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UNIT 28. Must and can't 9 page

* Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon?

D. We say 'go to sea/be at sea' (without 'the') when the meaning is 'go/be on a voyage':

* Keith is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea.

but * I'd like to live near the sea.

* It can be dangerous to swim in the sea.

@p147

EXERCISES

73.1 Complete the sentences using a preposition (to/at/in etc.) + one of the following words:

bed home hospital prison school university work

You can use the words more than once.

1. Two people were injured in the accident and were taken _to hospital._

2. In Britain, children from the age of five have to go ---.

3. Mark didn't go out last night. He stayed ---.

4. I'll have to hurry. I don't want to be late ---.

5. There is a lot of traffic in the morning when everybody is going ---.

6. Cathy's mother has just had an operation. She is still ---.

7. When Julia leaves school, she wants to study economics ---.

8. Bill never gets up before 9 o'clock. It's 8.30 now, so he is still ---.

9. If you commit a serious crime, you could be sent ---.

73.2 Complete the sentences with the word given (school etc.). Use the where necessary.

1. (school)

a. Every term parents are invited to the school to meet the teacher.

b. Why aren't your children at school today? Are they ill?

c. When he was younger, Ted hated ---

d. What time does --- start in the mornings in your country?

e. A: How do your children get home from ---? By bus?

B: No, they walk --- isn't very far.

f. What sort of job does jenny want to do when she leaves ---?

g. There were some people waiting outside --- to meet their children.

2. (university)

a. In your country, do many people go to ---?

b. If you want to get a degree, you normally have to study at ---.

c. This is only a small town but --- is the biggest in the country.

3. (hospital)

a. Nora works as a cleaner at ---.

b. When Ann was ill, we all went to --- to visit her.

c. My brother has always been very healthy. He's never been in ---.

d. Peter was injured in an accident and was kept in --- for a few days.

4. (church)

a. John's mother is a regular churchgoer. She goes to --- every Sunday.

b. John himself doesn't go to ---.

c. John went to --- to take some photographs of the building.

5. (prison)

a. In many places people are in --- because of their political opinions.

b. The other day the fire brigade were called to --- to put out a fire.

c. The judge decided to fine the man -c500 instead of sending him to ---.

6. (home/work/bed)

a. I like to read in --- before I go to sleep?

b. It's nice to travel around but there's no place like ---!

c. Shall we meet after --- tomorrow evening?

d. If I'm feeling tired, I go to --- early.

e. What time do you usually start --- in the morning?

f. The economic situation is very bad. Many people are out of ---

7. (sea)

a. There's a nice view from the window. You can see ---.

b. It was a long voyage. We were at --- for four weeks.

c. I love swimming in ---.

@p148

UNIT 74. The (3) (Children/the children)



A. When we are talking about things or people in general, we do not use 'the':

* I'm afraid of dogs. (not 'the dogs') (dogs = dogs in general, not a particular group of dogs)

* Doctors are paid more than teachers.

* Do you collect stamps?

* Crime is a problem in most big cities. (not 'the crime')

* Life has changed a lot in the last 30 years. (not 'the life')

* Do you often listen to classical music? (not 'the classical music')

* Do you like Chinese food/French cheese/Swiss chocolate?

* My favourite sport is football/skiing/athletics. (not 'the football the skiing' etc.)

* My favourite subject at school was history/physics/English. We say 'most people/most books/most cars' etc. (not 'the most ...'--see also Unit 87A).

* Most people like George. (not 'the most people')

B. We use the when we mean particular things or people. Compare:

#1 In general (without 'the')

* Children learn a lot from playing. (= children in general)

* I often listen to music.

* All cars have wheels.

* Sugar isn't very good for you.

* Do English people work hard? (= English people in general)

#2 Particular people or things (with the)

* We took the children to the zoo. (= a particular group, perhaps the speaker's own children)

* The film wasn't very good but I liked the music. (= the music in the film)

* All the cars in this car park belong to people who work here.

