UNIT 28. Must and can't 8 page
Examples of nouns usually countable:
* There's a beach near here.
* Ann was singing a song.
* Have you got a ten-pound note?
* It wasn't your fault. It was an accident.
* There are no batteries in the radio.
* We haven't got enough cups.
* I eat rice every day.
* I like rice.
Rice is an uncountable noun.
An uncountable noun has only one form(rice).
Uncountable nouns are things we cannot count. We cannot say 'one rice', 'two rices' etc.
Examples of nouns usually uncountable:
* There's sand in my shoes.
* Ann was listening to (some) music.
* Have you got any money?
* It wasn't your fault. It was bad luck.
* There is no electricity in this house.
* We haven't got enough cups.
* We haven't got enough water.
B. #1 You can use a/an with singular countable nouns:
a beach a student an umbrella
You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/the/my etc.):
* I want a banana. (not 'I want banana')
* There's been an accident. (not 'There's been accident')
You can use plural countable nouns alone:
* I like bananas. (= bananas in general)
* Accident can be prevented.
See also Unit 74.
#2 You cannot normally use a/an with uncountable nouns. We do not say 'a sand' or 'a music'. But you can often use a ... of:
a bowl of rice a drop of water a piece of music a game of tennis etc.
You can use uncountable nouns alone (without the/my/some etc.):
* I eat rice every day.
* There's blood on your shirt.
* Can you hear music?
See also Unit 74.
C. #1 You can use some and any plural countable nouns:
* We sang some songs.
* Did you buy any apples?
We use many and few with plural countable nouns:
* We didn't take many photographs.
* I have a few jobs to do.
#2 You can use some and any with uncountable nouns:
* We listened to some music.
* Did you buy any apple juice?
We use much and little with uncountable nouns:
* We didn't do much shopping.
* I have a little work to do.
68.1 Some of these sentences need a/an. Correct the sentences which are wrong. If the sentence is already correct, put 'RIGHT'.
1. Jim goes everywhere by bike. He hasn't got car.
2. Ann was listening to music when I arrived.
3. We went to very nice restaurant last weekend.
4. I clean my teeth with toothpaste.
5. I use toothbrush to clean my teeth.
6. Can you tell me if there's bank near here?
7. My brother works for insurance company in London.
8. I don't like violence.
9. Can you smell paint?
10. We need petrol. I hope we come to petrol station soon.
11. I wonder if you can help me. I have problem.
12. John has got interview for job tomorrow.
13. Liz doesn't usually wear jewellery but yesterday she was wearing necklace.
14. I think volleyball is very good game.
68.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Use a/an where necessary.
accident biscuit blood coat decision electricity key letter moment question sugar
1. It wasn't your fault. It was _an accident._
2. Listen! Can you hear _music?_
3. I couldn't get into the house because I didn't have ---.
4. It's very warm today. Why are you wearing ---?
5. Do you take --- in your coffee?
6. Are you hungry? Would you like --- with your coffee?
7. Our lives would be very difficult without ---.
8. I didn't phone them. I wrote --- instead.
9. The heart pumps --- through the body.
10. Excuse me, but can I ask you ---?
11. I'm not ready yet. Can you wait. --- please?
12. We can't delay much longer. We have to make --- soon.
68.3 Complete the sentences using one of the following words. Sometimes the word needs to be plural (-s).
air country day friend meat language letter patience people photograph queue space
1. I had my camera but I didn't take many _photographs._
2. There are seven --- in a week.
3. A vegetarian is a person who doesn't eat ---.
4. Outside the cinema there was --- of people waiting to see the film.
5. I'm not very good at writing ---.
6. Last night I went out with some --- of mine.
7. There were very few --- in the shops today. They were almost empty.
8. I'm going out for a walk. I need some fresh ---.
9. George always wants things quickly. He's got no ---.
10. Do you speak any foreign ---?
11. Jane travels a lot. She has been to many ---.
12. Our flat is very small. We haven't got much ---.
UNIT 69. Countable and uncountable nouns (2)
A. Many nouns can be used as countable or uncountable nouns, usually with a difference in meaning. Compare:
* Did you hear a noise just now? (= a particular noise)
* I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper)
* There's a hair in my soup! (= one single hair)
* You can stay with us. There is a spare room. (= a room in a house)
* I had some interesting experiences while I was away. (= things that happened to me)
* Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time!
* I can't work here. There's too much noise. (not 'too many noises')
* I need some paper to write on. (= material for writing on)
* You've got very long hair. (not 'hairs') (= all the hair on your head)
* You can't sit here. There isn't room. (= space)
* They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience. (not 'experiences')
* I can't wait. I haven't got time.
