired.

The window --- repaired.

3. A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.

Most of the suggestions ---.

4. Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven't been found yet.

The ---.

5. A man was arrested by the police. What was his name?

What was the name ---.

96.3 Complete the sentences using one of the following verbs in the correct form: blow call invite live offer read ring sit study work

1. I was woken up by a bell _ringing._

2. A lot of the people _invited_ to the party cannot come.

3. Life must be very unpleasant for people --- near busy airports.

4. A few days after the interview, I received a letter --- me the job.

5. Somebody --- Jack phoned while you were out.

6. There was a tree --- down in the storm last night.

7. When I entered the waiting room it was empty except for a young man --- by

the window a magazine.

8. Ian has got a brother --- in a bank in London and a sister --- economics at university in Manchester.

96.4 Use the words in brackets to make sentences using there is/there was etc.

1. That house is empty. (nobody/live/in it)

_There's nobody living in it._

2. The accident wasn't serious. (nobody/injure)

_There was nobody injured._

3. I can hear footsteps. (somebody/come)

There ---.

4. The train was full. (a lot of people/travel)

5. We were the only guests at the hotel. (nobody else/stay there)

6. The piece of paper was blank. (nothing/write/on it)

7. There are regular English courses at the college. (a course/begin/next Monday)



UNIT 97 Adjectives ending in ~ing and ~ed (boring/bored etc.)

A. There are many adjectives ending in ~ing and ~ed. For example, boring and bored. Study this example situation:

Jane has been doing the same job for a very long time. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again. She doesn't enjoy it any more and would like to do something different.

Jane's Job is boring.

Jane is bored (with her job).

Somebody is bored if something (or somebody else ) is boring. Or, if something is boring, it makes you bored. So:

* Jane is bored because her job is boring.

* Jane's job is boring, so Jane is bored. (not 'Jane is boring')

If a person is boring, this means that they make other people bored:

* George always talks about the same things. He's really boring.

B. Compare adjectives ending in ~ing and ~ed:

You can say:

* My job boring.

* My job interesting.

* My job is tiring.

* My job satisfying.

* My job depressing. (etc.)

The ~ing adjective tells you about the job.

You can say:

* I'm bored with my job.

* I'm not interested in my job any more.

* I'm always tired when I finish work.

* I'm not satisfied with my job.

* My job makes me depressed. (etc.)

The ~ed adjective tells you how somebody feels (about the job).

Compare these examples:


* Julia thinks politics is very interesting.

* Did you meet anyone interesting at the party?


* It was quite surprising that he passed the examination. disappointing

* The film was disappointing. I expected it to be much better.


* The news was shocking.


* Julia is very interested in politics. (not 'interesting in politics')

* Are you interested in buying a car? I'm trying to sell mine.


* Everybody was surprised that he passed the examination.


* I was disappointed with the film. I expected it to be much better.


* We were very shocked when we heard the news.




97.1 Complete the sentences for each situation. Use the word given + the ending ~ing or ~ed.

1. The film wasn't as good as we had expected. (disappoint-)

a. The film was _disappointing._

b. We were _disappointed_ with the film.

2. Diana teaches young children. It's a very hard job but she enjoys it. (exhaust-)

a. She enjoys her job but it's often ---.

b. At the end of a day's work, she is often ---.

3. It's been raining all day. I hate this weather. (depress-)

a. This weather is ---.

b. This weather makes me ---.

c. It's silly to get --- because of the weather.

4. Clare is going to the United States next month. She has never been there before. (excit-)

a. It will be an --- experience for her.

b. Going to new places is always ---.

c. She is really --- about going to the United States.

97.2 Choose the correct word.

1. I was _disappointing/disappointed_ with the film. I had expected it to be better.

2. Are you _interesting/interested_ in football?

3. The football match was quite _exciting/excited_ I enjoyed it.

4. It's sometimes _embarrassing/embarrassed_ when you have to ask people for money.

5. Do you easily get _embarrassing/embarrassed?_

6. I had never expected to get the job. I was really _amazing/amazed_ when I was offered it.

7. She has really learnt very fast. She has made _astonishing/astonished_ progress.

8. 1 didn't find the situation funny. I was not _amusing/amused._

9. It was a really _terrifying/terrified_ experience. Afterwards everybody was very _shocking/shocked._

10 Why do you always look so _boring/bored?_ Is your life really so _boring/bored?_

11. He's one of the most _boring/bored_ people I've ever met. He never stops talking and he never says anything _interesting/interested._

97.3 Complete the sentences using one of the words in the box.

amusing/amused confusing/confused exhausting/exhausted annoying/annoyed disgusting/disgusted interesting/interested boring/bored exciting/excited surprising/surprised

1. He works very hard. It's not _surprising_ that he's always tired.

2. I've got nothing to do. I'm ---.

3. The teacher's explanation was ---. Most of the students didn't understand it.

4. The kitchen hadn't been cleaned for ages. It was really ---.

5. I seldom visit art galleries. I'm not particularly --- in art.

6. There's no need to get --- just because I'm a few minutes late.

7. The lecture was ---. I fell asleep.

8. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn't ---.

