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The present perfect (2) just, already, yet; for and since



A Just, already and yet

We can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.

Just means 'a short time ago'. Vicky heard about the concert not long ago. Already means 'sooner than expected'. They sold the tickets very quickly. We use yet when we are expecting something to happen. Vicky expects that Rachel will buy a ticket.

Just and already come before the past participle (heard, sold). Yet comes at the end of a question or a negative sentence.

Here are some more examples.

We've just come back from our holiday.

I've just had an idea.

It isn't a very good party. Most people have already gone home.

My brother has already crashed his new car.

It's eleven o'clock and you haven't finished breakfast yet.

Has your course started yet? But for American English see page 377.


B For and since

We can use the present perfect with for and since.

Vicky has only had that camera for three days. Those people have been at the hotel since Friday.

I've felt really tired for a whole week now.

We've lived in Oxford since 1992. not We live-here-sinee-1992. Here something began in the past and has lasted up to the present time.

We use for to say how long this period is {for three days). We use since to say when the period began (since Friday).

We use how long in questions.

How long has Vicky had that camera? ~ Since Thursday, I think.

How long have Trevor and Laura been married? ~ Oh, for about three years.

We can also use the present perfect with for and since when something has stopped happening. / haven't seen Rachel for ages. She hasn't visited us since July.

11,13 More on the present perfect 14-15 Present perfect or past simple?

17 Present perfect continuous or simple? 114 Yet, still and already 121 For, since, ago and before


12 Exercises

1 Just (A)

Write replies using the present perfect and just.

Use these past participles: checked, eaten, made, remembered, rung, tidied

► We must find out the address. ~ It's all right, I've just remembered it.

1 The children's room looks neat. ~ Yes, they've ...............................

2 Is Daniel making some coffee? ~ It's ready.

3 What happened to that chocolate? ~ Sorry,...................... ,.......

4 Has Rachel got all the answers right? ~ Yes,.............................................

5 Have you told your sister? ~ Yes, I've .........................................

2 Just, already and yet (A)

Complete the dialogue. Use the present perfect with just, already and yet.

Vicky: (►) You haven t done your project yet (you / not do / your project / yet), 1 suppose.

Rachel: No, I haven't. (1) ..................................... . (I / not / start / it / yet).

Vicky: (2). (I /just / see / Andrew), and he says

(3). (he / already / do) about half of it.

Rachel: Well, he works too hard.

Vicky: (4).. (I / not / finish / my plan / yet).

Rachel: (5).. ........ (you / already / begin) to worry about it, haven't you?



Take it easy. There's plenty of time.
Vicky: (6).. (we / already / spend) too long thinking about it.

(7)..(I / not / do / any real work / yet)

and (8).. (I / just / realize) that there are only four weeks

to the end of term.
Rachel: OK. (9). (I / just / decide) to start next week. Well, maybe.

3 For and since (B)

Andrew is a very hard-working student. It's midnight and he is still working at his computer. Write sentences with the present perfect and for or since.

► be / at his computer / six hours He's been at his computer for six hours.

1 not / have / any fun / a long time ................................................................

2 have / a cold / a week ..

3 not / see / his friends / ages

4 not / do / any sport / last year

5 be / busy with his studies / months ..............................................

4 For and since (B)

Complete the sentences.

? You ought to wash the car. You haven't washed it for ages.

? I'd better have a shower. I haven't had one since Thursday.

 

1 I think I'll ring my girlfriend. I haven't............................................. the weekend.

2 We're going to see some old friends. We haven't................................................. five years.

3 Let's watch a video, shall we? We haven't.............................................. quite a while.

4 We could have a barbecue. We haven't............................................... last summer.

5 Shall we play tennis? We haven't............................................. our holiday.


13 The present perfect (3): ever, this week, etc

Claire has gone to Australia. Claire has been to Australia.

Gone there means that she is still there. Been there means that the visit is over.


Date: 2014-12-22; view: 1616


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