B. Coffee/tea/beer/juice etc. (drinks) are normally uncountable:
* I don't drink coffee very often.
But they can be countable when you are thinking of a cup/a glass etc. So you can say:
* (in a restaurant) Two coffees and an orange juice, please.
C. There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but often countable in other languages. For example:
accommodation behaviour damage luck permission traffic bread furniture luggage progress weather chaos information news scenery work
These nouns are usually uncountable, so:
i) you cannot use a/an with them (you cannot say 'a bread', 'an advice' etc.) and
ii) they are not normally plural (we do not say 'breads', 'advices' etc.).
* I'm going to buy some bread. or .. a loaf of bread. (not 'a bread')
* Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. (not 'a good weather')
* Where are you going to put all your furniture? (not 'furnitures')
News is uncountable, not plural:
* The news was very depressing. (not 'the news were')
Travel (noun) means 'travelling in general'. You cannot say 'a travel' to mean a journey or a trip:
* We had a very good journey. (not 'a good travel')
Compare these countable and uncountable nouns:
* I'm looking for a job.
* What a beautiful view!
* It's a nice day today.
* We had a lot of bags and cases.
* These chairs are mine.
* It was a good suggestion.
* I'm looking for work. (not 'a work')
* What beautiful scenery!
* It's nice weather today.
* We had a lot of luggage. (not 'luggages')
* This furniture is mine.
* It was good advice.
69.1 Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct?
1. 'Did you hear _noise/a noise- just now?' 'No, I didn't hear anything.' ('a noise' is correct)
2. a. If you want to know the news, you can read _paper/a paper._
b. I want to write some letters but I haven't got _a paper/any paper_ to write on.
3. a. I thought there was somebody in the house because there was _light/a light_ on inside.
b. _Light/A light_ comes from the sun.
4. a. I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have _time/a time_ for breakfast.
b. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, we had _wonderful time/a wonderful time._'
5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful _advice/advices._
6. We had _very good weather/a very good weather_ while we were on holiday.
7. We were very unfortunate. We had _bad luck/a bad luck._
8. It's very difficult to find a _work/job_ at the moment.
9. Our _travel/journey_ from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.
10. When the fire alarm rang, there was _total chaos/a total chaos._
11. I had to buy _a/some_ bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.
12. Bad news _don't/doesn't_ make people happy.
13. _Your hair is/Your hairs are_ too long. You should have it/them cut.
14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but _the damage/the damages_ to the car _was/were_ quite bad.
69.2 Complete the sentences using these words. Sometimes you need the plural (-s).
chair experience experience furniture hair information job luggage permission progress work
1. I didn't have much _luggage_--just two small bags.
2. They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of ---
3. There is room for everybody to sit down. There are plenty of ---
4. We have no ---, not even a bed or a table.
5. 'What does Alan look like?' He's got a long beard and very short ---
6. Carla's English is better than it was. She's made ---
7. George is unemployed. He's looking for a ---
8. George is unemployed. He's looking for ---
9. If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for ---
10. I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough ---
11. Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her ---
69.3 What do you say in these situations? Complete the sentences using one of the words from Section C.
1. Your friends have just arrived at the station. You can't see any suitcases or bags.
You ask them: Have _you got luggage?_
2. You go into the tourist office. You want to know about places to see in the town. You say:
I'd like ---
3. You are a student at school. You want your teacher to advise you about which examinations to take. You say:
Can you give me ---?
4. You want to watch the news on TV but you don't know what time it is on. You ask your friend:
What time ---?
5. You are standing at the top of a mountain. You can see a very long way. It is lovely. You say:
It ---, isn't it?
6. You look out of the window. The weather is horrible: cold, wet and windy. You say to your friend:
UNIT 70. Countable nouns with a/an and some
A. Countable nouns can be singular or plural:
a dog a child the evening this party an umbrella dogs some children the evenings these parties two umbrellas
B. Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an:
* Goodbye! Have a nice evening.
* Do you need an umbrella?
You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/the/my etc.):
* She never wears a hat. (not 'She never wears hat')
* Be careful of the dog. (not 'Be careful of dog')
* What a beautiful day!
* I've got a headache.
C. We use a/an ... to say what kind of thing or person something/somebody is:
* A dog is an animal.
* I'm an optimist.
* Tim's father is a doctor.
* Are you a good driver?
* Jill is a really nice person.
* What a lovely dress!
We say that somebody has a long nose/a nice face/a strong heart etc.:
* Jack has got a long nose. (not 'the long nose')
In sentences like these, we use plural nouns alone (not with 'some'):
* Dogs are animals.