* Can you pass the sugar, please? (= the sugar on the table)

* Do the English people you know work hard? (= only the English people you know, not English people in general)

C. The difference between 'something in general' and 'something in particular' is not always very clear. Compare these sentences:

#1 In general (without 'the')

* I like working with people. (= people in general)

* I like working with people who are lively. (not all people, but 'people who are lively' is still a general idea)

* Do you like coffee? (= coffee in general)

* Do you like strong black coffee? (not all coffee, but 'strong black coffee' is still a general idea)

#2 Particular people or things (with the)

* I like the people I work with. (= a particular group of people)

* Did you like the coffee we had after our meal last night? (= particular coffee)

@p149

EXERCISES

74.1 In this exercise you have to write whether you like or dislike these things:

boxing cats fast food restaurants football hot weather mathematics opera small children rock music zoos

Choose FOUR of these things and begin your sentences with one of these:

I like .../ I don't like... I don't mind... I love .../ I hate... I'm interested in .../ I'm not interested in ...

1. _I don't like hot weather very much._

2. ---

3. ---

4. ---

5. ---

74.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following. Use the where necessary.

(the) basketball (the) questions (the) history (the) hotels (the) meat (the) lies (the) information (the) patience (the) people (the) water (the) grass (the) spiders

1. My favourite sport is basketball.

2. The information we were given wasn't correct.

3. Many people are afraid of ---.

4. A vegetarian is somebody who doesn't eat ---.

5. The test wasn't very difficult. I answered all --- without difficulty.

6. Do you know --- who live next door?

7. --- is the study of the past.

8. George always tells the truth. He never tells ---.

9. We couldn't find anywhere to stay in the town. All --- were full.

10. --- in the pool didn't look very clean, so we didn't go for a swim.

11. Don't sit on ---. It's wet after the rain.

12. You need --- to teach young children.

74.3 Choose the correct form, with or without the.

1. I'm afraid of _dogs/the dogs._ ('dogs' is correct)

2. Can you pass _salt/the salt_, please? ('the salt' is correct)

3. _Apples/The apples_ are good for you.

4. Look at _apples/the apples_ on that tree! They're very big.

5. _Women/The women_ live longer than men/the men.

6. I don't drink _tea/the tea._ I don't like it'

7. We had a very nice meal. _Vegetables/The vegetables_ were especially good.

8. _Life/The life_ is strange sometimes. Some very strange things happen.

9. I like _skiing/the skiing_ but I'm not very good at it.

10. Who are _people/the people_ in this photograph?

11. What makes _people/the people_ violent? What causes aggression/the aggression?

12. _All books/All the books_ on the top shelf belong to me.

13. Don't stay in that hotel. It's very noisy and _beds/the beds_ are very uncomfortable.

14. A pacifist is somebody who is against _war/the war._

15. _First World War/The First World War_ lasted from 1914 until 1918.

16. One of our biggest social problems is _unemployment/the unemployment._

17. Ron and Brenda got married but _marriage/the marriage_ didn't last very long.

18. _Most people/The most people_ believe that _marriage/the marriage_ and _family life/the family life_ are the basis of _society/the society._

@p150

UNIT 75. The (4) (The giraffe/the telephone/the piano etc.;

the + adjective)

A. Study these sentences:

* The giraffe is the tallest of all animals.

* The bicycle is an excellent means of transport.

* When was the telephone invented?

* The dollar is the currency (= money) of the United States.

In these examples, the... does not mean one particular thing. The giraffe one particular type I animal, not one particular giraffe. We use the (+ a singular countable noun) in this way to talk about a type of animal, machine etc.

In the same way we use the for musical instruments:

* Can you play the guitar?

* The piano is my favourite instrument.

Compare a:

* I'd like to have a guitar.

* We saw a giraffe at the zoo.

Note that we use man (= human beings in general/the human race) without 'the':

* What do you know about the origins of man? (not 'the man')

B. The + adjective

We use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about groups of people, especially:

the young the old the elderly the rich the poor the unemployed the homeless the sick the disabled the injured the dead

The young = young people, the rich = rich people etc.:

* Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor?

