CATEGORIES:

The past perfect continuous

A Introduction

David is talking about a situation in the past (Ifell and broke my leg). When we look back to something before this past time, we use the past perfect simple (see Unit 18) or the past perfect continuous.

Past perfect simple: 1 had taken a bus into town.

Past perfect continuous: / had been swimming in the pool

We use the past perfect continuous for an action which happened over a period of time. The swimming went on for some time before David broke his leg.

B Form

The past perfect continuous is had been + an ing-form. / had been waiting ages, or I'd been waiting ages. I had not been paying attention, or / hadn't been

paying attention. Was the ground wet? Had it been raining?

Compare the past perfect continuous and simple.

over A period (had been doing)

/ found the calculator. I'd been looking for it

for ages. Vicky felt tired because she'd been working

all day.

We are thinking of Vicky's work going on as she got tired.

We normally use the continuous with a phrase saying how long.

When the company went bankrupt, it had been losing money for months.

We do not normally use the past perfect continuous for states (see Unit 7). not He had been-seeming unwell

I finally bought a new calculator. I'd looked

everywhere for the old one. Vicky felt pleased because she'd done so much

work. We are thinking of Vicky's work as complete.

We normally use the simple form with a phrase saying how much/many.

When the company went bankrupt, it had lost over a million pounds.

We also use the past perfect simple for states (see Unit 7).

The old man had seemed unwell for some time before he died.

D Comparison with other continuous forms

Compare the present perfect continuous (has/have been doing) and the past perfect continuous.

Vicky looks very upset. I think she's been crying.

Vicky looked very upset. I thought she'd been crying. Compare the past continuous (was doing) and the past perfect continuous.

When I phoned, Natasha was having a piano lesson. (I phoned during the lesson.)

When I phoned, Natasha had been having a piano lesson. (I phoned after the lesson.)

20 Exercises

1 Form (B)

Complete the conversation. Put in the past perfect continuous of the verbs.

Rachel: How was your job interview?

Vicky: Awful. I felt terribly nervous. (►) I'd been worrying (I / worry) about it all week. And I was tired

because (1).. (I / work) on my project the night before.

(2) ........................................................ (I / not look) forward to the interview at all.

Rachel: So what happened?

Vicky: The woman interviewing me was half an hour late because

(3)......... .................................. (she / deal) with an unexpected problem, she said.

(4) ............................................................... (I / wait) ages, and I'd got even more nervous.

Rachel: How did the interview go?

Vicky: Well, I tried to sound confident. (5) ......................... .. (I / read) a book that

said that's what you have to do in job interviews. But I don't know if I gave the right answers.

2 Form and use (A-B)

Add a sentence with the past perfect continuous to explain why. Look at the pictures to find the reasons.

► Claire got burnt. She'd been lying in the sun.

1 Vicky looked upset.................................................................................................. .

2 Henry was stopped by the police.................................................................... .

3 The children started a fire............................................ ..

4 A young man was struck by lightning........................................................................

Comparison with other tenses (C-D)

Put in the correct form of the verbs.

► Tom could hear shouts from the flat next door. His neighbours were arguing (argue) again.

1 Emma went into the sitting-room. It was empty, but the television was still on.
Someone.................................................. (watch) it.

2 I  ................................ (play) tennis, so I had a shower. I was annoyed because

I . . (not win) a single game.

3 The walkers finally arrived at their destination. They............. (walk) all day, and
they certainly needed a rest. They.............................................. (walk) thirty miles.

4 When I saw Nick last week, he said he............................................... (stop) smoking. But when I saw

him two days later, he.. (smoke) a cigarette. He looked rather ashamed.

5 I really must go and see the dentist. One of my teeth ....................... .. (ache) for weeks.

6 When Melanie arrived at David's place, he......................  . . (lie) on the sofa reading a

detective novel. He............ .. (buy) it at the second-hand bookshop, and

he ............................................... (read) it for most of the afternoon.

TEST 4 Past and perfect tenses (Units 16-20)

Test 4A

Read the conversation. Then look at the answers below and write the correct answer in each space.

Tessa: Hello, Robert. I (►) haven't seen you for ages.

Robert: Hello, Tessa. Great to see you. What have you (1) doing lately?

Tessa: (2).. just started a new job in computer software.

Robert: You (3). working for Tuffex Plastics when we last met.

Tessa: That's right. I hadn't (4).. working there long before I got fed up. 1

(5).. ........ realized what a horrible job it would be. But what about you?

(6). ............... you found a job?

Robert: Well, six months ago I (7) ............................................. working for a car hire company, but then

they (8) bankrupt. So I'm out of work now.

(9)............................. been looking around for another job.

Tessa: Well, I'm sure you'll find one soon.

► a) didn't b) hadn't c) haven't d) wasn't

1 a) been b) had c) has d) was

2 a) I'd b) I'll c) I'm d) I've

3 a) did b) had c) have d) were

4 a) be b) been c) done d) had

5 a) didn't b) hadn't c) haven't d) wasn't

6 a) Did b) Had c) Have d) Were

7 a) been b) had c) have d) was

8 a) go b) going c) gone d) went

9 a) I'd b) I'll c) I'm d) I've

Test 4B

Write a second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.

► Susan had a green dress on. (wearing)
Susan was wearing a green dress.

1 The doctor began work at six o'clock and is still working, (has)

2 Rupert didn't have his credit card, (forgotten)

3 I didn't want to go without taking a photo, (until)

4 Nancy has been writing the report. It is finished now. (written)

5 My wait in the queue has lasted forty minutes so far. (I)

6 When we arrived, everyone was on the dance floor, (dancing)

7 The computer has been mine for four years, (had)

8 In the middle of our lunch there was a knock at the door, (when)

9 Nigel felt sick from eating too many cakes, (because)

Test 4C

Write the sentences correctly.

► I like this CD. I've been having it for ages.

1 It was my first day back at work. I was on holiday.

2 I'm quite tired now. I play badminton

3 I had to sit down. I'd been havig a shock

4 You need a rest. How much have you been working?

5 The robbery happened at midday, Lots of people walked along the street outside.

6 My sister speaks good English. She is practising her English since last summer.

7 At last I have my qualification. :I've been passing my-exam.

8 Michelle looked really sunburnt. She'd lie in the sun-for-too long.

9 We got to the coach stop at nine yesterday. But the coach has already gone.

Test 4D

Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of each verb.

► A: Did you buy (you / buy) anything at the antiques sale yesterday?

B: No. / wanted (I / want) to buy some jewellery, but I'd left (I / leave) my credit card at home.

1 A: Are you still copying those addresses?

B: No, that's all of them............................................................. (I / finish) now.

2 A: The train is never going to get here.

B: How long........................................................ (we / wait) now?

A: At least half an hour.................. . (we / be) here since ten to five.

3 A: Did you have a nice chat with Tessa?

B: No, not really. When............................................................ (we / drink) our coffee,

...................................................... (she / hurry) off home.

4 A: It's terrible about that plane crash, isn't it?

B: Yes, awful............................................................. (I / have) breakfast when

..(I / hear) the news.

5 A: So you sing in a rock band, do you? How long............ (you / do) that?

B: Oh, since I was sixteen. ..................... .. (we / do) about a dozen concerts.

6 A: Do you know what Polly was so upset about yesterday?

B: No, I don't. But I'm sure ..(she / cry). Her eyes looked red.

A: Perhaps ................................................. (she / have) some bad news.

7 A: The shooting was very frightening, I suppose.

B: It certainly was. When we......... ... (hear) the shot,

we all ................................................... (throw) ourselves to the floor.

Date: 2014-12-22; view: 4303

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