You can use 'prefer to (do)' or 'prefer ~ing' to say what you prefer in general:
* I don't like cities. I prefer to live in the country. or I prefer living in the country.
Study the differences in structure after prefer. We say:
I prefer something to something else.
I prefer doing something to doing something else.
but I prefer to do something rather than (do) something else.
* I prefer this coat to the coat you were wearing yesterday.
* I prefer driving to travelling by train.
but * I prefer to drive rather than travel by train.
* Ann prefers to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.
B. Would prefer (I'd prefer...)
We use 'would prefer' to say what somebody wants in a particular situation (not in general):
* 'Would you prefer tea or coffee?' 'Coffee, please.'
We say 'would prefer to do' (not 'doing'):
* 'Shall we go by train?' 'Well, I'd prefer to go by car.' (not 'I'd prefer going')
* I'd prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go to the cinema.
C. Would rather (I'd rather...)
Would rather (do) = would prefer (to do). After would rather we use the infinitive without to.
* 'Shall we go by train?' 'I'd prefer to go by car.'
* 'Shall we go by train?' 'I'd rather go by car.' (not 'to go')
* 'Would you rather have tea or coffee?' 'Coffee, please.'
The negative is 'I'd rather not (do something)':
* I'm tired. I'd rather not go out this evening, if you don't mind.
* 'Do you want to go out this evening?' 'I'd rather not.'
Study the structure after would rather:
I'd rather do something than (do) something else.
* I'd rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.
D. I'd rather you did something
When you want somebody to do something, you can say 'I'd rather you did something':
* 'Shall I stay here?' 'I'd rather you came with us.'
* 'Shall I tell them the news?' 'No. I'd rather they didn't know.'
* Shall I tell them or would you rather they didn't know?
In this structure we use the past (came, did etc.), but the meaning is present or future, not past.
* I'd rather cook the dinner now.
but * I'd rather you cooked the dinner now. (not 'I'd rather you cook')
The negative is 'I'd rather you didn't ...':
* I'd rather you didn't tell anyone what I said.
* 'Do you mind if I smoke?' 'I'd rather you didn't.'
58.1 Which do you prefer? Write sentences using 'I prefer (something) to (something else)'. Put the verb into the correct form where necessary.
1. (drive/travel by train) _I prefer driving to travelling by train._
2. (tennis/football) I prefer ---
3. (phone people/write letters) I --- to ---
4. (go to the cinema/watch films on TV) ---
Now rewrite sentences 3 and 4 using the structure 'I prefer (to do something)...'.
5. (1) I prefer to drive rather travel by train.
6. (3) I prefer to ---
7. (4) ---
58.2 Write sentences using I'd prefer ... or I'd rather... + one of the following:
eat at home get a taxi go alone go for a swim listen to some music stand think a out it for a while wait a few minutes wait till later
1. Shall we walk home? (prefer) _I'd prefer to get a taxi._
2. Do you want to eat now? (rather) _I'd rather wait till later._
3. Shall we watch TV? (prefer) ---
4. What about a game of tennis? (rather) ---
5. Shall we leave now? (rather) ---
6. Do you want to go to a restaurant? (prefer) ---
7. I think we should decide now? (rather) ---
8. Would you like to sit down? (rather) ---
9. Do you want me to come with you? (prefer) ---
Now write sentences using than and rather than.
10. (get a taxi/walk home) I'd prefer _to get a taxi rather than walk home._
11. (go for a swim/play tennis)
I'd rather ---
12. (wait a few minutes/leave now)
I'd rather ---
13. (eat at home/go to a restaurant)
I'd prefer ---
14. (think about it for a while/decide now)
I'd rather ---
58.3 Complete the sentences using would you rather I ...
1. Are you going to cook the dinner or would you rather I cooked it?
2. Are you going to tell Ann what happened or would you rather ---?
3. Are you going to do the shopping or ---?
4. Are you going to answer the phone or ---?
58.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.