* The homeless need more help from the government.

These expressions are always plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a young' or 'an unemployed'. You must say 'a young man', 'an unemployed woman' etc. Note also that we say 'the poor' (not 'the poors'), 'the young' (not 'the youngs') etc.

C. The + nationality

You can use the with some nationality adjectives to mean 'the people of that country'. For example:

* The French are famous for their food. (= the people of France)

* Why do the English think they are so wonderful? (= the people of England) In the same way you can say:

the Spanish the Dutch the British the Irish the Welsh

Note that the French/the English etc. are plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a French/an English'. You have to say 'a Frenchman/an Englishwoman' etc.

You can also use the + nationality words ending in -ese (the Chinese/the Sudanese etc.):

* The Chinese invented printing.

These words can also be singular (a Japanese, a Sudanese).

Also: the Swiss/a Swiss (plural or singular)

With other nationalities, the plural noun ends in -s. For example:

an Italian a Mexican a Scot a Turk (the) Italians (the) Mexicans (the) Scots (the) Turks

@p151

EXERCISES

75.1 Answer the questions. Choose the right answer from the box. Don't forget the. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1. animals: tiger elephant rabbit cheetah giraffe kangaroo

2. birds: eagle penguin swan owl parrot robin

3. inventions: telephone wheel telescope laser helicopter typewriter

4. currencies: dollar lira escudo rupee peseta yen

1. a. Which of the animals is tallest? _the giraffe._

b. Which animal can run fastest?

c. Which of these animals is found in Australia?

2. a. Which of these birds has a long neck?

b. Which of these birds cannot fly?

c. Which bird flies at night?

3. a. Which of these inventions is oldest?

b. Which one is most recent?

c. Which one is especially important for astronomy?

4 a. What is the currency of India?

b. What is the currency of Portugal?

c. What is the currency of your country?

75.2 Put in the or a where necessary. If the sentence is already complete leave an empty space(-)

1. When was _the_ telephone invented?

2. Can you play ---music instrument?

3. Jill plays --- violin in an orchestra.

4. There was --- piano in the corner of the room.

5. Can you play --- piano?

6. Our society is based on --- family.

7. Martin comes from --- large family.

8. When was --- paper first made?

9. --- computer has changed the way we live.

75.3 Complete these sentences using the + one of these adjectives:

injured poor rich sick unemployed young

1. _The young_ have the future in their hands.

2. Ambulances arrived at the scene of the accident and took --- to hospital.

3. Life is all right if you have a job, but things are not so easy for ---.

4. Julia has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ---.

5. In England there is an old story about a man called Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed --- and gave the money to ---.

75.4 What do you call the people of these countries?

1. Canada?

one person (a/an ...): a Canadian

the people in general: the Canadian

2. Germany?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

3. France?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

4. Russia?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

5. China?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

6. Brazil?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

7. England?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

8. and your country?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

@p152

UNIT 76. Names with and without the (1)

A. We do not use 'the' with names of people ('Ann', 'Ann Taylor' etc.). In the same way, we do not normally use 'the' with names of places. For example:

continents: Africa (not 'the Africa'), Europe, South America

countries: France (not 'the France'), Japan, Switzerland

states, regions etc.: Texas, Cornwall, Tuscany, Central Europe

islands: Corsica, Sicily, Bermuda

cities, towns etc.: Cairo, New York, Madrid

mountains: Everest, Etna, Kilimanjaro

But we use the in names with 'Republic', 'Kingdom', 'States' etc.:

the United States of America (the USA)

the United Kingdom (the UK)

the Dominican Republic

Compare:

* We visited Canada and the United States.

B. When we use Mr/Mrs/Captain/Doctor etc. + a name, we do not use 'the'. So we say:

Mr Johnson/Doctor Johnson/Captain Johnson/President Johnson etc. (not 'the...')

Uncle Robert/Aunt Jane/Saint Catherine/Princess Anne etc. (not 'the...')

