UNIT 66. See somebody do and see somebody doing
A. Study this example situation:
Tom got into his car and drove away. You saw this. You can say:
* I saw Tom get into his car and drive away.
In this structure we use get/drive/do etc. (infinitive without 'to'):
Somebody did something + I saw this = I saw somebody do something.
Note that we use the infinitive without to:
* We saw them go out. (not 'to go')
But after a passive ('they were seen') etc., we use to:
* They were seen to go out.
B. Study this example situation:
Yesterday you saw Ann. She was waiting for a bus. You can say:
* I saw Ann waiting for a bus.
In this structure we use ~ing (waiting):
Somebody was doing something + I saw this = I saw somebody doing something.
C. Study the difference in meaning between the two structures:
'I saw him do something' = he did something (past simple) and I saw this. I saw the complete action from beginning to end:
* He fell off the wall. I saw this. -> I saw him fall off the wall.
* The accident happened. Did you see this? -> Did you see the accident happen?
'I saw him doing something' = he was doing something (past continuous) and I saw this. I saw him when he was in the middle of doing it. This does not mean that I saw the complete action:
* He was walking along the street. + I saw this when I drove past in my car. = I saw him walking along the street.
Sometimes the difference is not important and you can use either form:
* I've never seen her dance. or I've never seen her dancing.
D. We use these structures with see and hear, and a number of other verbs:
* I didn't hear you come in.
* Liz suddenly felt something touch her on the shoulder.
* Did you notice anyone go out?
* I could hear it raining.
* The missing boys were last seen playing near the river.
* Listen to the birds singing!
* Can you smell something burning?
* I found Sue in my room reading my letters.
66.1 Complete the answers to the questions.
1. Did anybody go out?
I don't know. I didn't see _anybody go out._
2. Has Jill arrived yet?
Yes, I think I heard her ---
3. How do you know I took the money?
I know because I saw you ---
4. Did the doorbell ring?
I'm not sure. I didn't hear ---
5. Can Tom play the piano?
I've never heard ---
6. Did I lock the door when I went out?
Yes, you did. I saw ---
7. How did the woman fall in the river?
I don't know. I didn't see ---
66.2 In each of these situations you and a friend saw, heard or smelt something. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.
1. Look! There's Ann.
2. Look! There's Dave and Helen.
3. Look! There's Clare.
4. Listen That's Bill.
5. Can you smell burning? Yes! It's the dinner.
6. Look! There's Linda.
1. _We saw Ann waiting for a bus._
2. We saw Dave and Helen ---
3. We saw --- in a restaurant.
4. We heard ---
5. We could ---
66.3 Complete these sentences. Use one of these verbs (in the correct form):
climb come crawl cry cycle explode happen open run say slam sleep tell
.1 Listen to the birds _singing._
2. I didn't hear you _come_ in.
3. Did anybody see the accident ---?
4. We listened to the old man --- his story from beginning to end.
5. Listen! Can you hear a baby ---?
6. I looked out of the window and saw Tim on his bike ---. along the road.
7. 'Why did you turn round suddenly?' 'I thought I heard somebody --- my name.'
8. We watched the two men --- across the garden --- a window and --- through it into the house.
9. Everybody heard the bomb ---. It was a tremendous noise.
10. Oh! I can feel something --- up my leg! It must be an insect.
11. I heard somebody --- the door in the middle of the night. It woke me up.
12. When we got home, we found a cat --- on the kitchen table.
UNIT 67. ~ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.)
A. A clause is a part of a sentence. Some sentences have two or more clauses:
* Jim hurt his arm (main clause) playing tennis.(~ing clause)
* Feeling tired,(~ing clause) I went to bed early.(main clause)
'Playing tennis' and 'feeling tired' are ~ing clauses.
If the ~ing clause is first (as in the second example), we write a comma (,) between the clauses.
B. When two things happen at the same time, you can use ~ing for one of the verbs. The main clause usually comes first:
* I've just seen Carol. She's in the bar having a drink. (= she is in the bar and she is having a drink)
* A man ran out of the house shouting. (= he ran out of the house and he was shouting)
* Do something! Don't just stand there doing nothing!
We also use ~ing when one action happens during another action. We use ~ing for the longer action. The longer action is the second part of the sentence:
* Jim hurt his arm playing tennis. (= while he was playing)
* Did you cut yourself shaving? (= while you were shaving)
You can also use ~ing after while or when:
* Jim hurt his arm while playing tennis.
* Be careful when crossing the road. (= when you are crossing)
C. When one action happens before another action, we use having (done) for the first action:
* Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner.
* Having finished her work, she went home.
You can also say after ~ing:
* After finishing her work, she went home.
If one short action follows another short action, you can use the simple ~ing form (doing instead of having done) for the first action:
* Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.
D. You can use an ~ing clause to explain something or to say why somebody does something. The~ing clause usually comes first:
* Feeling tired, I went to bed early. (= because I felt tired)
* Being unemployed, he hasn't got much money. (= because he is unemployed)
* Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around. (= because she doesn't have a car)
* Having already seen the film twice, I didn't want to go to the cinema. (= because I had already seen it twice)
These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.