1. Shall I tell Ann the news?' 'No, I'd rather she didn't know.'
2. Do you want me to go now or would you rather I --- here?
3. Do you want to go out this evening or would you rather --- at home?
4. This is a private letter addressed to me. I'd rather you --- read it.
5. It's quite a nice house but I'd rather it --- a bit bigger.
6. Do you mind if I turn on the radio?' 'I'd rather you --- I'm trying to study.'
UNIT 59. Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + ~ing
A. If a preposition (in/for/about etc.) is followed by a verb, the verb ends in ~ing. For example:
Are you interested in working for us?
I'm not very good at learning languages.
She must be fed up with studying.
What are the advantages of having a car?
This knife is only for cutting bread.
How about playing tennis tomorrow?
I bought a new bicycle instead of going away on holiday.
Carol went to work in spite of feeling ill.
You can also say 'interested in somebody (do)ing .....', fed up with you (do)ing...' etc.:
* I'm fed up with you telling me what to do.
B. Note the use of the following prepositions + ~ing:
before ~ing and after ~ing:
* Before going out, I phoned Sarah. (not 'Before to go out')
* What did you do after leaving school?
You can also say 'Before I went out ...' and '... after you left school'.
by ~ing (to say bow something happens):
* The burglars got into the house by breaking a window and climbing in.
* You can improve your English by reading more.
* She made herself ill by not eating properly.
* I ran ten kilometer without stopping.
* They climbed through the window without anybody seeing them. (or ... without being seen.)
* She needs to work without people disturbing her. (or ... without being disturbed.)
* It's nice to go on holiday without having to worry about money.
C. To ~ing
To is often part of the infinitive (to do/to see etc.):
* We decided to go out.
* Would you like to play tennis?
But to is also a preposition (like in/for/about/from etc.). For example:
* We drove from London to Edinburgh.
* I prefer tea to coffee.
* Are you looking forward to the weekend?
If a preposition is followed by a verb, the verb ends in ~ing; (in doing/about going etc.- see Section A). So, when to is a preposition and it is followed by a verb, you must say to ~ing:
* I prefer driving to travelling by train. (not 'to travel')
* Are you looking forward to seeing Ann again? (not 'looking forward to see')
For be/get used to ~ing, see Unit 60.
59.1 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the sentence(s) in brackets.
1. (Why is it useful to have a car?)
What are the advantages of _having a car_?
2. (I don't intend to lend you any money.)
I have no intention of ---
3. (Helen has a good memory for names.)
Helen is good at ---
4. (Mark won't pass the exam. He has no chance.)
Mark has no chance of ---
5. (Did you get into trouble because you were late?)
Did you get into trouble for ---
6. (We didn't eat at home. We went to a restaurant instead.)
Instead of ---
7. (Tom thinks that working is better than doing nothing.)
Tom prefers working to ---
8. (They got married. They didn't tell any of their friends.)
They got married without ---
9. (Our team played well but we lost the game.)
Our team lost the game in spite of ---
59.2 Complete the sentences using by ~ing. Use one of the following (with the verb in the correct form): borrow too much money break a window drive too fast put some posters up on the walls stand on a chair turn a key
1. The burglars got into the house _by breaking a window._
2. I was able to reach the top shelf ---
3. You start the engine of a car ---
4. Kevin got himself into financial difficulty ---
5. You can put people's lives in danger ---
6. We made the room look nicer ---
59.3 Complete the sentences with a suitable word. Use only one word each time.
1. I ran ten kilometers without _stopping._
2. He left the hotel without --- his bill.
3. It's a nice morning. How about --- for a walk?
4. I was surprised that she left without --- goodbye to anyone.
5. Before --- to bed, I like to have a hot drink.
6. We were able to translate the letter into English without --- a dictionary.
7. It was a very long journey. I was very tired after --- on a train for 36 hours.
8. I was annoyed because the decision was made without anybody --- me.
9. After --- the same job for ten years, I felt I needed a change.
59.4 For each, situation write a sentence with I'm (not) looking forward to.
1. You are going on holiday next week. How do you feel about this?
_I'm looking forward to going on holiday._
2. Diane is a good friend of yours and she is coming to visit you soon. So you will see her again soon. How do you feel about this?