Compare:

* We called the doctor. but We called Doctor Johnson. (not 'the Doctor Johnson')

We use mount (= mountain) and lake in the same way (without 'the'):

Mount Everest (not 'the...') Mount Etna Lake Superior Lake Constance

* They live near the lake. but They live near Lake Constance. (without 'the')

C. We use the with the names of oceans, seas, rivers and canals (see also Unit 77B):

the Atlantic (Ocean)

the Mediterranean (Sea)

the Red Sea

the Indian Ocean

the Channel (between France and Britain)

the Suez Canal

the (River) Amazon

the (River) Thames

the Nile

the Rhine

D. We use the with plural names of people and places:

people: the Taylors (= the Taylor family), the Johnsons

countries: the Netherlands, the Philippines, the United States

groups of islands: the Canaries/the Canary Islands, the Bahamas, the British Isles

mountain ranges: the Rocky Mountains/the Rockies, the Andes, the Alps

* The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc. (not 'the Mont Blanc')

E. North/northern etc.

We say: the north (of France) but northern France (without 'the')

the south-east (of Spain) but south-eastern Spain

Compare:

* Sweden is in northern Europe; Spain is in the south.

Also: the Middle East the Far East

You can also use north/south etc. + a place name (without 'the'):

North America West Africa South-East Spain

Note that on maps, the is not usually included in the name.

@p153

EXERCISES

76.1 Put in the where necessary. Leave a space (-) if the sentence is already complete.

1. Who is - Doctor Johnson? (The sentence is complete without the.)

2. I was ill, so I went to see --- doctor.

3. --- President is the most powerful person in --- United States.

4. --- President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.

5. Do you know --- Wilsons? They're a very nice couple.

6. Do you know --- Professor Brown's phone number?

76.2 Some of these sentences are correct, but some need the (perhaps more than once). Correct the sentences where necessary. Put 'RIGHT' if the sentence is already correct.

1. Everest was first climbed in 1953. _RIGHT_

2. Milan is in north of Italy. _the north of Italy._

3. Africa is much larger than Europe.

4. Last year I visited Mexico and United States.

5. South of England is warmer than north.

6. Portugal is in western Europe.

7. France and Britain are separated by Channel.

8. Jim has travelled a lot in Middle East.

9. Chicago is on Lake Michigan.

10. The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro (5,895 meters).

11. Next year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps.

12. United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

13. Seychelles are a group of islands in Indian Ocean.

14. River Volga flows into Caspian Sea.

76.3 Here are some geography questions. Choose the right answer from one of the boxes and write the if necessary. You do not need all the names in the boxes. Use an atlas if necessary.

continents: Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North, America, South, America

countries: Canada, Denmark, Indonesia, Sweden, Thailand, United States

oceans and seas: Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Pacific, Black Sea, Mediterranean, Red Sea

mountains: Alps, Andes, Himalayas, Rockies, Urals

rivers and canals: Amazon, Rhine, Danube, Thames, Nile, Volga, Suez Canal, Panama Canal

1. What do you have to cross to travel from Europe to America? _The Atlantic_

2. Where is Argentina?

3. Which is the longest river in Africa?

4. Of which country is Stockholm the capital?

5. Of which country is Washington the capital?

6. What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America?

7. What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe?

8. Which is the smallest continent in the world?

9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia?

10. What is the name of the ocean between Africa and Australia?

11. Which river flows through London?

12. Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade?

13. Of which country is Bangkok the capital?

14. What joins the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans?

15. Which is the longest river in South America?

@p154

UNIT 77. Names with and without the (2)

A. Names without 'the'

We do not use 'the' with names of most streets/roads/squares/parks etc.:

Union Street (not 'the ...') Fifth Avenue Piccadilly Circus Hyde Park Blackrock Road Broadway Times Square Waterloo Bridge

Many names (especially names of important buildings and institutions) are two words:

Kennedy Airport Cambridge University

The first word is usually the name of a person ('Kennedy') or a place ('Cambridge'). We do not usually use 'the' with names like these. Some more examples:

Victoria Station (not 'the ...') Edinburgh Castle London Zoo Westminster Abbey Buckingham Palace Canterbury Cathedral

But we say 'the White House', 'the Royal Palace', because 'white' and 'royal' are not names like 'Kennedy' and 'Cambridge'. This is only a general rule and there are exceptions.

