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UNIT 28. Must and can't 10 page

7. Where _does/do_ your family live?

8. Three days _isn't/aren't_ long enough for a good holiday.

9. I can't find my binoculars. Do you know where _it is/they are?_

10. Do you think the people _is/are_ happy with the government?

11. _Does/Do_ the police know how the accident happened?

12. I don't like very hot weather. Thirty degrees _is/are_ too warm for me.

78.4 Most of these sentences are wrong. Correct them where necessary; Put 'RIGHT' if the sentence is already correct.

1. The government want to increase taxes. _RIGHT (wants' is also correct)_

2. Susan was wearing a black jeans.

3. Brazil are playing Italy in a football match next Wednesday.

4. I like Martin and Jill. They're very nice persons.

5. I need more money than that. Ten pounds are not enough.

6. I'm going to buy a new pyjama.

7. The committee haven't made a decision yet.

8. Many people has given up smoking.

9. There was a police standing at the corner of the street.

10. Has the police arrived yet?

11. This scissors is not very sharp.

@p158

UNIT 79. Noun + noun (a tennis ball/a headache etc.)

A. We often use two nouns together (noun + noun) to mean one thing/person/idea etc. For example:

a tennis ball a bank manager a road accident income tax the city centre

The first noun is like an adjective--it tells us what kind of thing/person/idea etc. For example:

a tennis ball = a ball used to play tennis

a road accident = an accident that happens on the road

income tax = tax that you pay on your income

the sea temperature = the temperature of the sea

a London doctor = a doctor from London

So you can say:

a television camera a television programme a television studio a television producer

(all different things or people to do with television)

language problems marriage problems health problems work problems

(all different kinds of problems)

Compare:

garden vegetables (= vegetables that are grown in a garden)

a vegetable garden (= a garden where vegetables are grown)

Often the first word ends in ~ing. Usually these are things used for doing something. For example:

a washing machine a frying pan a swimming pool the dining room

Sometimes there are more than two nouns together:

* I waited at the hotel reception desk. (= a desk)

* We watched the World Swimming Championships on television.

* If you want to play table tennis (= a game), you need a table tennis table (= a table).

B. When nouns are together like this, sometimes we write them as one word and sometimes as two separate words. For example:

a headache toothpaste a weekend a stomach ache table tennis

There are no clear rules for this. If you are not sure, it is usually better to write two words.

You can often put a hyphen (-) between the two words (but this is not usually necessary): a dining-room the city-centre

C. Note the difference between:

a wine glass (perhaps empty) and a glass of wine (= a glass with wine in it)

a shopping bag (perhaps empty) and a bag of shopping (= a bag full of shopping)



D. When we use noun + noun, the first noun is like an adjective. It is normally singular but the meaning is often plural. For example, a bookshop is a shop where you can buy books, an apple tree is a tree that has apples.

In the same way we say:

a three-hour journey (not 'a three-hours journey')

a ten-pound note (not 'pounds') two 14-year-old girls (not 'years')

a four-week English course (not 'weeks') a three-page letter (not 'pages')

So we say:

* It was a three-hour journey. but The journey took three hours.

For the structure 'I've got three weeks' holiday', see Unit 80E.

@p159

EXERCISES

79.1 What do we call these things and people? Use the structure noun + noun.

1. A ticket for a concert is _a concert ticket!_

2. A magazine about computers is ---.

3. Photographs taken on your holiday are your ---.

4. Chocolate made with milk is ---.

5. Somebody whose job is to inspect factories is ---.

6. A hotel in central London is ---.

7. The results of your examinations are your ---.

8. The carpet in the dining room is ---.

9. A scandal involving a football club is ---.

10. A question that has two parts is ---.

11. A girl who is seven years old is ---.

79.2 Write the correct word for each picture. Each word has two parts and these are given above the pictures. In la for example, you must decide whether the word is boathouse or houseboat.

boat/house

horse/race

card/phone

79.3 Answer the questions using two of the following words each time:

accident belt card credit editor forecast number road room seat shop weather window

1. This can be caused by bad driving. _A road accident_

2. If you're staying at a hotel, you need to remember this. Your ---

3. You should wear this when you're in a car. A ---

4. You can sometimes use this to pay for things instead of cash. A ---

5. If you want to know if it's going to rain, you can read or listen to this. The ---

6. This person is a top journalist. A ---

7. You might stop to look in this when you're walking along a street. A ---

79.4 Complete the sentences using one of the following:

15 minute(s) 60 minute(s) two hour(s) five day(s) two year(s) 500 year(s) six mile(s) 20 pound(s) five course(s) ten page(s) 450 page(s)

Sometimes you need the singular (day/page etc.) and sometimes the plural(days/pages etc.)