3. You are going to the dentist tomorrow. You don't like visits to the dentist. How do you feet about this?
I'm not ---
4. Carol is a student at school. She hates it but she is leaving school next summer. How does she feel about this? ---
5. You've arranged to play tennis tomorrow. You like tennis. How do you feel about this? ---
UNIT 60. Be/get used to something (I'm used to ...)
A. Study this example situation:
Jane is American but she has lived in Britain for three years. When she first drove a car in Britain, she found it very difficult because she had to drive on the left instead of on the right. Driving on the left was strange and difficult for her because:
She wasn't used to it.
She wasn't used to driving on the left.
But after a lot of practice, driving on the left became less strange. So:
She got used to driving on the left.
Now after three years, it's no problem for Jane:
She is used to driving on the left.
I'm used to something = it is not new or strange for me:
* Frank lives alone. He doesn't mind this because he has lived alone for 15 years. It is not strange for him. He is used to it. He is used to living alone.
* I bought some new shoes. They felt a bit strange at first because I wasn't used to them.
* Our new flat is on a very busy street. I expect we'll get used to the noise, but at the moment it's very disturbing.
* Diane has a new job. She has to get up much earlier now than before - at 6.30. She finds this difficult because she isn't used to getting up so early.
* Brenda's husband is often away from home. She doesn't mind this. She is used to him being away.
B. After be/get used you cannot use the infinitive.(to do/to drive etc.). We say:
* She is used to driving on the left. (not 'she is used to drive')
When we say 'I am used to...', 'to' is a preposition, not a part of the infinitive (see Unit 59C). So we say:
* Frank is used to living alone. (not 'Frank is used to live')
* Jane had to get used to driving on the left. (not 'get used to drive')
C. Do not confuse I am used to doing (be/get used to) and I used to do. They are different in structure and meaning.
I am used to (doing) something = something isn't strange or new for me:
* I am used to the weather in this country.
* I am used to driving on the left because I've lived in Britain for a long time.
I used to do something = I did something regularly in the past but no longer do it (see Unit 18). You can use this structure only for the past, not for the present. The structure is 'I used to do' (not 'I am used to do'):
* I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike.
* We used to live in a small village, but now we live in London.
60.1 Read the situations and complete the sentences. Use (be/get) used to as in the example.
1. Jane is American. She came to Britain and at first she found driving on the left difficult.
When she arrived in Britain, she _wasn't used to driving_ on the left, but she soon _got used to_ it. Now she has no problems. She _is used to driving_ on the left.
2. Juan is Spanish and came to live in England. In Spain he always had dinner late in the evening, but in England dinner was at 6 o'clock. This was very early for him. When Juan first came to England, he --- dinner so early, but after some time he --- it. Now he finds it quite normal. He --- at six o'clock.
3. Julia is a nurse. A year ago she started working nights. At first she found it hard. At first Julia didn't like it. She --- nights and it took her a few months to --- it. Now, after a year, she's quite happy. She --- nights.
60.2 What do you say in these situations? Use I'm (not) used to... .
1. You live alone. You don't mind this. You have always lived alone.
FRIEND: Do you get a bit lonely sometimes? You: No, I'm used to living alone.
2. You steep on the floor. You don't mind this. You have always slept on the floor.
FRIEND: Wouldn't you prefer to sleep in a bed? You: No, I ---
3. You have to work hard. This is not a problem for you. You have always worked hard.
FRIEND: You have to work very hard in your job, don't you? YOU: Yes, but I don't mind that. I ---
4. You normally go to bed early. Last night you went to bed very late (for you) and as a result you are very tired this morning.
FRIEND: You look tired this morning. YOU: Yes, ---
60.3 Read the situation and complete the sentences using used to.
1. Some friends of yours have just moved into a flat on a busy street. It is very noisy.
They'll have to _get used to the noise._
2. Jack once went to the Middle East. It was very difficult for him at first because of the heat.
He wasn't ---
3. Sue moved from a big house to a much smaller one. She found it strange at first.
She had to --- in a much smaller house.
4. The children at school had a new teacher. She was different from the teacher before her but this wasn't a problem for the children. The children soon ---
5. Somebody from Britain is thinking of going to live in your country. Warn him/her!
You would have to ---
60.4 (Section Q Complete the sentences using only one word each time.