B. Most other names (of places, buildings etc.) have names with the:

adjective or the + name etc. + noun

the Hilton Hotel

the National Theatre

the Sahara Desert

the Atlantic Ocean

These places usually have names with the:

hotels/restaurants/pubs: the Station Hotel, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub)

theatres/cinemas: the Palace Theatre, the Odeon Cinema

museums/galleries: the British Museum, the Tate Gallery

other buildings: the Empire State Building, the Festival Hall, the White House

oceans/seas/canals: the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal

also:

newspapers: the Washington Post, the Financial Times

organizations (but see also Section D): the European Union, the BBC (= the British Broadcasting Corporation)

Sometimes we leave out the noun: the Hilton (Hotel), the Sahara (Desert)

Sometimes the name is only the + noun: the Vatican (in Rome), the Sun (British newspaper)

Names with ... of ... usually have the. For example:

the Bank of England

the Tower of London

the Museum of Modern Art

the Houses of Parliament

the Great Wall of China

the Tropic of Capricorn

the Gulf of Mexico

the University of London (but the London University)

C. Many shops, restaurants, hotels, banks etc. are named after the people who started them. These names end in -'s or -s. We do not use 'the' with these names:

Lloyds Bank (not the Lloyds Bank) McDonalds Jack's Guest House Harrods (shop)

Churches are often named after saints:

St John's Church (not the St John's Church)

St Paul's Cathedral

D. Names of companies, airlines etc. are usually without 'the':

Fiat (not the Fiat) Sony Kodak British Airways IBM

@p155

EXERCISES

77.1 Use the map to answer the questions in the way shown. Write the name of the place and the street it is in. On maps we do not normally use the. In your sentences, use the if necessary.

1. Is there a cine a near here? Yes, the Odeon in Baines Street.

2. Is there a supermarket near here? Yes, --- in ---.

3. Is there a hotel near here? Yes, --- in ---.

4. Is there a church near here? Yes, ---.

5. Is there a nub near here? Yes. ---.

6. Is there a museum near here? Yes, ---.

7. Is there a bank near here? Yes, ---.

8. Is there a Park near here? Yes, --- at the end of ---.

9. Is there a restaurant near here? Yes,---.

77.2 Where are these streets and buildings? Choose from the box to complete the sentences. Use the where necessary.

Acropolis Vatican Broadway White House Buckingham Palace St Mark's Cathedral Eiffel Tower Trafalgar Square

1. _Trafalgar_ Square is in London.

2. --- is in Paris.

3. --- is in Rome.

4. --- is in London.

5. --- is in New York.

6. --- is in Washington.

7. --- is in Athens.

8.--- is in Athens. is in Venice.

77.3 Choose the correct form, with or without the.

1. Have you ever been to _British Museum/the British Museum._ (the ... is correct)

2. _Hyde Park/The Hyde Park_ is a very large park in central London.

3. Another park in central London is _St James's Park/the St James's Park._

4. _Grand Hotel/The Grand Hotel_ is in _Baker Street/the Baker Street._

5. We flew to New York from _Gatwick Airport/the Gatwick Airport_ near London.

6. Frank is a student at _Liverpool University/the Liverpool University._

7. If you're looking for a good clothes shop, I would recommend _Harrison's/the Harrison's._

8. If you're looking for a good pub, I would recommend _Ship Inn/the Ship Inn._

9. _Statue of Liberty/The Statue of Liberty_ is at the entrance to _New York harbour/the New York harbour._