* Most of my friends are students.
* Jill's parents are really nice people.
* What awful shoes!
* Jack has got blue eyes. (not 'the blue eyes')
Remember to use a/an when you say what somebody's job is:
* Sandra is a nurse. (not 'Sandra is nurse')
* Would you like to be an English teacher?
D. You can use some with plural countable nouns. We use some in two ways:
i) Some = a number of/a few of/a pair of:
* I've seen some good films recently. (not 'I've seen good films')
* Some friends of mine are coming to stay at the weekend.
* I need some new sunglasses, (= a new pair of sunglasses)
Do not use some when you are talking about things in general (see also Unit 74):
* I love bananas. (not 'some bananas')
* My aunt is a writer. She writes books. (not 'some books')
Sometimes you can make sentences with or without some (with no difference in meaning):
* There are (some) eggs in the fridge if you're hungry.
ii) Some = some but not all
* Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children)
* Some police officers in Britain carry guns, but most of them don't.
70.1 What are these things? Try and find out if you don't know.
1. an ant? _It's an insects._
2. ants? bees? _They're insects._
3. a cauliflower?
5. a violin? a trumpet? a flute?
6. a skyscraper?
7. Earth? Mars? Venus? Jupiter?
8. a tulip?
9. the Rhine? the Nile? the Mississippi?
10 a pigeon? an eagle? a crow?
Who were these people?
11. Beethoven? _Has was a composer._
13. Albert Einstein?
14. Washington? Lincoln? John Kennedy?
15. Marilyn Monroe?
16 Elvis Presley? John Lennon?
17. Van Gogh? Renoir? Gauguin?
70.2 Read about what these people do and say what their jobs are. Choose one of these jobs:
driving instructor interpreter journalist nurse pilot plumber travel agent waiter
1. Stella looks after patients in hospital. _She's a nurse._
2. George works in a restaurant. He brings the food to the tables. He ---
3. Mary arranges people's holidays for them. She ---
4. Ron works for an airline. He flies aeroplane. ---
5. Linda teaches people how to drive. ---
6. Dave fits and repairs water pipes. ---
7. Jenny writes articles for a newspaper. ---
8. John translates what people are saying from one language into another, so that they can understand each other. ---
70.3 Put in alan or some where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty(-).
1. I've seen some good films recently.
2. What's wrong with you? Have you got _a_ headache?
3. I know a lot of people. Most of them are - students.
4. When I was --- child, I used to be very shy.
5. Would you like to be --- actor?
6. Do you collect --- stamps?
7. What --- beautiful garden!
8. --- birds, for example the penguin, cannot fly.
9. I've been walking for three hours. I've got --- sore feet.
10. I don't feel very well this morning. I've got --- sore throat.
11. It's a pity we haven't got --- camera. I'd like to take --- photograph of that house.
12. Those are --- nice shoes. Where did you get them?
13. I'm going shopping. I want to buy --- new shoes.
14. You need --- visa to visit --- countries, but not all of them.
15. Jane is --- teacher. Her parents were --- teachers too.
16. Do you enjoy going to --- concerts?
17. When we got to the city centre --- shops were still open but most of them were closed.
18. I don't believe him. He's --- liar. He's always telling --- lies.
UNIT 71. A/an and the
A. Study this example:
JOHN: I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn't very good but the apple was nice.
John says 'a sandwich', 'an apple' because this is the first time he talks about them.
John now says 'the sandwich', 'the apple because Karen knows which sandwich and which apple he means - the sandwich and the apple he had for lunch.
Compare a and the in these examples:
* A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American but I think the woman was British.
* When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we had our evening meal at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant.
B. We use the when we are thinking of one particular thing. Compare a/an and the:
* Tom sat down on a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs in the room)
but Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door. (a particular chair)
* Ann is looking for a job. (not a particular job)
but Did Ann get the job she applied for? (a particular job)
* Have you got a car? (not a particular car)
but I cleaned the car yesterday. (= my car)
For a see also Units 70 and 72A.
C. We use the when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example, in a room we talk about 'the light/the floor/the ceiling/the door/the carpet' etc.:
* Can you turn off the light, please? (= the light in this room)
* I took a taxi to the station. (= the station in that town)
* I'd like to speak to the manager, please. (= the manager of this shop etc.)
In the same way, we say (go to) the bank, the post office:
* I must go to the bank to get some money and then I'm going to the post office to get some stamps. (The speaker is usually thinking of a particular bank or post office.
Also: the doctor, the dentist:
* Carol isn't very well. She's gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor)
* I hate going to the dentist.
* Is there a bank near here?
* My sister is a dentist.