1. Jane had to get used to driving on the left.
2. We used to live in a small village but now we live in London.
3. Tom used to --- a lot of coffee. Now he prefers tea.
4. I feet very full after that meal. I'm not used to --- so much.
5. I wouldn't like to share an office. I'm used to --- my own office.
6. I used to --- a car but I sold it a few months ago.
7. When we were children, we used to --- swimming every day.
8. There used to --- a cinema here but it was knocked down a few years ago.
9. I'm the boss here! I'm not used to --- told what to do.
UNIT 61. Verb + preposition + ~ing (succeed in ~ing/accuse somebody of ~ing etc.)
A. Many verbs have the structure verb + preposition (in/for/about etc.) + object. For example:
verb + preposition + object
We talked about the problem.
You must apologize for what you said.
If the object is another verb, it ends in ~ing:
verb + preposition + ~ing (object)
We talked going to America.
She apologized for not telling the truth.
Here are some more verbs with this structure:
Have you succeeded in finding a job yet?
They insisted on paying for the meal.
I'm thinking of buying a house.
I wouldn't dream of asking them for money.
She doesn't approve of gambling.
We have decided against moving to London.
Do you feel like going out tonight?
look forward (to)
I'm looking forward to meeting her.
We say 'apologize to somebody for...':
* She apologized to me for not telling the truth. (not 'she apologized me')
B. With some of the verbs in A, you can use the structure verb + preposition + somebody + ~ing:
verb + preposition somebody + ~ing
She doesn't approve of me gambling.
We are all looking forward to Liz coming home.
C. The following verbs can have the structure verb + object + preposition + ~ing:
verb + object + preposition + ~ing
I congratulated Ann on passing the exam.
They accused me of telling lies.
Nobody suspected the man of being a spy.
What prevented him from coming to see us?
The police stopped everyone from leaving the building.
I forgot to thank them for helping me.
Please forgive me for not writing to you.
They warned us against buying the car.
You can also say 'stop somebody doing' (without from). So you can say:
* You can't stop me doing what I want. or ... stop me from doing what I want.
Some of these verbs are often used in the passive. For example:
* I was accused of telling lies.
* The man was suspected of being a spy.
* We were warned against buying the car.
61.1 Complete each sentence using only one word.
1. Our neighbours apologized for _making_ so much noise.
2. I feel lazy. I don't feel like --- any work.
3. I wanted to go out alone but Joe insisted on --- with me.
4. I'm fed up with my job. I'm thinking of --- something else.
5. We have decided against --- a new car because we can't really afford it.
6. I hope you write to me soon. I'm looking forward to --- from you.
7. The weather was extremely bad and this prevented us from --- out.
8. The man who has been arrested is suspected of --- a false passport.
9. I think you should apologize to Sue for --- so rude to her.
10. Some parents don't approve of their children --- a lot of television.
11. I'm sorry I can't come to your party but thank you very much for --- me.
61.2 Complete the sentences using a preposition + one of the following verbs (in the correct form): cause escape go help interrupt live play solve spend walk
1. Do you feel _like going_ out this evening?
2. It took us a long time but we finally succeeded --- the problem.
3. I've always dreamed --- in a small house by the sea.
4. The driver of the other car accused me --- the accident.
5. There was a fence around the lawn to stop people --- on the grass.
6. Forgive me --- you but may I ask you something?
7. Where are you thinking --- your holiday this year?
8. The guards weren't able to prevent the prisoner ---
9. I wanted to cook the meal by myself but Dave insisted --- me.
10. I'm sorry we've had to cancel our game of tennis tomorrow. I was really looking for-ward ---.
61.3 Complete the sentences on the right.
1. It was nice of you to help me. Thanks very much.
George thanked _me for helping him._
2. I'll drive you to the station. I insister.
TOM insisted ---
Jim congratulated me ---
4. It was nice of you to come to see me. Thank you.
Mrs Bond thanked ---
5. Dont stay at the hotel near the airport.
I warned ---
6. I'm sorry I didn't phone you earlier.
Mary apologized ---
7. You're selfish.
Jane accused ---
UNIT 62. Expressions + ~ing
A. When these expressions are followed by a verb, the verb ends in ~ing:
It's no use .../It's no good ...:
* There's nothing you can do about the situation, so it's no use worrying about it.