9. I've been working very hard all day and now I'm ---.

10. I'm starting a new job next week. I'm quite --- about it.

11. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very ---.

12. Liz is a very --- person. She knows a lot, she's travelled a lot and she's done lots of different things.



UNIT 98 Adjectives: word order (a nice new house), Adjectives after verbs (You look tired)

A. Sometimes we use two or more adjectives together:

* My brother lives in a nice new house.

* In the kitchen there was 'a beautiful large round wooden table.

Adjectives like new/large/round/wooden are fact adjectives. They give us factual information about age, size, colour etc.

Adjectives like nice/beautiful are opinion adjectives. They tell us what somebody thinks of something or somebody.

Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives.

a nice(opinion) long(fact) summer holiday

an interesting(opinion) young(fact) man

an delicious(opinion) hot(fact) vegetable soup

a beautiful(opinion) large round wooden(fact) table

B. Sometimes we use two or more fact adjectives. Very often (but not always) we put fact adjectives in this order:

1. how big? -> 2. how old? -> 3. what color? -> 4. where from? -> 5. what is it made of? -> NOUN

a tall young man (1 -> 2)

a large wooden table (1 -> 5)

big blue eyes (1 -> 3)

an old Russian song (2 -> 4)

a small black plastic bag (1 -> 3 -> 5)

an old white cotton shirt (2 -> 3 -> 5)

Adjectives of size and length (big/small/tall/short/long etc.) usually go before adjectives of shape and width (round/fat/thin/slim/wide etc.): a large round table a tall thin girl a long narrow street

When there are two colour adjectives, we use and:

a black and white dress

a red, white and green flag

but a long black dress (not 'a long and black dress')

C. We say 'the first two days', 'the next few weeks', 'the last ten minutes' etc.:

* I didn't enjoy the first two days of the course. (not 'the two first days')

* They'll be away for the next few weeks. (not 'the few next weeks')

D. We use adjectives after be/get/become/seem:

* Be careful!

* I'm tired and I'm getting hungry.

* As the film went on, it became more and more boring.

* Your friend seems very nice.

We also use adjectives to say how somebody/something looks, feels, sounds, tastes or smells:

* You look tired./I feel tired./She sounds tired.

* The dinner smells good.

* This tea tastes a bit strange.

But to say how somebody does something you must use an adverb (see Units 99-100):

* Drive carefully! (not 'Drive careful')

* Susan plays the piano very well. (not 'plays...very good')




98.1 Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position.

1. a beautiful table (wooden/round) _a beautiful round wooden table_.

2. an unusual ring (gold) ---.

3. a new pullover (nice) ---.

4. a new pullover (green) ---.

5. an old house (beautiful) ---.

6. black gloves (leather) ---.

7. an American film (old) ---.

8. a long face (thin) ---.

9. big clouds (black) ---.

10. a sunny day (lovely) ---.

11. a wide avenue (long) ---.

12. a metal box (black/small) ---.

13. a big cat (fat/black) ---.

14. a little village (old/lovely) ---.

15. long hair (black/beautiful) ---.

16. an old painting (interesting/French) ---.

17. an enormous umbrella (red/yellow) ---.

98.2 Write the following in another way using the first .../the next ..../the last ...

1. the first day and the second day of the course _the first two days of the course_

2. next week and the week after _the next two weeks_

3. yesterday and the day before yesterday ---

4. the first week and the second week of September ---

5. tomorrow and a few days after that ---

6. questions 1, 2 and 3 of the examination ---

7. next year and the year after ---

8. the last day of our holiday and the two days before that ---

98.3 Complete each sentence with a verb (in the correct form) and an adjective from the boxes.

verb: feel smell look seem smell sound taste

adjective: awful fine nice interesting upset wet

1. Ann _seemed upset_ this morning. Do you know what was wrong?

2. I can't eat this. I've just tried it and it ---.

3. I wasn't very well yesterday but I --- today.

4. What beautiful flowers! They --- too.

5. You --- Have you been out in the rain?

6. Jim was telling me about his new job. It --- quite ---, much better than his old job.

98.4 Choose the correct word.

1. This tea tastes a bit _strange._ (strange/strangely)

2. I always feel --- when the sun is shining. (happy/happily)

3. The children were playing --- in the garden. (happy/happily)

4. The man became --- when the manager of the restaurant asked him to leave. (violent/violently)

5. You look --- Are you all right? (terrible/terribly)

6. There s no point in doing a job if you don t do it ---. (proper/properly)



UNIT 99 Adjectives and adverbs (1) (quick/quickly)

A. Look at these examples:

* Our holiday was too short - the time went very quickly.