1. It's quite a long book. There are _450 pages._

2. A few days ago I received a _ten-page_ letter from Julia.

3. I didn't have any change. I only had a --- note.

4. At work in the morning I usually have a --- break for coffee.

5. There are --- in an hour.

6. It's only a --- flight from London to Madrid.

7. It was a big meal. There were ---

8. Mary has just started a new job. She's got a --- contract.

9. The oldest building in the city is the --- old castle.

10. I work --- a week. Saturday and Sunday are free.

11. We went for a --- walk in the country.

@p160

UNIT 80. -s (the girl's name) and of... (the name of the book)

A. We normally use -'s for people or animals (the girl's.../the horse's... etc.):

the girl's name the horse's tail Mr Evans's daughter a woman's hat the manager's office Sarah's eyes

* Where is the manager's office? (not 'the office of the manager')

* What colour are Sarah's eyes? (not 'the eyes of Sarah')

Note that you can use -'s without a following noun:

* This isn't my book. It's my brother's. (= my brother's book)

We do not always use -'s for people. For example, we would use of... in this sentence:

* What is the name of the man who lent us the money? ('the man who lent us the money' is too long to be followed by -'s)

Note that we say a woman's hat (= a hat for a woman), a boy's name (= a name for a boy), a bird's egg (= an egg laid by a bird) etc.

B. For things, ideas etc. we normally use of ( ... of the book/... of the restaurant etc.):

the door of the garage (not 'the garage's door')

the name of the book

the owner of the restaurant

Sometimes you can use the structure noun + noun (see Unit 79):

the garage door the restaurant owner

We normally use of (not noun + noun ) with the beginning/end/top/bottom/front/back middle/side etc. So we say:

the back of the car (not 'the car back')

the beginning of the month

C. You can usually use -'s or of... for an organization (= a group of people). So you can say:

the government's decision or the decision of the government

the company's success or the success of the company

It is also possible to use -'s for places. So you can say:

the city's new theatre the world's population Italy's largest city

D. After a singular noun we use -'s:

my sister's room (= her room--one sister)

Mr Carter's house

After a plural noun (sisters,, friends etc.) we put ' (an apostrophe) after the s (s'):

my sisters' room (= their room--two or more sisters)

the Carters' house (Mr and Mrs Carter)

If a plural noun does not end in -s (for example, men/women/children/people) we use -s:

the men's changing room a children's book (= a book for children)

Note that you can use -'s after more than one noun:

Jack and Jill's wedding Mr and Mrs Carter's house

E. You can also use -'s with time expressions (yesterday/next week etc.)

* Have you still got yesterday's newspaper?

* Next week's meeting has been cancelled.

In the same way, you can say today's .../tomorrow's .../this evening's ... Monday's ... etc.

We also use -'s (or -s' with plural words) with periods of time:

* I've got a week's holiday starting on Monday.

* Jill has got three weeks' holiday.

* I live near the station - it's only about ten minutes' walk.

Compare this structure with 'a three-hour journey', 'a ten-minute walk' etc. (see Unit 79D).