* It's no good trying to persuade me. You won't succeed.
There's no point in ...:
* There's no point in having a car if you never use it.
* There was no point in waiting any longer, so we went.
It's (not) worth ...:
* I live only a short walk from here, so it's not worth taking a taxi.
* It was so late when we got home, it wasn't worth going to bed.
You can say 'a film is worth seeing', 'a book is worth reading', etc.
* What was the film like? Was it worth seeing?
* I don't think newspapers are worth reading.
B. (Have) difficulty ~ing
We say 'have difficulty doing something' (not 'to do'):
* I had difficulty finding a place to live. (not 'I had difficulty to find')
* Did you have any difficulty getting a visa?
* People often have great difficulty reading my writing.
We usually say 'have difficulty' (not 'have difficulties'):
* I'm sure you'll have no difficulty passing the exam. (not 'have no difficulties')
C. We use ~ing after:
a waste of money .../a waste of time ... (to ... is also possible):
* It was a waste of time reading that book. It was rubbish.
* It's a waste of money buying things you don't need.
spend/waste (time) ...
* He spent hours trying to repair the clock.
* I waste a lot of time daydreaming.
(be) busy ...:
* She said she couldn't see me. She was too busy doing other things.
D. Go swimming/go fishing etc.
We use go ~ing for a number of activities (especially sports). For example, you can say:
go swimming/go sailing/go fishing/go climbing/go skiing/go jogging etc.
also: go shopping/go sightseeing.
* I'd like to go skiing.
* When did you last go shopping?
* I've never been sailing. (For been and gone, see Unit 7D.)
You can also say 'come swimming/come skiing' etc.:
* Why don't you come swimming with us?
62.1 Complete the sentences on the right.
1. Shall we get a taxi home?
No, it isn't far. It's not worth _getting a taxi._
2. If you need help, why don't you ask Tom?
It's no use ---. He won't be able to help us.
3. I don't really want to go out tonight.
Well, stay at home! There's no point --- if you don't want to.
4. Shall I phone Ann now?
No, it's no good ---. She won't be at home.
5. Are you going to complain about what happened?
No, it's not worth ---. Nobody will do anything about it.
6. Do you ever read newspapers?
No. I think it's a waste ---
62.2 Make sentences with worth ~ing or not worth ~ing. Choose one of these verbs:
consider keep read repair see visit
1. The film isn't very good. _It's not worth seeing._
2. It would cost too much to repair this watch. It's not worth ---
3. If you have time, you should go to the museum. It's worth ---
4. It's quite an interesting suggestion ---
5. There's an interesting article in the paper today. ---
6. We can throw these old clothes away. They ---
62.3 Make sentences beginning There's no point... .
1. Why have a car if you never use it? There's no point in having a car if you never use it.
2. Don't eat if you're not hungry.
There's no ---
3. Why work if you don't need money?
4. Don't study if you feet tired.
62.4 Write sentences using difficulty.
1. I managed to get a visa but it was difficult.
_I had difficulty getting a visa._
2. I can't remember people's names.
I have difficulty ---
3. Lucy managed to get a job without difficulty.
She had no ---
4. Do you find it difficult to understand him?
Do you have ---
5. It won't be difficult to get a ticket for the concert.
You won't have any ---
62.5 Complete the sentences. Use only one word each time.
1. It's a waste of money buying things you don't need.
2. Every morning I spend about an hour --- the newspaper.
3. 'What's Carol doing?' 'She's busy --- letters.'
4. I think you waste too much time --- television.
5. There's a beautiful view from that hill. It is worth --- to the top.
62.6 Complete these sentences with one of the following (with the verb in the correct form):
go skiing go shopping go swimming go sailing go riding
1. Barry lives by the sea and he's got a boat, so he often _goes sailing._
2. There's plenty of snow in the mountains so we'll be able to ---
3. It was a very hot day, so we --- in the river.
4. Margaret has got two horses. She often ---
5. The shops are shut now. It's too late to ---
UNIT 63. To ..., for ... and so that ... (purpose)
A. We use to ... to say why somebody does something (= the purpose of an action):
* 'Why did you go out?' 'To post a letter.'