* The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident.

Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many adverbs are made from an adjective + -1y:

adjective: quick serious careful quiet heavy bad

adverb: quickly seriously carefully quietly heavily badly

For spelling, see Appendix 6.

Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. Some adjectives end in -ly too, for example:

friendly lively elderly lonely silly lovely

B. Adjective or adverb?

#1 Adjectives (quick/careful etc.) tell us about a noun. We use adjectives before nouns and after some verbs, especially be:

* Tom is a careful driver. (not 'a carefully driver')

* We didn't go out because of the heavy rain.

* Please be quiet.

* I was disappointed that my exam results were so bad.

We also use adjectives after the verbs look/feel/sound etc. (see Unit 98D):

* Why do you always look so serious?

#2 Adverbs (quickly/carefully etc.) tell us about a verb. An adverb tells us how somebody does something or how something happens:

* Tom drove carefully along the narrow road. (not 'drove careful')

* We didn't go out because it was raining heavily. (not 'raining heavy')

* Please speak quietly. (not 'speak quiet')

* I was disappointed that I did so badly in the exam. (not 'did so bad')

Why do you never take me seriously?



* She speaks perfect English.(adjective + noun)

* She speaks English perfectly.(verb + object + adverb)

Compare these sentences with look:

* Tom looked sad when I saw him. (= he seemed sad, his expression was sad)

* Tom looked at me sadly. (= he looked at me in a sad way)

C. We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs. For example:

reasonably cheap (adverb + adjective)

terribly sorry (adverb + adjective)

incredibly quickly (adverb + adverb)

* It's a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good.

* Oh, I'm terribly sorry. I didn't mean to push you. (not 'terrible sorry')

* Maria learns languages incredibly quickly.

* The examination was surprisingly easy.

You can also use an adverb before a past participle (injured/organised/written etc.)

* Two people were seriously injured in the accident. (not 'serious injured')

* The meeting was very badly organised.




99.1 Complete the sentences with adverbs. The first letter(s) of each adverb are given.

1. We didn't go out because it was raining _heavily._

2. Our team lost the game because we played very ba---.

3. I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat quite ea---.

4. We had to wait for a long time but we didn't complain. We waited pa---.

5. Nobody knew George was coming to see us. He arrived unex---.

6. Mike keeps fit by playing tennis reg---.

99.2 Put in the right word.

1. The driver of the car was _seriously_ injured. (serious/seriously)

2. The driver of the car had serious_ injuries. (serious/seriously)

3. I think you behaved very ---. (selfish/selfishly)

4. Rose is --- I upset about losing her job. (terrible/terribly)

5. There was a --- change in the weather. (sudden/suddenly)

6. Everybody at the party was --- dressed. (colourful/colourfully)

7. Linda likes wearing --- clothes. (colourful/colourfully)

8. She fell and hurt herself quite ---.(bad/badly)

9. He says he didn't do well at school because he was --- taught. (bad/badly)

10. Don't go up that ladder. It doesn't look ---. (safe/safely)

11. He looked at me --- when I interrupted him. (angry/angrily)

99.3 Complete each sentence using a word from the list. Sometimes you need the adjective (careful etc.) and sometimes the adverb (carefully etc.).

careful(ly) complete(ly) continuous(ly) financial(ly) fluent(ly) happy/happily nervous(ly) perfect(ly) quick(ly) special(1y)

1. Our holiday was too short. The time passed very _quickly._

2. Tom doesn't take risks when he's driving. He's always ---.

3. Sue works --- She never seems to stop.

4. Alice and Stan are very --- married.

5. Monica's English is very --- although she makes quite a lot of mistakes.

6. I cooked this meal --- for you, so I hope you like it.

7. Everything was very quiet. There was --- silence.

8. I tried on the shoes and they fitted me ---.

9. Do you usually feel --- before examinations?

10. I'd like to buy a car but it's --- impossible for me at the moment.

99.4 Choose two words (one from each box) to complete each sentence.

absolutely reasonably unusually badly seriously unnecessarily completely slightly

cheap enormous planned badly changed ill quiet damaged long

1. I thought the restaurant would be expensive but it was _reasonably cheap._

2. George's mother is --- in hospital.

3. What a big house! It's ---.

4. It wasn't a serious accident. The car was only ---.

5. The children are normally very lively but they're --- today.

6, When I returned home after 20 years, everything had ---.