@p161

EXERCISES

80.1 Join the two (or three) nouns. Sometimes you have to use -'s or -s'; and sometimes you have to use ... of ...

1. the owner/that car _the owner of that car_

2. the mother/Ann _Ann's mother_

3. the jacket/that man ---

4. the top/the page ---

5. the daughter/Charles ---

6. the cause/the problem ---

7. the newspaper/yesterday ---

8. the birthday/my father ---

9. the name/this street ---

10. the toys/the children ---

11. the new manager/the company ---

12. the result/the football match ---

13. the garden/our neighbours ---

14. the ground floor/the building ---

15. the children/Don and Mary ---

16. the economic policy/the government ---

17. the husband/Catherine ---

18. the husband/the woman-talking to Mary ---

19. the car/the parents/Mike ---

20. the wedding/the friend I Helen ---

80.2 What is another way of saying these things? Use -'s.

1. a hat for a woman _a woman's hat_

2. a name for a boy ---

3. clothes for children ---

4. a school for girls ---

5. a nest for a bird ---

6. a magazine for women ---

80.3 Read each sentence and write a new sentence beginning with the underline words.

1. The meeting _tomorrow_ has been cancelled.

_Tomorrow's meeting has been cancelled._

2. The storm _last week_ caused a lot of damage.

Last ---

3. The only cinema in _the town_ has closed down.

The ---

4. Exports from _Britain_ to the United States have fallen recently.

5. Tourism is the main industry in _the region._

80.4 Use the information given to complete the sentences.

1. If I leave my house at 9 o'clock and drive to London, I arrive at about 12.

So it's about _three hours' drive_ to London from my house. (drive)

2. If I leave my house at 8.S5 and walk-to the station, I get there at 9 o'clock.

So it's only --- from my house to the station. (walk)

3. I'm going on holiday on the 12th. I have to be back at work on the 26th.

So I've got --- (holiday)

4. I went to sleep at 3 o'clock this morning and woke up an hour later. After that I couldn't sleep. So last night I only had --- (sleep)

@p162

UNIT 81. A friend of mine My own house On my own/by myself

A. A friend of mine/a friend of Tom's etc.

We say 'a friend of mine/yours/his/hers/ours/theirs' (not 'a friend of me/you/him' etc.)

* I'm going to a wedding on Saturday. A friend of mine is getting married. (not 'a friends of me')

* We went on holiday with some friends of ours. (not 'some friends of us')

* Michael had an argument with a neighbour of his.

* It was a good idea of yours to go swimming this afternoon.

In the same way we say 'a friend of Tom's', 'a friend of my sister's' etc.:

* It was a good idea of Tom's to go swimming.

* That woman over there is a friend of my sister's.

B. My own .../your own ... etc.

We use my/your/his/her/its/our/their before own:

my own house your own car her own room

You cannot say 'an own...' ('an own house', 'an own car' etc.)

My own.../your own... (etc.) = something that is only mine/yours (etc.), not shared or borrowed:

* I don't want to share a room with anybody. I want my own room.

* Vera and George would like to have their own house. (not 'an own house')

* It's a pity that the flat hasn't got its own entrance.

* It's my own fault that I've got no money. I buy too many things I don't need.

* Why do you want to borrow my car? Why can't you use your own?(= your own car)

You can also use ... own... to say that you do something yourself instead of somebody else doing it for you. For example:

* Brian usually cuts his own hair. (= he cuts it himself; he doesn't go to the hairdresser)

* I'd like to have a garden so that I could grow my own vegetables. (= grow them myself instead of buying them from shops)

C. On my own by myself

On my own and by myself both mean 'alone'. We say:

on my/your own

on his her/own

on its our/their own

by myself/yourself (singular)

by himself/herself/itself

by ourselves/yourselves (plural)/themselves

* I like living on my own/by myself.

* Did you go on holiday on your own/by yourself?

* Jack was sitting on his own/by himself in a corner of the cafe.

* Learner drivers are not allowed to drive on their own/by themselves.