10. You should go to _Science Museum/the Science Museum._ It's very interesting,

11. John works for IBM/the IBM now. He used to work for _British Telecom/the British Telecom._

12. 'Which cinema are you going to this evening?' '_Classic/The Classic._'

13. I'd like to go to China and see _Great Wall/the Great Wall._

14. Which newspaper shall I buy--_Independent/the Independent_ or _Herald/the Herald_?

15. This book is published by _Cambridge University Press/the Cambridge University Press._

@p156

UNIT 78. Singular and plural

A. Sometimes we use a plural noun for one thing that has two parts. For example:

trousers (two legs) also jeans/tights/shorts/pants

pyjamas (top and bottom)

glasses (or spectacles)

binoculars

scissors

These words are plural, so they take a plural verb:

* My trousers are too long. (not 'is too long')

You can also use a pair of + these words:

* Those are nice jeans. or That's a nice pair of jeans. (not 'a nice jeans')

* I need some new glasses. or I need a new pair of glasses.

B. Some nouns end in -ics but are not usually plural. For example: athletics gymnastics mathematics (or maths) physics electronics economics politics

* Gymnastics is my favourite sport.

News is not plural (see Unit 69C):

* What time is the news on television? (not 'are the news')

Some words ending in -s can be singular or plural. For example:

means a means of transport many means of transport

series a television series two television series

species a species of bird 200 species of bird

C. Some singular nouns are often used with a plural verb. For example:

government staff team family audience committee company firm

These nouns are all groups of people. We often think of them as a number of people (= 'they'), not as one thing (= 'it'). So we often use a plural verb:

* The government (= they) want to increase taxes.

* The staff at the school (= they) are not happy with their new working conditions.

In the same way, we often use a plural verb after the name of a sports team or a company:

* Scotland are playing France next week (in a football match).

* Shell have increased the price of petrol.

A singular verb (The government wants.../Shell has... etc.) is also possible.

We always use a plural verb with police:

* The police have arrested a friend of mine. (not 'The police has')

* Do you think the police are well-paid?

Note that a person in the police is 'a policeman/a policewoman/a police officer' (not 'a police').

D. We do not often use the plural of person ('persons'). We normally use people (a plural word):

* He's a nice person. but They are nice people.

* Many people don't have enough to eat. (not 'doesn't have')

E. We think of a sum of money, a period of time, a distance etc. as one thing. So we use a singular verb:

* Twenty thousand pounds (= it) was stolen in the robbery. (not 'were stolen')

* Three years (= it) is a long time to be without a job. (not 'Three years are ...')

* Six miles is a long way to walk every day.

@p157

EXERCISES

78.1 Complete the sentences using a word from Sections A or B. Sometimes you need a or some.

1. My eyes aren't very good. I need _glasses._

2. This plant is _a_ very rare _species._

3. Footballers don't wear trousers when they play. They wear ---.

4. The bicycle is --- of transport.

5. The bicycle and the car are --- of transport.

6. I want to cut this piece of material. I need ---.

7. Ann is going to write --- of articles for her local newspaper.

8. There are a lot of American TV --- shown on British television.

9. While we were out walking, we saw 25 different --- of bird.

78.2 In each example the words on the left are connected with an activity (for example, a sport or an academic subject). Write the name of the activity. Each time the beginning of the word is given.

1. calculate algebra equation: mathematics.

2. government election minister: p---

3. finance trade industry: e---

4. running lumping throwing: a---

5. light heat gravity: ph---

6. exercises somersault parallel bars: gy---

7. computer silicon chip video games: el---

78.3 Choose the correct form of the verb, singular or plural. In one sentence either the singular or plural verb is possible.

1. Gymnastics _is/are_ my favourite sport. ('is' is correct)

2. The trousers you bought for me _doesn't/don't_ fit me.

3. The police _want/wants_ to interview two men about the robbery last week.

4. Physics _was/were_ my best subject at school.

5. Can I borrow your scissors? Mine _isn't/aren't_ sharp enough.

6. Fortunately the news _wasn't/weren't_ as bad as we expected.


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 283


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