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LANGUAGE EXTENSION. GRAMMAR.

MODALS OF CERTAINTY, POSSIBILITY and PROBABILITY.

There are many ways to express certainty, possibility and probability in English. But first of all, we must clarify the notion of modality, that’s what a modal verb is. According to an outstanding Russian linguist academician V.V. Vinogradov “modality is a mood that expresses the relation of the action to reality.” This means that modal verbs express YOUR PERSONAL opinion about an action. For example, someone says:

I will run my own business when I get sufficient experience – that means that he/she is almost sure that they’ll become businesspeople.

I may become a senior manager in a few years – means that he/she isn’t absolutely sure in the action in the future, though quite sure (about 75%).

Now, there are 4 modal verbs to express your certainty or probability of an action: will may might could. All of them express some degree of certainty/probability, and the difference lies only in that degree.

Will – I’m almost 100% sure something will happen in the future.

May – I’m 75% sure

Might – I’m 50% sure

Could – I’m not at all sure

This is a bit strange for us, those whose language doesn’t have so many variants of expressing probability. If anyone wants, I’ll go the extra mile for explaining why this happened just let me know by putting your question on our ‘Question board’ and I’ll do it with pleasure J.

Now, find sentences in the text with modals of certainty and probability and write them down in your WB. Consider the meaning.

NB. My dear friends, please, do keep in mind that modal verb will is very treacherous, that’s it has got many functions in English. Its most well known function is expressing future: for predictions, for sudden/unplanned

After you’ve found the story you like, answer, please, these questions in the WB so that you make a dramatic story of success:

 

decisions, or for expressing willingness, that is what someone wishes/desires to do. For these meanings of will, please, check Unit … EXERCISES It’s not at all a bad idea to study other’s experience. How did they start? What did they do to promote their idea and achieve their goal? Here are some links to learn more about Russian and foreign companies, their history, how they started. D’you know any other exciting examples, then share it with us, tell us a thrilling story of becoming a millionaire!   http://company.wbd.ru/about/history/ http://www.wbd.com/financial/annual/wbd_annual_2009.pdf http://kartoshka.com/about/ http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92_%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BA%D1%82%D0%B5#.D0.98.D1.81.D1.82.D0.BE.D1.80.D0.B8.D1.8F – vkontakte http://company.drweb.com/history/?lng=en – Doctor Web http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/news/exec/billg/ - Bill Gates http://www.inditex.es/en/who_we_are/timeline - zara http://www.carrefour.com/cdc/group/history/ http://www.daimler.com/company/tradition/history-of-daimler   After you’ve found the story you like, answer, please, these questions in the WB so that you make a dramatic story of success:   1. What is the name of the company? 2. Where is it situated? 3. When did they start? 4. What did they start with? 5. Why did they choose this direction? What were their grounds? 6. Where did they do their business (in a factory; old garage, a stall)? 7. How did they name the brand? Why?
  1. How much time did they need to start expanding? Was it a merger or an acquisition?



9. Is it possible to trace any special feature/quality in their business (e.g. health and beauty products, national speciality, national mentality orientation; using innovative technologies etc?)

10. Did they become multinational? How?

11. What are their most famous brands?

12. Did they certify their products? Where? What for?

13. What type of company are they? Can their shares be freely bought or sold at the stock exchange?

14. Is the company renowned, well-known internationally? What are its most distinguishing features?

15. What is its mission statement; management approach etc?

Please, please, do NOT forget to use appropriate LINKING WORDS

http://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.33.htm

http://www.english-at-home.com/grammar/linking-words/

 


Date: 2015-01-29; view: 635


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