* A friend of mine phoned to invite me to a party.
* We shouted to warn everybody of the danger.
We use to... to say why something exists or why somebody has/wants/needs something:
* This wall is to keep people out of the garden.
* The President has a team of bodyguards to protect him.
* I need a bottle opener to open this bottle.
B. We use to ... to say what can be done or must be done with something:
* It's difficult to find a place to park in the city centre. (= a place where you can park)
* Would you like something to eat?
* Have you got much work to do? (= work that you must do)
* I get lonely if there's nobody to talk to.
Also: money/time/chance/opportunity/energy/courage etc. to (do something):
* They gave us some money to buy some food.
* Do you have much opportunity to practise your English?
* I need a few days to think about your proposal.
C. For ... and to ...
* I'm going to Spain for a holiday.
but I'm going to Spain to learn Spanish. (not 'for learn Spanish', not 'for learning Spanish')
We use for + noun (for a holiday) but to + verb (to learn). Some more examples:
* What would you like for dinner?
but What would you like to eat? (not 'for eat')
* Let's go to the pool for a swim.
but Let's go to the pool to have a swim.
Note that you can say ... for (somebody) to (do something):
* There weren't any chairs for us to sit on, so we had to sit on the floor.
You can use for ~ing to say what the general purpose of a thing is. To... is also possible:
* This knife is only for cutting bread. (or ... to cut bread.)
You can use What ... for? to ask about purpose:
* What is this switch for?
* What did you do that for?
D. So that
Sometimes you have to use so that for purpose. We use so that (not to ...):
i) when the purpose is negative (so that ... won't/wouldn't):
* I hurried so that I wouldn't be late. (= because I didn't want to be late)
* Leave early so that you won't (or don't) miss the bus.
ii) with can and could (so that ... can/could)
* She's learning English so that she can study in Canada.
* We moved to London so that we could visit our friends more often.
iii) when one person does something so that another person does something else:
* I gave her my address so that she could contact me.
* He wore glasses and a false beard so that nobody would recognize him.
63.1 Use a sentence from Box A and a sentence from Box B to make a new sentence.
1. I shouted
2. I had to go to the bank
3. I'm saving money
4. I went into hospital
5. I'm wearing two pullovers
6. I phoned the police station
I want to keep warm
I wanted to report that my car had been stolen
I want to go to Canada
I had to have an operation
I needed to get some money
I wanted to warn people of danger
1. _I shouted to warn people of the danger._
2. I had to go to the bank ---
3. I ---
63.2 Complete these sentences using a suitable verb.
1. The President has a team of bodyguards _to protect_ him.
2. I didn't have enough time --- the newspaper today.
3. I came home by taxi. I didn't have the energy ---
4. 'Would you like something ---?' 'Yes, please. A cup of coffee.'
5. We need a bag --- these things in.
6. There will be a meeting next week --- the problem.
7. I wish we had enough money --- a new car.
8. I saw Helen at the party but we didn't have a chance --- to each other.
9. I need some new clothes. I haven't got anything nice ---
10. They've just passed their exams. They're having a party ---
11. I can't do all this work alone. I need somebody --- me.
63.3 Put in to or for.
1. I'm going to Spain _for_ a holiday.
2. You need a lot of experience --- this job.
3. You need a lot of experience --- do this job.
4. We'll need more time --- make a decision.
5. I went to the dentist --- a check-up.
6. I had to put on my glasses --- read the letter.
7. Do you wear glasses --- reading?
8. I wish we had a garden --- the children --- play in.
63.4 Write sentences with so that.
1. I hurried. I didn't want to be late.
_I hurried so that I wouldn't be late._
2. We wore warm clothes. We didn't want to get cold.
We wore ---
3. The man spoke very slowly. He wanted me to understand what he said.
The man ---
4. I whispered. I didn't want anybody else to here our conversation.
--- nobody ---
5. Please arrive early. We want to be able to start the meeting on time.
6. She locked the door. She didn't want to be disturbed.
7. I slowed down. I wanted the car behind to be able to overtake.
UNIT 64. Adjective + to ...
