Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






The infinitive with and without to

This is an overview of the different structures with a to-infinitive (e.g. to do) and an infinitive without to (e.g. do).

A The to-infinitive

We use a to-infinitive:

1 After an adjective (see Unit 67)

It's nice to have a place of your own. The car is really cheap to run.

2 After a noun

/ must take a book to read. (— a book that I can read) We've got a few jobs to do. (= jobs that we must do)

3 With be able to, be about to, be allowed to, be going to, have to, ought to and used to

We aren't allowed to park here. The game is about to start. We're going to buy a camcorder. You have to fill in a form.

4 After some verbs, e.g. decide, hope, manage, offer (see Unit 60)

Tom decided to leave early. I hope to see you soon.

Did you manage to sort out the problem? Henry offered to pay for the meal.

5 After some verbs + object (see Unit 65)

Laura persuaded Trevor to put up some shelves. I want you to do something for me.

6 After for + object (see Unit 68)

We've arranged for you to visit our head office.

It is important for students to register with a doctor.

7 After a question word (see Unit 66)

We don't know where to leave our coats. This book tells you how to train race horses.

8 To say why (see Unit 151B)

Mark went out to play golf. I need the money to pay the phone bill.

B The infinitive without to

We use an infinitive without to:

1 After can, could, may, might, must, needn't, shall, should, will, and would

We could go to a night club. I must speak to the manager. It might rain later. Sarah will be away for three days.

2 After had better and would rather

It's cold. You'd better wear a coat. I'd rather listen to Elvis than the Beatles.

3 After make + object and let + object

That programme was funny. It really made me laugh.

Trevor will be here at five. His boss is going to let him leave work early.

4 After see or hear + an object (see Unit 74)

They saw the lights come on. We all heard the bomb go off.

C Help

An infinitive after help can be with or without to.

Can I help (to) get the tea? Vicky helped me (to) choose a present.


69 Exercises

1 The to-infinitive (A)

Comment on these situations. Join each pair of sentences using a to-infinitive. ► Mike will give you a lift. He promised. You: Mike promised to give me a lift.

1 You want to eat. You must have something.

You: I must...................................................................................................................

2 You are having a rest. It's nice.
You: It's…………………………………………………………………………...

3 Will Rita speak to Nick? He wants her to.
Nick………………………………………………………………………………

4 Daniel can't repair the video. He doesn't know how to.

5 Claire and her sister are going to Bali. They have decided.

6 Melanie is visiting David. She has gone to the hospital.

7 Vicky is doing some studying. Unfortunately she has to.

8 Sarah must ring the office. It's important.

2 The infinitive without to (B)

Put in the missing verbs. Usually more than one answer is correct.



► I've been repairing the car. I really must wash my hands.

1 What's in the letter? Why won't you let me................................... it?

2 Did you see that lovely old car.............................. past a moment ago?

3 It was a terribly sad story. It made me..................................

4 I don't want to do anything energetic. I'd rather....................................... on the beach.

5 It's very cold. I think it might............................. for the first time this winter.

6 I keep getting this pain in my leg. I think I'd better....................................... a doctor.

3 The infinitive with and without to (A-B)

Matthew and Emma are at the railway station. Emma is going away for the weekend. Put in the infinitive of the verbs. You have to decide whether or not you need to. Matthew: Are you sure you'll (►) be (be) all right?

Emma: Yes, of course. I'm not a child. I can manage (►) to look (look) after myself. Matthew: OK, sorry.

Emma: Some friends have invited me (1)......................................... (visit) them. I'm not going to the North Pole.

Matthew: It'll be nice for you (2)..................................... (see) your old friends again. I just know you're

going (3)............................. (have) lots of fun. Let me (4)....................................... (buy) you a magazine

(5).......................... (read) on the train.

Emma: I can't (6)................................ (read) when I'm travelling. It makes me (7).............................................. (feel)

sick, even in a train. I'd rather just (8)......................................... (look) out of the window.

Matthew: OK. Well, you'd better (9)..................................... (get) in. I think it's about (10)....................................... (leave).

Oh, did I remind you (11).................................... (change) at York?

Emma: Yes, Matthew, you did. Don't worry, I won't (12)............................................ (forget). I know perfectly well

how (13)............................. (get) there.


70 Verb/Adjective + preposition + ing-form

Introduction

Claire: I'm thinking of going to Turkey.