7. The film was --- It could have been much shorter.

8. A lot went wrong during our holiday because it was ---.



UNIT 100 Adjectives and adverbs (2) (well/fast/late, hard/hardly)

A. Good/well

Good is an adjective. The adverb is well:

* Your English is good. but You speak English well.

* Susan is a good pianist. but Susan plays the piano well.

We use well (not 'good') with past participles (dressed/known etc.):

well-dressed well-known well-educated well-paid

But well is also an adjective with the meaning 'in good health':

* 'How are you today?', 'I'm very well, thanks.' (not 'I'm very good')

B. Fast/hard/late

These words are both adjectives and adverbs:


* Jack is a very fast runner.

* Ann is a hard worker.

* The train was late.


* Jack can run very fast.

* Ann works hard. (not 'works hardly')

* I got up late this morning.

Lately = 'recently'

* Have you seen Tom lately?

C. Hardly

Hardly = very little, almost not. Study these examples:

* Sarah was rather unfriendly to me at the party. She hardly spoke to me. (= she spoke to me very little, almost not at all)

* George and Hilda want to get married but they've only known each other for a few

days. I don't think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. (= they know each other very little)

Hard and hardly are completely different. Compare:

* He tried hard to find a job but he had no luck. (= he tried a lot, with a lot of effort)

* I'm not surprised he didn't find a job. He hardly tried to find one. (= he tried very little)

We often use hardly + any/anybody/anyone/anything/anywhere:

* A: How much money have you got?

B: Hardly any. (= very little, almost none)

* I'll have to go shopping. We've got hardly any food.

* The exam results were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed. (= very few students passed, almost nobody passed)

* She ate hardly anything. She wasn't feeling hungry. (= she ate very little, almost nothing) Note the position of hardly. You can say:

* She ate hardly anything. or She hardly ate anything.

* We've got hardly any food. or We've hardly got any food. We often use can/could + hardly. I can hardly do something = it's almost impossible for me to do it:

* Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it. (= it is almost impossible for me to read it)

* My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk. Hardly ever = almost never

* I'm nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out.




100.1 Put in good or well.

1. I play tennis but I'm not very _good._

2. Your exam results were very ---.

3. You did very --- in your exams.

4. The weather was very --- while we-were on holiday.

5. 1 didn't sleep very --- last night.

6. How are you? Are you ---?

7. George speaks German very ---.

8. George's German is very ---.

9. Our new business is going very --- at the moment.

10. I like your jacket. It looks --- on you.

11. I've met her a few times but I don't know her very ---.

100.2 Complete these sentences using well + one of the following words: balanced behaved done dressed informed kept known paid

1. The children were very good. They were _well-behaved._

2. I'm surprised you haven't heard of her. She is quite ---.

3. Our neighbours' garden is neat and tidy. It is very ---.

4. You should eat different types of food. Your diet should be ---.

5. Ann knows a lot about many things. She is quite ---.

6. His clothes are always smart. He is always ---.

7. Jill has a lot of responsibility in her job but she isn't very ---.

8. Congratulations on passing your examinations ---!

100.3 Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.

1. I'm tired because I've been working _hard._ _RIGHT_

2. I tried _hard_ to remember her name but I couldn't.

3. This coat is practically unused. I've _hardly_ worn it.

4. She's a good tennis player. She hits the ball _hardly._

5. Don't walk so _fast!_ I can't keep up with you.

6. Why are you walking so _slow?_ Are you tired?

100.4 Write sentences with hardly. Use one of the following verbs (in the correct form):

change hear know recognise say sleep speak

1. George and Hilda have only met once before. They _hardly know_ each other.

2. You're speaking very quietly. I can --- you.

3. I'm very tired this morning. I --- last night.

4. We were so shocked when we heard the news, we could ---.

5. Kate was very quiet this evening. She --- a word.

6. You look the same now as you looked 15 years ago. You've ---.

7. I met Keith a few days ago. I hadn't seen him for a long time and he looks very different now. I --- him.

100.5 Complete these sentences with hardly + any/anybody/anything/anywhere/ever.

1. I'll have to go shopping. We've got _hardly any_ food.

2. It was a very warm day and there was --- wind

3. 'Do you know much about computers?' 'No ---.'