@p163

EXERCISES

81.1 Write new sentences using the structure in Section A (a friend of mine etc.).

1. I am writing to _one of my friends._ _I'm writing to a friend of mine._

2. We met _one of your relations._ We met a ---

3. Henry borrowed _one of my books._ Henry ---

4. Ann invited _some of her friends_ to her flat. Ann ---

5. We had dinner with _one of our neighbours._

6. I went on holiday with _two of my friends._

7. Is that man _one of your friends?_

8. I met _one of lane's friends_ at the party.

81.2 Complete the sentences using my own/your own etc. + one of the following:

business ideas money private jet parliament room television

1. I don't want to share a room. I want _my own room._

2. I don't watch television with the rest of the family. I've got --- in my room.

3. Sue doesn't need to borrow from me. She's got ---.

4. Julia is fed up with working for other people. She wants to start ---.

5. Henry is extremely rich. He's got ---.

6. You can give him advice but he won't listen. He's got ---.

7. The Isle of Man is an island off the coast of Britain. It is not completely independent but it has ---.

81.3 Complete the sentences using my own/your own etc.

1. Why do you want to borrow my car? Why can't you use your own car?

2. How can you blame me? It's not my fault. It's ---.

3. He's always using my ideas. Why can't he use ---?

4. Please don't worry about my problems. You've got ---.

5. I can't make her decisions for her. She must make ---.

81.4 Complete the sentences using my own/your own etc. Choose one of these verbs:

bake cut make write

1. Brian never goes to the hairdresser. He usually _cuts his own car?_

2. Mary doesn't often buy clothes. She usually ---.

3. Paul is a singer. He sings songs written by other people but he also ---.

4. We don't often buy bread from a bakery. We ---.

81.5 Complete the sentences using on my own/by myself etc.

1. Did you go on holiday on _your own?_

2. I'm glad I live with other people. I wouldn't like to live on ---.

3. The box was too heavy for me to lift by ---.

4. 'Who was Tom with when you saw him?' 'Nobody. He was by ---.'

5. Very young children should not go swimming by ---.

6. I don't think she knows many people. When I see her, she is always by ---.

7. I don't like strawberries with cream. I like them on ---.

8. Do you like working with other people or do you prefer working by ---.

9. We had no help decorating the flat. We did it completely on ---.

10. I went out with Sally because she didn't want to go out on ---.

@p164

UNIT 82. Myself/yourself/themselves etc.

A. Study this example:

George cut himself when he was shaving this morning.

We use myself/yourself/himself etc. (reflexive pronouns)

when the subject and object are the same:

subject -> (George) cut (himself). <- object

The reflexive pronouns are:

singular: myself yourself (one person) himself/herself/itself

plural: ourselves yourselves (more than one person) themselves

* I don't want you to pay for me. I'll pay for myself. (not 'I'll pay for me')

* Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed herself very much.

* Do you sometimes talk to yourself? (said to one person)

* If you want more to eat, help yourselves. (said to more than one person)

Compare:

* It's not our fault. You can't blame us.

* It's our own fault. We blame ourselves.

Note that we do not use myself/yourself etc. after 'bring/take something with ...':

* It might rain. I'll take an umbrella with me. (not 'with myself')

B. We do not use myself etc. after concentrate/feel/relax/meet:

* You must try and concentrate. (not 'concentrate yourself')

* 'Do you feel nervous?' 'Yes, I can't relax.'

* What time shall we meet? (not 'meet ourselves', not 'meet us')

We normally use wash/shave/dress without myself etc.:

* He got up, washed, shaved and dressed. (not 'washed himself' etc.)

But we say 'I dried myself'.

C. Study the difference between -selves and each other:

* Tom and Ann stood in front of the mirror and looked at themselves. (= Tom and Ann looked at Tom and Ann)

but * Tom looked at Ann; Ann looked at Tom. They looked at each other.

You can use one another instead of each other:

* How long have you and Bill known one another? (or ... known each other)

* Sue and Ann don't like each other. (or ... don't like one another)

D. We also use myself/yourself etc. in another way. For example:

* 'Who repaired your bicycle for you?' 'Nobody. I repaired it myself.'

'I repaired it myself' = I repaired it, not anybody else. Here, myself is used to emphasize I (=it makes it stronger). Some more examples:

* I'm not going to do it for you. You can do it yourself. (= you, not me)

* Let's paint the house ourselves. It will be much cheaper.

* The film itself wasn't very good but I liked the music.

* I don't think Sue will get the job. Sue herself doesn't think she'll get it. (or Sue doesn't think she'll get it herself.)