67.1 Join a sentence from Box A with one from Box B to make one sentence. Use an ~ing clause.
1. Carol was in the bar
2. Emma was sitting in an armchair.
3. Sue got home late.
4. Sarah went out.
5. Linda was in London for two years.
6. Mary walked round the town.
She was feeling very tired.
She looked at the sights and took
She said she would be back in an hour.
She was reading a book.
She Was having a drink.
She worked as a tourist guide.
1. _Carol was in the bar having a drink._
2. Emma was sitting ---
3. Sue ---
67.2 Make one sentence from two using an ~ing clause.
1. Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm. _Jim hurt; his arm playing tennis._
2. I was watching television. I fell asleep. I ---
3. The man slipped. He was getting off a bus. The man ---
4. I was walking home in the rain. I got wet. I ---
5. Margaret was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident. ---
6. Two firemen were overcome by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire. ---
67.3 Make sentences beginning Having ...
1. She finished her work. Then she went home.
_Having finished her work, she went home._
2. We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre.
3. They continued their Journey after they'd had dinner.
4. After Lucy had done all her shopping, she went for a cup of coffee.
67.4 Make sentences beginning ~ing or Not ~ing (like those in Section D). Sometimes you need to begin with Having (done something).
1. I felt tired. So I went to bed early.
_Feeling tired I went to bad early._
2. I thought they might be hungry. So I offered them something to eat.
3. She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to stay in this country.
4. I didn't know his address. So I wasn't able to contact him.
5. Sarah has travelled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries.
6. The man wasn't able to understand English. So he didn't know what I wanted.
7. We had spent nearly all our money. So we couldn't afford to stay in a hotel.
UNIT 68. Countable and uncountable nouns (1)
A. A noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:
* I eat a banana every day.
* I like bananas.
Banana is a countable noun.
A countable noun can be singular (banana)or plural (bananas).
Countable nouns are things we can count. So we can say 'one banana', 'two bananas' etc.
Examples of nouns usually countable:
* There's a beach near here.
* Ann was singing a song.
* Have you got a ten-pound note?
* It wasn't your fault. It was an accident.
* There are no batteries in the radio.
* We haven't got enough cups.
* I eat rice every day.
* I like rice.
Rice is an uncountable noun.
An uncountable noun has only one form(rice).
Uncountable nouns are things we cannot count. We cannot say 'one rice', 'two rices' etc.
Examples of nouns usually uncountable:
* There's sand in my shoes.
* Ann was listening to (some) music.
* Have you got any money?
* It wasn't your fault. It was bad luck.
* There is no electricity in this house.
* We haven't got enough cups.
* We haven't got enough water.
B. #1 You can use a/an with singular countable nouns:
a beach a student an umbrella
You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/the/my etc.):
* I want a banana. (not 'I want banana')
* There's been an accident. (not 'There's been accident')
You can use plural countable nouns alone:
* I like bananas. (= bananas in general)
* Accident can be prevented.
See also Unit 74.
#2 You cannot normally use a/an with uncountable nouns. We do not say 'a sand' or 'a music'. But you can often use a ... of:
a bowl of rice a drop of water a piece of music a game of tennis etc.
You can use uncountable nouns alone (without the/my/some etc.):
* I eat rice every day.
* There's blood on your shirt.
* Can you hear music?
See also Unit 74.
C. #1 You can use some and any plural countable nouns:
* We sang some songs.
* Did you buy any apples?
We use many and few with plural countable nouns:
* We didn't take many photographs.
* I have a few jobs to do.
#2 You can use some and any with uncountable nouns:
* We listened to some music.
* Did you buy any apple juice?
We use much and little with uncountable nouns:
* We didn't do much shopping.
* I have a little work to do.
68.1 Some of these sentences need a/an. Correct the sentences which are wrong. If the sentence is already correct, put 'RIGHT'.
1. Jim goes everywhere by bike. He hasn't got car.
2. Ann was listening to music when I arrived.
3. We went to very nice restaurant last weekend.
4. I clean my teeth with toothpaste.
5. I use toothbrush to clean my teeth.
6. Can you tell me if there's bank near here?
7. My brother works for insurance company in London.
8. I don't like violence.
9. Can you smell paint?
10. We need petrol. I hope we come to petrol station soon.
11. I wonder if you can help me. I have problem.
12. John has got interview for job tomorrow.
13. Liz doesn't usually wear jewellery but yesterday she was wearing necklace.
14. I think volleyball is very good game.
68.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Use a/an where necessary.
accident biscuit blood coat decision electricity key letter moment question sugar
1. It wasn't your fault. It was _an accident._
2. Listen! Can you hear _music?_
3. I couldn't get into the house because I didn't have ---.
4. It's very warm today. Why are you wearing ---?
5. Do you take --- in your coffee?
6. Are you hungry? Would you like --- with your coffee?
7. Our lives would be very difficult without ---.
8. I didn't phone them. I wrote --- instead.
9. The heart pumps --- through the body.
10. Excuse me, but can I ask you ---?
11. I'm not ready yet. Can you wait. --- please?
12. We can't delay much longer. We have to make --- soon.
68.3 Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Sometimes the word needs to be plural (-s).