Don't forget the:
* Susan works in the city centre. (not 'in city centre')
* My brother is in the army. (not 'in army')
D. We say 'once a week/three times a day/-'1.20 a kilo' etc.:
* 'How often do you go to the cinema?' 'About once a month.'
* 'How much are those potatoes?' 'Ll.20 a kilo.'
* She works eight hours a day, six days a week.
71.1 Put in a/an or the.
1. This morning I bought _a_ newspaper and --- magazine ---newspaper is in my bag but I don't know where I put --- magazine.
2. I saw --- accident this morning --- car crashed into --- tree. --- driver of --- car wasn't hurt but --- car was badly damaged.
3. There are two cars parked outside: --- blue one and --- grey one. --- blue one belongs to my neighbours; I don't know who --- owner of --- grey one is.
4. My friends live in --- old house in --- small village. There is --- beautiful garden behind --- house. I would like to have ---garden like that.
71.2 Put in a/an or the.
1. a. This house is very nice. Has it got --- garden?
b. It's a beautiful day. Let's sit in --- garden.
c. I like living in this house but it's a pity that --- garden is so small.
2. a. Can you recommend --- good restaurant?
b. We had dinner in --- very nice restaurant.
c. We had dinner in --- most expensive restaurant in town.
3. a. She has --- French name but in fact she's English, not French.
b. What's --- name of that man we met yesterday?
c. We stayed at a very nice hotel - I can't remember --- name now.
4. a. There isn't --- airport near where I live --- nearest airport is 70 miles away.
b. Our plane was delayed. We had to wait at --- airport for three hours.
c. Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to --- airport?
5. a. 'Are you going away next week?' 'No, --- week after next.'
b. I'm going away for --- week in September.
c. George has a part-time job. He works three mornings --- week.
71.3 Put in a/an or the in these sentences where necessary.
1. Would you like apple? _an apple._
2. How often do you go to dentist? ---
3. Could you close door, please? ---
4. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to do that. It was mistake ---
5. Excuse me, where is bus station, please? ---
6. I've got problem. Can you help me? ---
7. I'm just going to post office. I won't be long ---
8. There were no chairs, so we had to sit on floor. ---
9. Have you finished with book I lent you? ---
10. My sister has just got job in bank in Manchester. ---
11. We live in small flat near city centre. ---
12. There's small supermarket at end of street I live in ---
71.4 Answer these questions about yourself. Where possible, use the structure in Section D (once a week/three times a day etc.).
1. How often do you go to the cinema? _Three or four times a year._
2. How much does it cost to hire a car in your country? _About L30 a day._
3. How often do you go away on holiday? ---
4. What's the speed limit in towns in your country? ---
5. How much sleep do you need? ---
6. How often do you go out in the evening? ---
7. How much television do you watch (on average)? ---
UNIT 72. The (1)
A. We use the ... when there is only one of something:
* What is the longest river in the world? (there is only one longest river)
* The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth.
* I'm going away at the end of this month.
Don't forget the:
* Paris is the capital of France. (not 'Paris is capital of...')
But we use a/an to say what kind of thing something is (see Unit 70C). Compare the and a:
* The sun is a star. (= one of many stars)
* The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel.
B. We say: the sky the sea the ground the country the environment:
* We looked up at all the stars in the sky. (not 'in sky')
* Would you rather live in a town or in the country?
* We must do more to protect the environment. (= the natural world around us)
Note that we say space (without 'the') when we mean 'space in the universe':
* There are millions of stars in space. (not 'in the space')
but * I tried to park my car but the space was too small.
C. We use the before same (the same):
* Your pullover is the same colour as mine. (not 'is same colour')
* These two photographs are the same. (not 'are same')
D. We say: (go to) the cinema, the theatre:
* I often go to the cinema but I haven't been to the theatre for ages.
When we say the cinema/the theatre, we do not necessarily mean one particular cinema or theatre.
We usually say the radio, but television (without 'the'):
* I often listen to the radio.
* We heard the news on the radio.
* I often watch television.
* We watched the news on television.
but * Can you turn off the television, please? (= the television set)
* There isn't a theatre in this town.
* I'm going to buy a new radio/television (set).
E. Breakfast lunch dinner
We do not normally use the with the names of meals (breakfast, lunch etc.):
* What did you have for breakfast?
* We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.
* What time is dinner?
But we use a if there is an adjective before breakfast, lunch etc.:
We had a very nice lunch. (not 'we had very nice lunch')
F. Platform 5 Room 126 etc.
We do not use 'the' before noun + number. For example, we say:
* Our train leaves from Platform 5. (not 'the Platform 5')
* (in a shop) Have you got these shoes in size 43? (not 'the size 43')
In the same way, we say: Room 126 (in a hotel) page 29 (of a book) Section A etc.