Travel agent: Are you interested in travelling around the country, or would you like to stay in one place?

Claire: / don't want to do a lot of travelling.

Some verbs and adjectives can have a preposition after them (see Units 125-126). / apologized for my mistake. Laura is keen on photography.

Sometimes we can use an ing-form after the preposition.

 

    PREPOSITION ING-FORM  
I apologized for making a mistake.
Laura is keen on taking photos.
I'm thinking of going to Turkey.
Are you interested in traveling around?
We're tired of not having a place to live.

We can use not before the ing-form, e.g. not having.

B Verb + preposition + ing-form

Don't you believe in discussing things openly? Laura doesn't feel like cooking tonight. Unfortunately Tom insisted on telling us all about United's win. I'm looking forward to seeing my friends again. I've succeeded in getting hold of the CD I wanted. Also: agree with, apologize for, concentrate on, object to, rely on, think of

We can use about after ask, complain, dream, speak, talk, think, and wonder. They're talking about building a new swimming-pool.

C Verb + object + preposition + ing-form

After some verbs we can put an object (e.g. Matthew).

Emma accused Matthew of not caring about her.

Higher prices will discourage customers from buying.

The fire-fighters prevented/stopped the fire (from) spreading.

The club has punished its players for fighting during a match. Also: blame ... for, congratulate ... on, thank ... for

We can use this structure in the passive.

Matthew was accused of not caring. The customers will be discouraged from buying.

D Adjective + preposition + ing-form

People were annoyed at not being able to see properly. I'm bored with waiting. Vicky is excited about going to America. I'm fed up with living in this awful place. Tom is good at telling jokes. The man was found guilty of stealing from his employers. I'm pleased about/at winning a prize. Also: capable of, fond of, interested in (see Unit 71B), keen on, tired of

125 Adjective + preposition 126 Verb + preposition


70 Exercises

1 Verb + preposition + ing-form (A-B)

Complete the conversation between Claire and her sister Sophie.

Put in the verbs with these prepositions: for, in, like, of, on

Sophie: Where's that little radio of yours?

Claire: Oh, it got broken. Henry knocked it off the table.

Unfortunately he hasn't succeeded (►) in getting (get) it to work again.

Sophie: Oh, what a pity.

Claire: It was only a cheap thing. In fact I'd been thinking (1)............... ……………………. . (buy) a new one.

But Henry not only apologized (2) ......................................... (break) it, he

insisted (3)…………………………… (buy) me a much nicer one. It's in the dining-room.

Sophie: Henry is such a gentleman.

Claire: He didn't really need to buy me a new one, but I didn't feel (4)…………………………… (argue).

2 Verb (+ object) + preposition + ing-form (A-C)

Comment on these situations. Join each pair of sentences using a preposition and an ing-form. ► The police prevented the crime. It didn't take place. The police prevented the crime from taking place.

1 Laura blamed Trevor. He forgot the tickets.
Laura …………………………………………………………………………………………………

2 The doctors succeeded. They saved the driver's life.

The doctors .........................................................................................................................................

3 The customers complained. They didn't receive the goods.

4 Emma has accused Matthew. She says Matthew broke his promise.

5 Melanie is insisting. She's going to cook a meal for David.

6 A new traffic scheme has stopped cars. They can't go into the town centre.

7 Everyone congratulated Claude. He won the quiz competition.

8 Some football fans were arrested. They attacked a policeman.

3 Verb/Adjective + preposition + ing-form (A-D)

Complete Emma's letter to her friend Kirsty. Put in a preposition and an ing-form.

Thank you (►) for inviting (invite) me to come and see you next month. I'm already excited
(1)…………………………………………………………..(see) you again.

You must be very pleased (2)...................................... (get) the job you wanted. Congratulations. Personally,

1 wouldn't be keen (3)............................................. (travel) forty miles to work.

I apologize (4)…………………………(not write) sooner, but a week in bed with flu has prevented me
(5)……………………….(do) anything. I haven't even felt (6)………………………….. (write) letters

until today. I must be getting better because I'm starting to feel bored (7)……………………………… (do)

nothing. I'm thinking (8) .................................. (go) back to work tomorrow.



Date: 2014-12-22; view: 2088


<== previous page | next page ==>
For with the to-infinitive | Afraid to do or afraid of doing?
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2022 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.011 sec.)