A. Difficult to understand etc.
Compare sentences a and b:
* Jim doesn't speak very clearly. It is difficult to understand him. (a)
* Jim doesn't speak very clearly. He is difficult to understand. (b)
Sentences a and b have the same meaning. But note that we say:
* He is difficult to understand. (not 'He is difficult to understand him.')
You can use the structures in the box with:
difficult easy hard impossible dangerous safe expensive cheap and a number of other adjectives (for example, nice/interesting/exciting):
* Do you think it is safe to drink this water?
Do you think this water is safe to drink? (not 'to drink it')
* Your writing is awful. It is impossible to read it. (= to read your writing)
Your writing is impossible to read. (not 'to read it')
* I like being with Jill. It's very interesting to talk to her.
Jill is very interesting to talk to. (not 'to talk to her')
You can also use this structure with an adjective + noun:
* This is a difficult question (for me) to answer. (not 'to answer it')
B. (It's) nice (of you) to...
You can use this structure to say what you think of what somebody does:
* It was nice of you to take me to the station. Thank you very much.
You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:
kind clever sensible mean silly stupid careless unfairV considerate:
* It's silly of Mary to give up her job when she needs the money.
* I think it was very unfair of him to criticise me.
C. (I'm) sorry to ...
You can use this structure to say how somebody reacts to something:
* I was sorry to hear that your father is ill.
You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example:
happy glad pleased delighted sad disappointed surprised amazed astonished relieved:
* Was Tom surprised to see you when you went to see him?
* We were delighted to get your letter last week.
D. The first (person) to know, the next train to arrive
We use to ... after the first/second/third etc. and also after the next, the last, the only:
* If I have any more news, you will be the first (person) to know.
* The next train to arrive at platform 4 will be the 6.50 to Cardiff.
* Everybody was late except me. I was the only one to arrive on time.
E. You can say that something is sure/certain/bound/likely to happen:
* She's very intelligent. She's sure/certain/bound to pass the exam.
* I'm likely to be late home this evening. (= I will probably be late home)
64.1 (Section A) Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown.
1. It's difficult to understand him.
He _is difficult to understand._
2. It's quite easy to use this machine.
This machine is ---
3. It was very difficult to open the window.
The window ---
4. It's impossible to translate some words.
Some words ---
5. It's not safe to stand on that chair.
That chair ---
6. It's expensive to maintain a car.
64.2 (Section A) Complete the second sentence using the adjective in brackets. Use a/an +adjective + noun + to ... (as in the example).
1. I couldn't answer the question. (difficult) It was _a difficult question to answer._
2. Everybody makes that mistake. (easy)
It's an ---
3. I like living in this place. (nice)
It's a ---
4. We enjoyed watching the game. (good)
It was ---
64.3 (Section B) Make a new sentence beginning It ... Use one of these adjectives each time:
careless considerate kind nice
1. You did my shopping for me.
_It was kind of you to do my shopping for me._
2. You make the same mistake again and again.
3. Don and jenny invited me to stay with them.
4. John made so much noise when I was trying to sleep.
It wasn't very ---
64.4 (Section C) Use the following words to complete these sentences:
sorry/hear glad/hear delighted/get surprised/see
1. We _were delighted to get_ your letter last week.
2.Thank you for your letter. I --- that you're keeping well.
3. We --- Pauline at the party. We didn't expect her to come.
4. I --- that your mother isn't well. I hope she gets well soon.
64.5 (Section D) Complete the second sentence using the words in brackets + to ...
1. Nobody left before me. (the first)
I was _the first person to leave._
2. Everybody else arrived before Paul. (the last)
Paul was the ---
3. Fiona passed the exam. All the other students failed. (the only)
Fiona was ---
4. I complained to the restaurant manager about the service. Another customer had already complained before me. (the second)
I was ---
5. Nell Armstrong walked on the moon in 1969. Nobody had done this before him. (the first)
Neil Armstrong was ---
64.6 (Section E) Complete these sentences using the word in brackets and a suitable verb.
