UNIT 84. Some and any
A. In general we use some (also somebody/someone/something) in positive sentences and any (also anybody etc.) in negative sentences (but see also Sections C and D):
* We bought some flowers.
* He's busy. He's got some work to do.
* There's somebody at the door.
* I'm hungry. I want something to eat.
* We didn't buy any flowers.
* He's lazy. He never does any work.
* There isn't anybody at the door.
* I'm not hungry. I don't want anything to eat.
We use any in the following sentences because the meaning is negative:
* She went out without any money. (She didn't take any money with her.)
* He refused to eat anything. (He didn't eat anything.)
* Hardly anybody passed the examination. (= almost nobody passed)
B. In most questions we use any:
* 'Have you got any luggage?' 'No, I haven't.'
* 'Has anybody seen my bag?' 'Yes, it's under the table.'
But we use some in questions when we expect the answer 'yes':
* What's wrong? Have you got something in your eye? (It seems that you have got
something in your eye and I expect you to answer 'yes'.)
We use some in questions when we offer or ask for things:
* Would you like something to eat?
* Can I have some sugar, please?
C. We often use any after if:
* If there are any letters for me, can you send them on to this address?
* If anyone has any questions, I'll be pleased to answer them.
* Let me know if you need anything.
The following sentences have the idea of if:
* I'm sorry for any trouble I've caused. (= if I have caused any trouble)
* Anyone who wants to do the exam must give me their names today. (= if there is anyone)
D. We also use any with the meaning 'it doesn't matter which':
* You can catch any bus. They all go to the centre. (= it doesn't matter which bus you catch)
* 'Sing a song.' 'Which song shall I sing?' 'Any song. I don't mind.' (= it doesn't matter which song)
* Come and see me any time you want.
* 'Let's go out somewhere.' 'Where shall we go?' 'Anywhere. I don't mind.'
* We left the door unlocked. Anybody could have come in.
Compare something and anything:
* A: I'm hungry. I want something to eat.
B: What would you like?
A: I don't mind. Anything. (= something, but it doesn't matter what)
E. Somebody/someone/anybody/anyone are singular words:
* Someone is here to see you.
But we often use they/them/their after these words:
* Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (= his or her umbrella)
* If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (= he or she can)
84.1 Complete the sentences with some or any.
1. We didn't buy _any_ flowers.
2. This evening I'm going out with --- friends of mine.
3. 'Have you seen --- good films recently?' 'No, I haven't been to the cinema for ages.'
4. I didn't have --- money, so I had to borrow ---.
5. Can I have --- milk in my coffee, please?
6. I was too tired to do --- work.
7. You can cash these traveller's cheques at --- bank.
8. Can you give me --- information about places of interest in the town?
9. With the special tourist train ticket, you can travel on --- train you like.
10. If there are --- words you don't understand, use a dictionary.
84.2 Complete the sentences with some- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.
1. I was too surprised to say _anything._
2. There's --- at the door. Can you go and see who it is?
3. Does --- mind if I open the window?
4. I wasn't feeling hungry, so I didn't eat ---.
5. You must be hungry. Would you like --- to eat?
6. Quick, let's go! There's --- coming and I don't want --- to see us.
7. Sally was upset about --- and refused to talk to ---.
8. This machine is very easy to use --- can learn to use it in a very short time.
9. There was hardly --- on the beach. It was almost deserted.
10. 'Do you live --- near Jim?' 'No, he lives in another part of town.'
11. We slept in a park because we didn't have --- to stay.
12. 'Where shall we go on holiday?' 'Let's go --- warm and sunny.'
13. They stay at home all the time. They never seem to go ---.
14. I'm going out now. If --- phones while I'm out, can you tell them I'll be back at 11.30?
15. Why are you looking under the bed? Have you lost ---?
16. --- who saw the accident should contact the police.
17. Sue is very secretive. She never tells --- (2 words)
84.3 Complete the sentences. Use any (+ noun) or anybody/anything/anywhere.
1. Which bus do I have to catch? Any bus. They all go to the centre.
2. Which day shall I come? I don't mind. ---.
3. What do you want to eat? ---. I don't mind. Whatever you have.
4. Where shall I sit? It's up to you. You can sit ---you like.
5. What sort of job are you looking for? ---. It doesn't matter.
6. What time shall I phone tomorrow? ---. I'll be in all day.
7. Who shall I invite to the party? I don't mind. --- you like.
8. Which newspaper shall I buy? ---. Whatever they have in the shop.
UNIT 85. No/none/any
A. No none nothing nobody/no one nowhere
You can use these negative words at the beginning of a sentence or alone:
* No cars are allowed in the city centre.
