Slang a) special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low character, language of a low and vulgar type. b) the cant (арго) or jargon of a certain class or period c) language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the level of standard educated speech and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense. Slang is nothing but a deviation from the established norm of the language. Slang words are either mispronounced or distorted in some way: phonetically, morphologically.
Jargonisms - The non-literary words of the English language. They are generally old words with entirely new meanings imposed on them and this improvised meaning is most important. Quid=pound; bob=shilling
But it's difficult to draw a fast line between slang and jargon. Slang needs no translation. Jargon does. When a jargonism becomes common it passes on to a higher step and becomes slang. Joker - шутник; drag - to rob vehicles; to soap-box - to make speeches out of doors. Jargonisms like slang and other groups of non-literary layer may enter the standard vocabulary.
Professionalisms are words used in a definite trade, profession or calling by people connected by common interests both at work and at home. They are correlated (взаимосвяз) to terms. Terms are easily decoded and enter the neutral stratum of the vocabulary. Professionalisms generally remain in circulation within a definite community as they are linked to a common occupation and common social interest. Like terms professionalisms don't allow any polysemy. They are monosemantic (однознач). tin-fish = submarine. Professionalisms like terms are used in emotive prose for speech characterization.
Dialectal Words - Are those which in the process of integration of the English national language remained beyond its literary boundaries. Some dialectal words have become so familiar that they are accepted as units of standard colloquial English, lass/lad;
Of quite different nature are dialectal words which are corruptions of standard English hinny = honey; titty = sister (childish corruption): Scottish: maister - mister, eneugh = enough, naething = nothing. But they are easily understood by an average Englishman.
Vulgar Words. Vulgarisms are subdivided: 1. Expletives - swear words, which are of an abusive character. They're often used as general exclamations. 2. Obscene (непристойный) words. These are known as four-letter (матерн) words. The use of them is banned in any form of intercourse as being indecent. Vulgarisms are often used in conversation out of habit without any thought of what they mean. They will never acquire the status of standard English vocabulary.
Colloquial coinages including nonce-words. They unlike those of a literary bookish character are:1.Spontaneous and allusive 2.Not all of them are fixed in dictionaries or even in writing and therefore most of them disappear from the language leaving no trace in it. 3. Unlike literary bookish coinages nonce-words of a colloquial nature are not usually built by means of affixes but are based on certain semantic changes in words and it's only a careful stylistic analysis of the utterance as a whole that will reveal a new shade of meaning inserted into the semantic structure of the word. colloquial coinages. The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. Other groups in the literary layer are regarded as special literary vocabulary and those in the colloquial layer are regarded as special colloquial (non-literary) vocabulary.
Nonce-word is another type of neologism. That is a word coined to suit one particular occasion.They rarely pass into the language as legitimate units of the vocabulary but they remain in the language as constant manifestations of the power of word-building means.