Publicistic style has spoken varieties, in particular, the oratorical substyle. The new spoken varieties are the radio commentary, the essay and articles. The general aim of publicistic style is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essays or article. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, publicistic style has features in common with the style of scientific prose, on the one hand, and that of emotive prose, on the other. Its emotional appeal is generally achieved by the use of words with emotive meaning; but the stylistic devices are not fresh or genuine. Publicistic style is also characterized by brevity of expression.
1. Oratory and speeches Oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style.
Direct contact with the listeners permits the combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct address to the audience (ladies and gentlemen, honorable member(s), the use of the 2nd person pronoun you, etc.), sometimes constractions (Iíll, wonít, havenít, isnít and others) and the use of colloquial words. The stylistic devices employed in oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. Repetition can be regarded as the most typical stylistic device of English oratorical style. Almost any piece of oratory will have parallel constructions, antithesis, suspense, climax, rhetorical questions and questions-in-the-narrative.
2. The essay The essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects. It never goes deep into the subject, but merely touches upon the surface. Personality in the treatment of theme and naturalness of expression are 2 of the most obvious characteristics of the essay. An essay is rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument or a conclusive examination of any matter. This literary genre has definite linguistic traits which shape the essay as a variety of publicistic style. In the 19th century the essay as a literary term gradually changed into what we now call the journalistic article or feature article which covers all kinds of subjects from politics, philosophy or aesthetics to travel, sport and fashions. Feature articles are generally published in newspapers, especially weeklies and Sunday editions. In comparison with oratorical style, the essay aims at a more lasting, hence at a slower effect.
3. Articles Irrespective of the character of the magazine and the divergence of subject matter Ė whether it is political, literary, popular-scientific or satirical, all the features of publistic style are to be found in any article. The character of the magazine as well as the subject chosen affects the choice and use of stylistic devices. There are popular scientific articles, satirical articles, political magazine articles, newspaper articles, etc. Literary reviews stand closer to essay both by their content and by their linguistic form. More abstract words of logical meaning are used in them, they more often resort to emotional language and less frequently to traditional set expressions.