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Usage of articles with shops, banks, hotels, churches.

“The” is used.

 

69. What non-finite forms of the verb are, there in English? What grammatical categories are typical of them?

There are the following non-finite forms of the verb, or verbals: the infinitive, the gerund and the participle (participle I and participle II). The three verbals: the infinitive, the gerund and the participle I – have the grammatical categories of order and voice. The infinitive has also a third grammatical category – aspect.

Order:

Non-perfect perfect

Infinitive to ask, to give to have asked, to have given

Gerund asking having asked

Participle I asking having asked

 

Voice:

active passive

Infinitive to ask, to give to be asked, to be given

Gerund asking being asked

Participle I asking being asked

 

Aspect

Common continuous

To write, to read to be writing, to be reading

70. How are the verbals generally used in the sentence - absolutely or as a part of a larger syntactical unit?

The verbals are generally used in speech as part of a larger syntactical unit, a verbal phrase or a complex.

When used as part of a phrase any verbal may be followed by a single word or a syntactical unit standing in objective or adverbial relation

I don’t want to give him this book (objective relations)

I don’t want to speak so quickly (adverbial)

Entering the room he saw her at once.

I don’t like asking such questions.

The verbal in the phrase may be preceded by conjunctions: the infinitive – by the conjunctions “in order”, “so that”, “as if”, “as though”:

I wrote to him in order to ask him to come.

Participle I – by “when”, “while”, as if, though:

While asking me for it she fell ill at ease.

Participle II – by different conjunctions: as if, if, when, etc.

If asked he always came

The gerund is widely used with prepositions preceding it

On giving him the answer she looked aside.

A special type of infinitive phrase is the one composed of the words “who, what, when which, why, where, how” with the infinitive following them.

I’d decide what to do with them later.

71. What syntactical units with verbals do you know?

????? (see 70)????

72. What are the principal grammatical functions of the verbals in the sentence?

They may be found in any function but that of a simple verbal predicate.

  1. Adverbial modifier. The gerund in this function is always preceded by a preposition, participle II – by a conjunction. No preposition or conjunction generally precedes participle I, though it may be preceded by the conjunctions “when” or “while”. The verbals alone or in a phrase may be used as an adverbial modifier of:

- TimeAfter asking him this question she looked aside (gerund)

- Cause Not knowing the answer, I felt ill at ease (participle I) Note: participle I of the verb “to be” when used as an adverbial modifier will always be an adverbial modifier of cause. Being a stranger in the town, he had to ask the way.

- Manner or attendant circumstances she turned away without answering his question.



- Purpose He left a few minutes at the end of the class for answering questions.

- Condition In spite of giving my consent to do it, I am not sure that I was right.

- The verbals (infinitive or participle) are sometimes used as an adverbial modifier of comparison (are preceded by “as if, as though”) He looked at me as if to ask me for something.

  1. As attributes.The gerund is always in this case preceded by a preposition. Participle I is always used here in its non-perfect form. He was the first to answer the question (infinit.)
  2. All verbals, but mainly the infinitive, can be used as part of a compound predicate

a) Part of a compound modal verbal predicate I think I ought to ask him this question.

b) Part of a compound aspective verbal predicate He began to answer my question.

c) Compound nominal predicate All he wanted was to ask him for it

  1. As Subject (infinitive or gerund)To ask that question at the time was not very tactful
  2. As object(infinitive or gerund) direct or indirect

a) Direct object He liked to ask questions

b) Indirect prepositional object They talked of giving him what he asked for.

  1. May form different constructions or complexes.A complex consists of a nominal part, expressed by a noun or pronoun, and a verbal part, expressed by an infinitive, participle or gerund. The elements of the complex are closely linked together and function in the sentence as one complex member of it. We may speak about a complex used as subject, or a complex subject, a complex used as object, or a complex object, etc. the most important cases of complexes are non-prepositional complexes with the infinitive (sometimes participle)used as object or subject. They are found when the predicate verb is expressed by the following:

- Verbs of sense perception (complexes with the infinitive, participle I and participle II), “see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe”:

I heard him ask this question (complex object)

He was heard to ask this question (complex subject)

- Verbs of mental activity “know, think, consider, believe, suppose, expect”

We supposed him to be strong (complex object)

He was supposed to be strong (complex subject)

With some of these verbs complexes without verbals are also found:

We consider him clever.

- Causative verbs denoting permission, request or order (“permit, allow, let, force, make, get”). We allowed him to come a little later.

- Verbs denoting wish or feeling “want, wish, desire, mean, love”)

I want him to do it.

 

 

73. What verbals can be used as subject or object?

Infinitive or gerund may be used as subject: To ask that question at the time was not very tactful.

Asking such questions was not very tactful.

Infinitive or gerund is often used as object (direct or indirect).

a) Direct object: He liked to ask questions.

He liked asking questions.

Both the infinitive and gerund will be used here after the verbs denoting liking (disliking), remembering (forgetting): like, dislike, hate, want (in the meaning of desire), detest, remember, forget and such phrases as “can’t bear”, “can’t afford”. But only gerund will be used after the verbs delay, excuse, out off, want (in the meaning of need), and the adjectives like, busy, worth.

The question is worth answering.

b) Indirect prepositional object. I am tired of answering such questions.

Only the gerund is used in this function after certain verbs requiring a prepositional object or when used as object to such adjectives as fond of, tired of, proud of, ignorant of, used to.

 

 


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 235


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