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Heading Freezing! (dramatic) My Lone Walk to the North Pole (a summary) Rescue from the rapids (a summary) What’s the big idea? (a question) Seven banks a day are robbed in LA (a surprising) You’re already well equipped to prevent crime (a surprising)  
Opening   Did you know …? What would you do if …?  
General Structure   Give your article a heading or headline which makes the subject clear and also catches the reader’s attention. Divide the article into paragraphs to help the reader follow the argument. Begin with an interesting introduction – an example, perhaps, or a question. End with an overall comment or concluding.






Beginnings and endings A narrative needs an interesting beginning to catch the reader’s attention and encourage him or her to read on, and a clear ending to round the story off satisfactorily. A weak beginning or ending can spoil the effect of the story, so it’s worth spending time working out how to start and finish.  
Verb tenses   We use: The simple past to describe the main events: I ran to answer the phone but it stopped ringing as I picked up the receiver. The past continuous to set the scene: It was raining heavily as we set off. The past perfect to describe events which happened before the main events: When I got on the bus all the seats had been taken. Preset participles to show two actions which are linked: Noticing that she looked lost, I asked if I could help. Perfect participles to show that one action was complete before another started: Having reported my stolen passport to the police, I returned sadly to the hotel.  
Time Links   before …. then … at first, … next … later … during … after that … afterwards … when … finally, … as soon as … eventually, … immediately … in the end, … once … A few days earlier … Just after that … Some time later … Following the accident … Later on …  
Adding variety and interest   Try to use different adjectives to convey the atmosphere. For example, if you want to convey the idea of fear, you could use frightened, terrified, scared. Varying the length of sentences can be effective. Use direct speech occasionally for dramatic effect (remember to use inverted commas correctly: “No,” he yelled, “don’t touch that switch!”)





Making points Many people feel that ... First and foremost, ... It is widely believed that ... It would be ideal if ... Another argument in favour is ... It is clear from the facts that ... The benefits of ... outweigh the disadvantages. On the whole, I think ...  
Contrasting points   On the other hand ... Other people think ... An opposing argument is ...  
Giving opinions   I personally feel that ... I find it hard to see why ... I certainly don't believe that ... It is difficult to believe that ... I object to the cloning of animals.  
Organising and linking your ideas   First of all, … Secondly, … In addition, … Moreover, … Furthermore, … So … As a result, … Therefore, … However, … On the one hand … on the other hand … On the whole … While it is true to say … Finally, … To summarise, … In conclusion


Date: 2015-02-03; view: 884

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