@p165

EXERCISES

82.1 Complete each sentence using myself/yourself etc. with one of these verbs (in the correct form):

blame burn cut enjoy express hurt put

1. George _cut himself_ while he was shaving this morning.

2. Bill fell down some steps but fortunately he didn't --- badly.

3. It isn't her fault. She really shouldn't ---.

4. Please try and understand how I feel --- in my position.

5. They had a great time. They really ---.

6. Be careful! That pan is very hot. Don't ---.

7. Sometimes I can't say exactly what I mean. I wish I could --- better.

82.2 Put in myself/yourself/ourselves etc. or me/you/us etc.

1. Julia had a great holiday. She enjoyed herself.

2. It's not my fault. You can't blame ---.

3. What I did was very wrong. I'm ashamed of ---.

4. We've got a problem. I hope you can help ---.

5. 'Can I take another biscuit?' 'Of course. Help ---!'

6. Take some money with --- in case you need it.

7. Don't worry about Tom and me. We can look after ---.

8. I gave them a key to our house so that they could let --- in.

9. When they come to visit us, they always bring their dog with ---.

82.3 Complete these sentences. Use myself/yourself etc. only where necessary, Use one of these verbs (in the correct form): concentrate defend dry feel meet relax shave wash

1. Martin decided to grow a beard because he was fed up with _shaving._

2. I wasn't very well yesterday but I --- much better today.

3. She climbed out of the swimming pool and --- with a towel.

4, I tried to study but I just couldn't ---.

5. If somebody attacks you, you need to be able to ---.

6. I'm going out with Chris this evening. We're --- at the station at 7.30.

7. You're always rushing around. Why don't you sit down and ---?

8. There was no water, so we couldn't ---.

82.4 Complete the sentences with -selves or each other.

1. How long have you and Bill known _each other?_

2. If people work too hard, they can make ---ill.

3. I need you and you need me. We need ---.

4. In Britain friends often give --- presents at Christmas.

5. Some people are very selfish. They only think of ---.

6. Nora and I don't see --- very often these days.

7. We couldn't get back into the house. We had locked --- out.

8. They've had an argument. They're not speaking to --- at the moment.

9. We'd never met before, so we introduced --- to ---.

82.5 Complete the answers to the questions using myself/yourself/itself etc.

1. Who repaired the bicycle for you? Nobody. I repaired it myself.

2. Did Brian have his hair cut by a hairdresser? No, he cut ---.

3. Do you want me to post that letter for you? No, I'll ---.

4. Who told you that Linda was getting married? Linda ---.

5. Can you phone John for me? Why can't you ---?

@p166

UNIT 83. There ... and it ...

A. There and it'

We use there ... when we talk about something for the first time, to say that it exists:

* There's a new restaurant in King Street. (not 'A new restaurant is in King Street')

* The journey took a long time. There was a lot of traffic. (not 'It was a lot of traffic')

* * Things are much more expensive now. There has been a big rise in the cost of living.

It = a particular thing, place, fact, situation etc. (but see also Section C:

* We went to the new restaurant. It's very good. (it = the restaurant)

* 'Was the traffic bad?' 'Yes, it was terrible.' (it = the traffic)

* I wasn't expecting them to come. It (= that they came) was a complete surprise.

Compare:

* I don't like this town. There's nothing to do here. It's a boring place.

Note that there also means 'to/at/in that place':

* The new restaurant is very good. I went there (= to the restaurant) last night.

* When we arrived at the party, there were already a lot of people there (= at the party).

B. You can say there will be, there must be, there used to be etc.

* Will there be many people at the party?

* 'Is there a flight to Paris this evening?' 'There might be. I'll phone the airport.'

* If people drove more carefully, there wouldn't be so many accidents.

Also: there must have been, there should have been etc.:

* There was a light on. There must have been somebody at home.

Compare there and it:

* They live on a busy road. There must be a lot of noise from the traffic.

They live on a busy main road. It must be very noisy.

* There used to be a cinema in King Street but it closed a few years ago.

That building is now a supermarket. It used to be a cinema.

You can also say there is sure/certain/likely to be something (see also Unit 64E):

* There is sure to be a flight to Paris this evening.