4. The hotel was almost empty. There was --- staying there.

5. I listen to the radio quite often but I --- watch television.

6. Our new boss is not very popular. --- likes her.

7. It was very crowded in the room. There was --- to sit.

8. We used to be good friends but we --- see each other now.

9. It was nice driving this morning. There was --- traffic.

10. 1 hate this town. There's --- to do and --- to go.



UNIT 101 So and such

A. Study these examples:

#1 * I didn't enjoy the book.

The story was so stupid.

We use so + adjective/adverb:

so stupid so quick so nice so quickly

#2 * I didn't enjoy the book.

It was such a stupid story.

We use such + noun: such a story such people

We use such + adjective + noun: such a stupid story such nice people

Note that we say such a ... (not 'a such ...')

B. So and such make the meaning of an adjective (or adverb) stronger:

* It's a lovely day, isn't it? It's so warm. (= really warm)

* He's difficult to understand because he speaks so quickly.

Compare so and such in these sentences:

* I like Tom and Ann. They are so nice.

You can use so ... that ...:

* The book was so good that I couldn't put it down.

* I was so tired that I fell asleep in the armchair.

You can leave out that in sentences like this:

* I was so tired (that) I fell asleep.

* We enjoyed our holiday. We had such a good time. (= a really good time)

* I like Tom and Ann. They are such nice people. (not 'so nice people')

You can use such ... that ...:

* It was such a good book that I couldn't put it down.

* It was such lovely weather that we spent the whole day on the beach.

* It was such lovely weather (that) we ...

C. We also use so and such with the meaning 'like this':

* I was surprised to find out that the house was built 100 years ago. I didn't realize it was so old. (as old as it is)

* I expected the weather to be much cooler. I didn't expect it to be so warm.

* I'm tired because I got up at 6 o'clock. I don't usually get up so early.

* I didn't realize it was such an old house.

* The house was so untidy. I've never seen such a mess. (= a mess like this)

Note the expression no such...

* You won't find the word 'blid' in an English dictionary because there is no such word. (= this word does not exist)

D. We say: so long but such a long time:

* I haven't seen her for so long I've forgotten what she looks like.

so far but such a long way:

* I didn't know it was so far.

so much, so many but such a lot (of):

* Why did you buy so much food?

* I haven't seen her for such a long time. (not 'a so long time')

* I didn't know it was such a long way.

* Why did you buy such a lot of food?




101.1 Put in so, such or such a.

1. He's difficult to understand because he speaks _so_ quickly.

2. I like Tom and Ann. They're _such_ nice people.

3. It was a great holiday. We had _such a_ good time.

4. I was surprised that he looked --- well after his recent illness.

5. Everything is --- expensive these days, isn't it?

6. The weather is lovely, isn't it? I didn't expect it to be --- nice day.

7. I have to go. I didn't realize it was --- late.

8. He always looks good. He wears --- nice clothes.

9. It was --- boring film that I fell asleep while I was watching it.

10. I couldn't believe the news. It was --- shock.

11. I think she works too hard. She looks --- tired all the time.

12. The food at the hotel was --- awful. I've never eaten . awful food.

13. They've got --- much money, they don't know what to do with it.

14. 1 didn't realize you lived --- long way from the city centre.

15. I can't decide what to do. It's --- problem.

101.2 Make one sentence from two. Use so or such.

1. She worked hard.

2. It was a beautiful day.

3. I was tired.

4. We had a good time on holiday.

5. She speaks English well.

6. I've got a lot of things to do.

7. The music was loud.

8. I had a big breakfast.

9. It was horrible weather.

a. You could hear it from miles away.

b. You would think it was her native language.

c. We spent the whole day indoors.

d. She made herself ill.

e. I couldn't keep my eyes open.

f. I didn't eat anything else for the rest of the day.

g. We decided to go to the beach.

h. I don't know where to begin.

I. We didn't want to come home.

1. _She worked so hard she made herself ill._

2. It was, such a beautiful day we decided to go to the beach._

3. I was ---.

4. ---.

5. ---.

6. ---.

7. ---.

8. ---.

9. ---.

101.3 Use your own ideas to complete these pairs of sentences.

1. a. We enjoyed our holiday. It was so _relaxing._

b. We enjoyed our holiday. We had such _a good time._

2 a. I don't like London very much. It's so ---.

b. I don't like London very much. It's such ---.

3. a. I like Ann. She's so ---.

b. I like Ann. She's such ---.

4. a. I wouldn't like to be a teacher. It's so ---.

b. I wouldn't like to be a teacher. It's such ---.

5. a. It's great to see you again! I haven't seen you for so ---.

b. It's great to see you again! I haven't seen you for such ---.



Date: 2015-02-03; view: 4571

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