air country day friend meat language letter patience people photograph queue space
1. I had my camera but I didn't take many _photographs._
2. There are seven --- in a week.
3. A vegetarian is a person who doesn't eat ---.
4. Outside the cinema there was --- of people waiting to see the film.
5. I'm not very good at writing ---.
6. Last night I went out with some --- of mine.
7. There were very few --- in the shops today. They were almost empty.
8. I'm going out for a walk. I need some fresh ---.
9. George always wants things quickly. He's got no ---.
10. Do you speak any foreign ---?
11. Jane travels a lot. She has been to many ---.
12. Our flat is very small. We haven't got much ---.
UNIT 69. Countable and uncountable nouns (2)
A. Many nouns can be used as countable or uncountable nouns, usually with a difference in meaning. Compare:
* Did you hear a noise just now? (= a particular noise)
* I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper)
* There's a hair in my soup! (= one single hair)
* You can stay with us. There is a spare room. (= a room in a house)
* I had some interesting experiences while I was away. (= things that happened to me)
* Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time!
* I can't work here. There's too much noise. (not 'too many noises')
* I need some paper to write on. (= material for writing on)
* You've got very long hair. (not 'hairs') (= all the hair on your head)
* You can't sit here. There isn't room. (= space)
* They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience. (not 'experiences')
* I can't wait. I haven't got time.
B. Coffee/tea/beer/juice etc. (drinks) are normally uncountable:
* I don't drink coffee very often.
But they can be countable when you are thinking of a cup/a glass etc. So you can say:
* (in a restaurant) Two coffees and an orange juice, please.
C. There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but often countable in other languages. For example:
accommodation behaviour damage luck permission traffic bread furniture luggage progress weather chaos information news scenery work
These nouns are usually uncountable, so:
i) you cannot use a/an with them (you cannot say 'a bread', 'an advice' etc.) and
ii) they are not normally plural (we do not say 'breads', 'advices' etc.).
* I'm going to buy some bread. or .. a loaf of bread. (not 'a bread')
* Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. (not 'a good weather')
* Where are you going to put all your furniture? (not 'furnitures')
News is uncountable, not plural:
* The news was very depressing. (not 'the news were')
Travel (noun) means 'travelling in general'. You cannot say 'a travel' to mean a journey or a trip:
* We had a very good journey. (not 'a good travel')
Compare these countable and uncountable nouns:
* I'm looking for a job.
* What a beautiful view!
* It's a nice day today.
* We had a lot of bags and cases.
* These chairs are mine.
* It was a good suggestion.
* I'm looking for work. (not 'a work')
* What beautiful scenery!
* It's nice weather today.
* We had a lot of luggage. (not 'luggages')
* This furniture is mine.
* It was good advice.
69.1 Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct?
1. 'Did you hear _noise/a noise- just now?' 'No, I didn't hear anything.' ('a noise' is correct)
2. a. If you want to know the news, you can read _paper/a paper._
b. I want to write some letters but I haven't got _a paper/any paper_ to write on.
3. a. I thought there was somebody in the house because there was _light/a light_ on inside.
b. _Light/A light_ comes from the sun.
4. a. I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have _time/a time_ for breakfast.
b. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, we had _wonderful time/a wonderful time._'
5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful _advice/advices._
6. We had _very good weather/a very good weather_ while we were on holiday.
7. We were very unfortunate. We had _bad luck/a bad luck._
8. It's very difficult to find a _work/job_ at the moment.
9. Our _travel/journey_ from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.
10. When the fire alarm rang, there was _total chaos/a total chaos._
11. I had to buy _a/some_ bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.
12. Bad news _don't/doesn't_ make people happy.
13. _Your hair is/Your hairs are_ too long. You should have it/them cut.
14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but _the damage/the damages_ to the car _was/were_ quite bad.
69.2 Complete the sentences using these words. Sometimes you need the plural (-s).
chair experience experience furniture hair information job luggage permission progress work
1. I didn't have much _luggage_--just two small bags.
2. They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of ---
3. There is room for everybody to sit down. There are plenty of ---
4. We have no ---, not even a bed or a table.
5. 'What does Alan look like?' He's got a long beard and very short ---
6. Carla's English is better than it was. She's made ---
7. George is unemployed. He's looking for a ---
8. George is unemployed. He's looking for ---
9. If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for ---
10. I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough ---
11. Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her ---
69.3 What do you say in these situations? Complete the sentences using one of the words from Section C.
1. Your friends have just arrived at the station. You can't see any suitcases or bags.
You ask them: Have _you got luggage?_
2. You go into the tourist office. You want to know about places to see in the town. You say:
I'd like ---
3. You are a student at school. You want your teacher to advise you about which examinations to take. You say:
Can you give me ---?
4. You want to watch the news on TV but you don't know what time it is on. You ask your friend:
What time ---?
5. You are standing at the top of a mountain. You can see a very long way. It is lovely. You say:
It ---, isn't it?
6. You look out of the window. The weather is horrible: cold, wet and windy. You say to your friend:
Date: 2015-02-03; view: 2448