C. We use it in sentences like this:

* It's dangerous to walk in the road. (It = to walk in the road)

It is unusual to say 'To walk in the road is dangerous.' Normally we begin with It...

* It didn't take us long to get here. (it = to get here)

* It's a pity (that) Sandra can't come to the party. (It = that Sandra can't come)

* Let's go. It's not worth waiting any longer. (It = waiting any longer)

We use it to talk about distance, time and weather:

* It's a long way from here to the airport.

* How far is it to the airport?

* What day is it today?

* It's a long time since I last saw you.

* It's going to be a nice day.

* It was windy. (but 'There was a cold wind.')

@p167

EXERCISES

83.1 Put in there is/was or it is/was. Some sentences are questions (is there ...?/is it ...? etc.) and some are negative (isn't/wasn't).

1. The journey took a long time. _There was_ a lot of traffic.

2. What's the new restaurant like? is _it_ good?

3. '--- a bookshop near here?' 'Yes, --- one in Hill Street.'

4. When we got to the cinema --- a queue outside ---a very long queue, so we decided not to wait.

5. I couldn't see anything --- completely dark.

6. --- trouble at the club last night. They had to call the police.

7. How far --- from Milan to Rome?

8. --- Keith's birthday yesterday. We had a party.

9. --- three years since I last went to the theatre.

10. I wanted to visit the museum but --- enough time.

11. '--- time to go?' 'Yes, --- nearly midnight.'

12. A few days ago --- a storm. --- a lot of damage.

13. --- a beautiful day yesterday. We had a picnic.

14. --- anything on television, so I turned it off.

15. --- an accident in King Street but --- very serious.

83.2 Read the first sentence and then write a sentence beginning There...

1. The roads were busy today. _There was a lot of traffic._

2. This soup is very salty. There --- in the soup.

3. The box was empty. --- in the box.

4. The film was very violent. ---

5.The shops were very crowded. ---

6. I like this town - it's lively. ---

83.3 Complete the sentences. Use there will be, there would be etc. Choose from:

will might would wouldn't should used to (be) going to

1. If people drove more carefully, there would be fewer accidents.

2. 'Have we got any eggs?' 'I'm not sure --- some in the fridge.'

3. I think everything will be OK. I don't think --- any problems.

4. Look at the sky --- a storm.

5. 'Is there a school in the village?' 'Not now --- one but it closed.'

6. People drive too fast on this road. I think --- a speed limit.

7. If people weren't aggressive --- any wars.

83.4 Are these sentences right or wrong? Change it to there where necessary.

1. They live on a busy road. It must be a lot of noise. _WRONG; There must be ..._

2. Last winter it was very cold and it was a lot of snow.

3. I wish it was warmer. I hate cold weather.

4. It used to be a church here, but it was knocked down.

5. It's a long way from my house to the nearest shop.

6. Why was she so unfriendly? It must have been a reason.

7. I don't know who will win but it's sure to be a good match.

8. 'Where can we park the car?' 'Don't worry. It's sure to be a car park somewhere.'

9. After the lecture it will be an opportunity to ask questions.

10. I like the place where I live but it would be nicer to live by the sea.

11. I was told that it would be somebody to meet me at the station but it wasn't anybody.

@p168

UNIT 84. Some and any

A. In general we use some (also somebody/someone/something) in positive sentences and any (also anybody etc.) in negative sentences (but see also Sections C and D):

#1 some

* We bought some flowers.

* He's busy. He's got some work to do.

* There's somebody at the door.

* I'm hungry. I want something to eat.

#2 any

* We didn't buy any flowers.

* He's lazy. He never does any work.

* There isn't anybody at the door.

* I'm not hungry. I don't want anything to eat.

We use any in the following sentences because the meaning is negative:

* She went out without any money. (She didn't take any money with her.)

* He refused to eat anything. (He didn't eat anything.)

* Hardly anybody passed the examination. (= almost nobody passed)

B. In most questions we use any:

* 'Have you got any luggage?' 'No, I haven't.'

* 'Has anybody seen my bag?' 'Yes, it's under the table.'

But we use some in questions when we expect the answer 'yes':


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