* None of this money is mine.
* 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.'
* Nobody (or No one) came to visit me while I was in hospital.
* 'Where are you going?' 'Nowhere. I'm staying here.'
You can also use these words after a verb, especially after be and have:
* The house is empty. There's nobody living there.
* She had no difficulty finding a job.
No/nothing/nobody etc. = not + any/anything/anybody etc.:
* We haven't got any money. (= We've got no money.)
* I didn't say anything. (= I said nothing.)
* She didn't tell anybody about her plans. (= She told nobody...)
* The station isn't anywhere near here. (= ... is nowhere near here)
When you use no/nothing/nobody etc., do not use a negative verb (isn't, didn't, can't etc.):
* I said nothing. (not 'I didn't say nothing')
* Nobody tells me anything. (not 'Nobody doesn't tell ...')
B. We also use any/anything/anybody etc. (without 'not') to mean 'it doesn't matter which/ hat/who' (see Unit 84D). Compare no- and any-:
* 'What do you want to eat?' 'Nothing. I'm not hungry.'
I'm so hungry. I could eat anything. (= it doesn't matter what)
* The exam was extremely difficult. Nobody passed. (= everybody failed)
The exam was very easy. Anybody could have passed. (= it doesn't matter who)
C. No and none
We use no + a noun. No = not a or not any:
* We had to walk home because there was no bus. (= there wasn't a bus)
* I can't talk to you now. I've got no time. (= I haven't got any time)
* There were no shops open. (= there weren't any shops open)
We use none alone (without a noun):
* 'How much money have you got?' 'None.' (= no money)
* All the tickets have been sold. There are none left. (= no tickets left)
Or we use none of ...:
none of these shops none of my money none of it/them/us/you
After none of + a plural word ('none of the shops', 'none of them' etc.) you can use a singular or a plural verb. A plural verb is more usual:
* None of the shops were (or was) open.
D. After nobody/no one you can use they/them/their:
* Nobody phoned, did they? (= did he or she)
* The party was a disaster. Nobody enjoyed themselves. (= himself or herself)
* No one in the class did their homework. (= his or her homework)
85.1 Answer these questions using none/nobody/nothing/nowhere.
1. What did you do? _Nothing._
2. Who were you talking to? ---
3. Where are you going? ---
4. How much luggage have you got? ---
5. How many children have they got? ---
6. Who did you meet? ---
7. What did you buy? ---
Now write full sentences using any/anybody/anything/anywhere.
8 (1) _I didn't do anything._
9. (2) I ---
10. (3) ---
11. (4) ---
12. (5) ---
13. (6) ---
14. (7) ---
85.2 Complete these sentences with no, none or any.
1. It was a public holiday, so there were _no_ shops open.
2. I haven't got _any_ money. Can you lend me some?
3. I couldn't make an omelette because there were --- eggs.
4. I couldn't make an omelette because there weren't --- eggs.
5. 'How many eggs have we got? --- I'll go and buy some from the shop if you like.'
6. We took a few photographs but --- of them were very good.
7. What a stupid thing to do! --- intelligent person would do such a thing.
8. I'll try and answer --- questions you ask me.
9. I couldn't answer --- of the questions they asked me.
10. We cancelled the party because --- of the people we invited were able to come.
85.3 Complete these sentences with no- or any- + -body/-thing/-where.
1. I don't want _anything_ to drink. I'm not thirsty.
2. The bus was completely empty. There was --- on it.
3. 'Where did you go for your holidays? --- I stayed at home.'
4. I went to the shops but I didn't buy ---.
5. 'What did you buy? '---. couldn't find --- I wanted.'
6. The town was still the same when I returned years later --- had changed.
7. Have you seen my watch? I've looked all over the house but I can't find it ---.
8. There was complete silence in the room. --- said ---.
85.4 Choose the right word.
1. She didn't tell _nobody/anybody_ about her plans. (anybody is correct)
2. The accident looked serious but fortunately _nobody/anybody_ was injured.
3. I looked out of the window but I couldn't see _nobody/anybody._
4. My job is very easy. _Nobody/Anybody_ could do it.
5. 'What's in that box?' _'Nothing/Anything._ It's empty.'
6. The situation is uncertain. _Nothing/Anything_ could happen.
7. I don't know _nothing/anything_ about economics.
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 2187