1. Diane is very intelligent. She _is bound to pass_ the exam. (bound)
2. I'm not surprised you're tired. After such a long journey you --- tired. (bound)
3. Tom's got a very bad memory. He --- what you told him. (sure)
4. I don't think you need to take an umbrella. It --- (not likely)
5. The holidays begin this weekend. There --- a lot of traffic on the roads. (likely)
UNIT 65. To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + ~ing (afraid of ~ing)
A. Afraid to (do) and afraid of (do)ing
I am afraid to do something = I don't want to do it because it is dangerous or the result could be bad. We use afraid to do for things we do intentionally:
* A lot of people are afraid to go out at night. (= they don't want to go out because it is dangerous--so they don't go out)
* He was afraid to tell his parents about the broken window. (= he didn't want to tell them because he knew they would be angry)
I am afraid of something happening = it is possible that something bad will happen (for example, an accident). We do not use afraid of ~ing for things we do intentionally:
* The path was icy, so we walked very carefully. We were afraid of falling. (= it was possible that we would fall--not 'we were afraid to fall')
* I don't like dogs. I'm always afraid of being bitten. (not 'afraid to be bitten')
So, you are afraid to do something because you are afraid of something happening as a result:
* I was afraid to go near the dog because I was afraid of being bitten.
B. Interested in (do)ing and interested to (do)
I'm interested in doing something = I'm thinking of doing it, I'd like to do it:
* I'm trying to sell my car but nobody is interested in buying it. (not 'to buy')
We use interested to especially with hear/see/know/read/learn. I was interested to hear it = 'I heard it and it was interesting for me':
* I was interested to hear that Diane has got a new job.
* Ask George for his opinion. I would be interested to know what he thinks. (=it would be interesting for me to know)
This structure is the same as surprised to/delighted to... etc. (see Unit 64C):
* I was surprised to hear that Diane has got a new job.
C. Sorry to (do) and sorry for (do)ing
We usually say sorry to... to apologize when (or just before) we do something:
* I'm sorry to bother you, but I need to talk to you.
We use sorry to (hear/read etc.) to show sympathy with somebody (see Unit 64C):
* I was sorry to hear that Fiona lost her job. (= I was sorry when I heard ...)
You can use sorry for (doing something) to apologize for something you did before:
* (I'm) sorry for shouting at you yesterday. (not 'Sorry to shout ...')
You can also say:
* (I'm) sorry I shouted at you yesterday.
D. Note that we say:
I want to (do)/I'd like to (do) but I'm thinking of (do)ing/I dream of (do)ing
I failed to (do) but I succeeded in (do)ing
I allowed them to (do) but I prevented them from (do)ing
For examples, see Units 53-54 and 61.
65.1 Read the situation and use the words in brackets to write a sentence with afraid.
1. The streets are unsafe at night.
(a lot of people/afraid/go/out) _A lot of people are afraid to go out._
2. We walked very carefully along the icy path.
(we/afraid/fall) _We were afraid of falling._
3. I don't usually carry my passport with me.
4. The sea was very rough.
5. We rushed to the station.
6. In the middle of the film there was a particularly horrifying scene.
7. The glasses were very full, so Jane carried them very carefully.
8. I didn't like the look of the food on my plate.
b (I/afraid/make/myself ill)
65.2 Complete the sentences using one of these verbs:
buy get go hear read start
1. I'm trying to sell my car but nobody is interested _in buying_ it.
2. Julia is interested --- her own business.
3. I was interested --- your letter in the newspaper last week.
4. Bill wants to stay single. He's not interested --- married.
5. You must tell me what you think. I'm always interested --- your opinion.
6. There's a party tonight but I'm not interested ---
65.3 Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets.
1. I'm sorry _for shouting_ at you yesterday. (shout)
2. Sorry --- you but have you got a pen I could borrow? (disturb)
3. Sorry --- late last night. I didn't realize the time. (be)
4. I'm sorry --- what I said yesterday. I didn't really mean it. (say)
5. 'I've just had my exam results. I failed.' 'Oh? I'm sorry --- that.' (hear)
65.4 Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets.