Match the beginnings of the sentences in A with their endings in B.
1 The rainforest is home for many native peoples,
a) stretch from the forest floor to the canopy.
2 We must find a balance between making good use of the forest resources,
b) an area as big as the whole of Europe excluding Russia.
3 Climbing plants, like lianas,
c) who live in harmony with its environment.
4 Brazil’s Indian population
d) as their roots are very shallow.
5 Many of the largest trees have buttresses for support,
e) like timber, rubber and nuts, and conserving the forests themselves.
6 The Amazon forest in Brazil covers five million square kilometers –
f) has fallen from 5 million to 200,000.
7 Trees absorb the gas carbon dioxide from the air,
g) it will be environmental disaster.
8 If we lose the tropical forests,
h) and give out oxygen into the air.
2.18 Answer the questions using the information from exercise 2.14.
1 Where can we find tropical rainforests?
2 In what areas do they grow?
3 What is the structure of all rain forests?
4 What is the highest layer? What is the lowest?
5 Which layer is the most favourable?
6 What is the result of forest clearance?
7 What is the importance of rainforests?
8 What are the main reasons of the rainforest destruction?
9 What can happen if tropical rainforests disappear?
2.19 The Amazon Rainforest. Write in the missing prepositions. Choose from along / for / in / of / on / through / to / until / within. If you think that two answers are possible, write both.
THE AMAZON RAINFOREST
…Until… a hundred years ago, countries …on …the equator were covered with rainforests. More than half of all the types of plants and animals ……… earth lived there.
The largest rainforest is Amazonia …….. South America. It covers an area …….. about 6.5 million square kilometres. It takes its name from the River Amazon which flows …….. the northern part of Brazil. Thousands …….. different kinds of animals, birds and butterflies live there. But the rainforest has suffered …….. felling and burning. Now long dusty roads lead …….. the forest. What are the reasons …….. the destruction? Trees are burnt or cut down …….. their hardwood. The land is used …….. farms, mines and cattle ranches.
There has already been a lot of damage …….. the plants and animals of the rainforest. If the destruction is not stopped, ……... thirty years all the trees will be gone.
2.20 Read the following four texts through and decide where each extract is from:
a) a leaflet from an environmental organization
b) an account of a journey through the rainforest
c) an advertisement for an adventure holiday
d) a scientific discussion of an environmental issue
■ In parts of the forest, the vegetation is so dense that when you look up you can’t even see the sky. The atmosphere is thick and heavy. You sweat all the time and you are constantly troubled by biting insects. The sounds of the rainforest are extraordinary: the songs of many different bird species, the cries of animals in the treetops that you never see. Underfoot, the ground is soft and your feet sink into the carpet of rotting leaves. You tread carefully, keeping an eye out for snakes that wind themselves around branches in your path.
■ The rainforest contain about 50 per cent of all the plants and animals species on earth, and we haven’t even identified most of them yet. The rainforests have already given us life-saving medical drugs and delights like oranges, lemons, bananas and chocolate. No one really knows what else lies waiting to be discovered. Yet, through our irresponsibility and greed, we are putting all such future discoveries at risk. The awful fact is that we are destroying about 50,000 plant and animal species a year through…
■ The rate of deforestation worldwide is difficult to estimate. Recent studies have suggested that around 100,000 square kilometres are probably being lost annually. There are three identifiable consequences of forest loss to the global environment. The first is the contribution that the burning of trees makes to global warming through the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The second consequence is the loss of species brought about by the destruction of ecosystems.
■ If you’re expecting comfort and luxury, the Amazon is not the place for you. If you can put up with basic accommodation, biting mosquitoes, the sticky heat and frequent exhaustion, you may be the kind of person we’re looking for. What you get in return for all this hardship is the chance to experience the most extraordinary place on earth: where you can see birds with the most exotic plumage imaginable, trees that reach the height of 20-storey buildings, …
► Complete the table:
The writer’s purpose
is written in a very formal style
has words that express strong feelings
contains facts intended to shock
contains descriptive detail
contains verbs in the passive voice
addresses the reader directly
contains the words we and our
contains specialist vocabulary
2.21 Read the text “The Beauty of Scotland – How Long Will It Last?” and decide if the statements given after it are true (T) or false (F). Correct them if they are false.
THE BEAUTY OF SCOTLAND – HOW LONG WILL IT LAST?
The Scottish Highlands have some of the most beautiful scenery in the world. Until now, Scotland has escaped much of the pollution which affects Western Europe. But it may not escape for much longer.
The problem is acid rain.
Cars and power stations that burn coal cause acid rain. It isn’t always rain; sometimes it’s a mist which falls on trees, buildings and the ground. And it is increasing.
In parts of Western Europe the problem is serious. Experts think that over half of the forests in West Germany are dying. Acid rain has damaged over forty per cent of Dutch forests, and poisoned 18,000 Swedish lakes.
Until recently, the wind carried away most of Britain’s acid rain, usually towards Scandinavia. The British Government was not particularly interested in a form of pollution which came from Britain but which only seemed to affect other countries. But there’s so much acid rain now that it falls on Britain.
In 1974, during a storm over Pitlochry, the rain contained so much acid that it was like vinegar. On 20th February 1984, black snow fell at Aviemore in the Cairngorm Mountains. Local people say it happens often. In Edinburgh and Glasgow some of the older buildings are very badly damaged.
And the situation is unlikely to get better. As the trees disappear from mountain slopes, avalanches will probably increase. The chemicals in acid rain are likely to replace the oxygen in lakes and rivers. The fish are unlikely to live, because the acid in the water will certainly kill their young and their food supplies, such as water insects. Birds and animals will probably disappear when they no longer have anything to feed on.
The consequences are economic as well. Scotland may lose its tourist industry. The tourists certainly won’t come to rivers which have lost their salmon and trout, or to scenery which has lost its beauty. And without the money the tourists bring, the Highlanders might have to go elsewhere to find work.
Unless the British Government does something soon, acid rain will change the face of the Scottish countryside – and the lives of the people who live there.
● 1 The acid rain problem is unlikely to get worse.
2 Black snow is likely to become more common.
3 Highland forests won’t die.
4 The fish will certainly die.
5 Acid in the water might kill food supplies.
6 The birds will probably disappear.
7 Scotland has lost its tourist industry.
8 Tourists will certainly stay away if the countryside is destroyed.
Model: 1 False. The acid rain problem is unlikely to get better.
…will certainly = …is/are certain to …probably won’t = is/are unlikely to
…will probably = …is/are likely to …certainly won’t
…will possibly = …may/might/could
2.22 Complete these sentences to make true statements about the effects of pollution.
1 The acid rain problem is …….. to get better.
2 Black snow will …….. become more common.
3 Highland forests …….. probably die.
4 The fish probably …….. be able to live in the rivers.
5 Acid in the water is …….. to kill food supplies.
6 The birds are …….. to disappear.
7 Scotland will …….. lose its tourist industry.
8 Tourists …….. won’t come if the countryside is destroyed.
2.23 Read for specific information. Describe the consequences of pollution in Scotland.
power stations continue to burn coal,
acid rain falls on forests,
the trees disappear,
acid rain falls on lakes and rivers,
the oxygen is replaced by chemicals,
there are no water insects,
the fish disappear,
the government does nothing,
Model: If power stations continue to burn coal, acid rain will increase.
2.24 Now you are going to read an interview at a radio studio. An interviewer (I) is talking to Karen Baker (K), a conservationist. Pay attention to the phrases in bold.
IT’S YOUR ENVIRONMENT
I: I have with me in the studio Karen Baker, a leading conservationist. Karen, can we really make a difference as individuals to improve the environment and save resources?
K: Oh yes, quite a lot actually. If lots of individuals work together they can often achieve a lot.
I: Could you give us some idea of what these actions might be?
K: Certainly. We’re all shoppers, aren’t we? Well, as shoppers we have tremendous power to influence manufacturers. An immediate action could be to buy goods that keep packaging to a minimum. Or if a shop assistant offers you a plastic bag you don’t need, simply refuse it …… politely of course.
I: Yes, yes, I see your point.
K: Also as consumers, we can refuse to buy products made from animals threatened with extinction, ivory products or fur coats, for example.
I: Yes, I suppose as customers we have a lot of power, don’t we? We have so many things in our homes, perfectly good things, that we don’t use any more. Couldn’t we make more use of these things instead of making even more waste?
K: Oh yes! That’s a really important point. I personally never throw anything away. Especially things that other people might be able to use. You must have friends or relations that could do with some of these things … Remember, don’t throw away your rubbish – recycle it!
I: Good idea. What about pollution? Is there anything we as individuals can do to clean up the environment? The problems of pollution are often so big that it’s easy to feel helpless, isn’t it?
K: I know. We often hear of terrible disasters on TV that require massive clean-up operations, but there are many smaller-scale problems that we can tackle. Get together with a few friends and make a study of pollution in your area. You could help to clear the rubbish from a local stream or river or even tidy up an area of wasteland. People can also join a campaign group, either a local or a national one, and get involved in action to improve your neighbourhood and to try and change people’s attitudes.
I: Now, I know you’re presently involved in a campaign to encourage people to save energy.
K: Well, the car is here to stay and it would be foolish to ask people not to use them, but we could all try to avoid unnecessary car journeys. Go by bike or public transport sometimes or if you work in the same area as your neighbour, try car-sharing. And in the home, don’t leave lights and other electrical equipment on. An enormous amount of energy is wasted this way.
I: Well, I’m afraid we’ve run out of time for now, but thanks for coming in to the studio. I’ll certainly try putting some of your ideas into practice.
► Now answer the questions.
1 What ideas do you agree with?
2 Do you have any personal opinion?
3 Which ideas you are not sure about?
2.25 Work in a group to discuss the following problems. Give your own examples.
1 The use of natural resources should be carefully monitored.
2 There are few laws that protect nature.
3 Man cuts down more trees to provide paper, wood, medicine, etc.
4 Factories are very dangerous for people, wildlife and the environment.