72.1 Put in the or a/an where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty(-).
1. A: Where did you have - lunch?
B: We went to _a_ restaurant.
2. A: Did you have --- nice holiday?
B: Yes, 'it was --- best holiday I've ever had.
3. A: Where's nearest shop?
B: There's one at --- end of this street.
4. A: Do you often listen to radio?
B: No. In fact I haven't got radio.
5. A: Would you like to travel in --- space?
B: Yes, I'd love to go to -- moon.
6. A: Do you go to -- cinema very often?
B: No, not very often. But I watch a lot of films on --- television.
7. A: It was --- nice day yesterday, wasn't it?
B: Yes, it was beautiful. We went for a walk by --- sea.
8. A: What did you have --- breakfast this morning?
B: Nothing. I never eat --- breakfast.
9. A: Can you tell me where --- Room 25 is, please?
B: It's on --- second floor.
10. A: We spent all our money because we stayed at --- most expensive hotel in town.
B: Why didn't you stay at --- cheaper hotel?
72.2 Put in the where necessary. If you don't need the, leave the space empty(-).
1. I haven't been to _the_ cinema for ages.
2. I lay down on --- ground and looked up at --- sky.
3. Sheila spends most of her free time watching --- television.
4. --- television was on but nobody was watching it.
5. Have you had --- dinner yet?
6. Mary and I arrived at --- same time.
7. You'll find --- information you need at --- top of --- page 15.
8. Peru is a country in South America. --- capital is Lima.
72.3 Put in the or a/an where necessary. If the sentence is already correct, put 'RIGHT'. (If necessary, see Unit 71 for a/an and the.)
1. I Sun is star. _The sun is a star._
2. Tim lives in small village in country. ---
3. Moon goes round earth every 27 days. ---
4. What is highest mountain in world? ---
5. I'm fed up with doing same thing every day. ---
6. It was very hot day. It was hottest day of year. ---
7. I don't usually have lunch but I always eat good breakfast. ---
8. If you live in foreign country, you should try and learn language. ---
9. We missed our train because we were waiting on wrong platform. We were on Platform 3 instead of Platform 8. ---
72.4 Complete the sentences using one of the following. Use the if necessary.
breakfast cinema dinner gate Gate 21 Question 8 sea
1. I didn't have time for --- this morning because I was in a hurry.
2. 'I'm going to --- this evening.' 'Are you? What film are you going to see?'
3. There was no wind, so --- was very calm.
4. 'Are you going out this evening?' 'Yes, after ---
5. The examination paper wasn't too difficult but I couldn't answer ---
6. Oh --- is open. I must have forgotten to shut it.
7. (airport announcement) 'Flight BA123 to Vienna is now boarding at ---
UNIT 73. The (2) (School/the school)
A. Compare school and the school:
#1 Alison is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She's at school now. School begins at 9 and finishes at 3.
We say a child goes to school or is at school (as a pupil). We are not necessarily thinking of a particular school. We are thinking of school as a general idea.
#2 Today Alison's mother wants to speak to her daughter's teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. She's at the school now.
Alison's mother is not a pupil. She is not 'at school', she doesn't 'go to school'. But if she wants to see Alison's teacher, she goes to the school (= Alison's school, a particular school).
B. We use prison, hospital, university, and church in a similar way. We do not use the when we are thinking of the general idea of these places and what they are used for. Compare:
#1 * Ken's brother is in prison for robbery. (He is a prisoner. We are not thinking of a particular prison.)
* Jack had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He's still in hospital now. (as a patient)
* When I leave school, I want to go to university.
* Mrs Kelly goes to church every Sunday. (to a religious service)
#2 * Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (He went as a visitor, not as a prisoner.)
* Jill has gone to the hospital to visit Jack.
* She's at the hospital now. (as a visitor)
* Excuse me, where is the university, please? (= the university buildings)
* The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (not for a religious service)
With most other places, you need the. For example, the cinema, the bank, the station. See Units 71C and 72D.
C. Bed work home
We say: 'go to bed/be in bed' etc. (not 'the bed'):
* It's time to go to bed now.
* This morning I had breakfast in bed.
but * I sat down on the bed. (a particular piece of furniture)
'go to work/be at work/start work/finish work' etc. (not 'the work'):
* Ann didn't go to work yesterday.
* What time do you usually finish work?
'go home/come home/arrive home/be at home' etc.:
* It's late. Let's go home.
Date: 2015-12-11; view: 629