Read the text below and think of a word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Explain your choice.
FISH AND CHIPS
If you ask any British person (0) to name the country’s national dish, you (1) ………… probably receive the answer: ‘fish and chips’. But that person might be surprised to learn that the chips, or fried potatoes, (2) ……….. probably invented by the French, and that the whole dish only dates back (3) ………… around 1860. This was (4) ………….. the first shop selling fish and chips together opened in London.
Over the years, the dish has occasionally gone (5) ………….. of fashion, as people tried other types of take-away food (6) …………… a change – but each time, a new generation (7) ………….. come along and rediscovered it. Now there must (8) …………. well over 8,000 shops in the UK, eight for (9) ……….. one McDonald's restaurant, and a British-style shop has just opened in New York.
Apart (10) ………… a few fish-and-chip shops in European holiday resorts, the dish is rarely served abroad. But the owners of the new shop in Manhattan will be offering the ‘real thing’ from (11) …………. beginning. They have (12) …………. running a traditional British tea-shop in New York for several years and so already know (13) ………….. to recreate a ‘British experience’ for the Americans. But New Yorkers had (14) ………….. be prepared for a shock. As well as covering the food in salt and vinegar, the shop even wraps (15) …………. in old newspapers – British style!
Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin. All the words you need to write contain negative prefixes. The first one has been done as an example.
Complaining can be used constructively, for example
to draw attention to (0) inefficiency but all too often in EFFICIENT
western society it consists of (1) …………..moaning and SOCIAL
groaning which leads to (2) ……………. and TRUST
unnecessary arguments within relationships.
So it is refreshing to live in a society where people
do not complain. Kiribati consists of thirty-three small
islands located in the Central Pacific. By western
standards, the islanders' diet is plain and monotonous,
but, thanks to plentiful fish, none of the islanders suffer from
(3) ………….. Feasts are popular social occasions, but NUTRITION
if the fish is underdone or the rice proves to be (4) ……….., EDIBLE
nobody complains. Similarly, in restaurants, if the waiter
brings the wrong dish or the bill is (5) …………., the error CALCULATE
is pointed out with a calm smile, not a surly frown.
Ships frequently leave hours later than scheduled, yet the
passengers wait with none of the signs of (6) ……………. PATIENT
which would be loudly evident elsewhere.
Other traits of the Kiribati people complement this (7) …… INCLINE
to complain. Teachers find it difficult to get their pupils
to answer questions in class because it is culturally (8) …… ACCEPT
to show yourselves to be better than those around you.
Competition is not exactly frowned upon in this society,
but it is refreshingly (9) …………… Western tennis stars, CHARACTER
well-known for their (10) …………. behaviour on court, MODEST
could learn a lot from one young finalist here who, despite
being the better player, deliberately lost the match as his
opponent was an older and more respected member of the village.
For Questions 1-15, read the text below and decide which answer, À, Â, Ñ or D, best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning (0). Explain your choice.
Herbal medicine is the use of plants to (0) cure an illness. This form of medicine, often used (1) ………. more conventional types of drugs, has been practised through the centuries, and probably began several thousands of years (2) ………. Today it is increasing in popularity, and herbal medicine shops are becoming a familiar (3) ……….. .
The most comprehensive classification of herbal (4) ………. was John Parkinson’s Theatrum Botanicum, published in 1640. Now there are many such books available, and (5) ………. on the plant and the treatment, the whole plant or individual parts may be used in the cure. (6) …………, seeds, fruit flowers, leaves, stems, and barks of plants are used (7) ………. preparing a remedy for a sick person. (8) ………. commonest way to treat an illness is infusion, where the fresh herb or plant is boiled, then strained and drunk like tea. The tincture, another common form of (9) ………., is part of the herb or plant mixed (10) ………. five parts of alcohol. Nowadays, herbal medicine is available in forms easier to (11) …………, such as lotion, liquid or (12) .......... .
Many diseases, (13) ………… and pains can be treated with herbal medicines. Some commonly treated conditions are colds and influenza, when peppermint, ginger and yarrows are (14) ………… together; insomnia is helped with passion flower, hops and lime flowers, and if you feel (15) ……….., camomile and peppermint are very effective.
to the side
PART IV. WRITING
1.Write a letter to your friend inviting him/her for a dinner party. Describe your ideas about the party and the food you are going to cook. Ask your friend about his/her favourite dish.
2.Your pen friend has written you a letter asking for advice on how to improve his/her eating habits and get fit. Write a letter offering advice.
3.You have had a class discussion about the following statement:
Fast food is a good alternative to cooking for yourself.
Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay expressing your opinion and giving reasons for your point of view.
4.Young people today are addicted to junk food. Do you agree? Write us an article telling us what you think. The best article will be published next month. Write your article.
STUDENT’S LIFE AND STUDIES
PART I. LISTENING
You will hear an interview with a novelist. For questions 1-10, complete the sentences.
Laura explains that she studied 1_______ at university.
Laura followed a career as a 2_______________ for many years.
Laura says she found her job both satisfying and 3____________.
The first type of book, which Laura attempted to write, was a 4_____ novel.
Laura noticed that novels dealing with the 5___________ were doing well.
Laura’s novel is about a man who believed he’d discovered a 6_________.
Laura gives the example of 7________ as a historical detail she needed to research.
In Laura’s novel, most of the 8______________ are invented.
When planning a novel, Laura concentrates on the 9_______________ first.
When she’s working on a book, Laura usually writes about 10_____ per day.
You will hear a radio programme about a proposed new system for dividing up the academic year in Britain. For questions 1-7, decide which of the statements are true and which are false. Write T for true or F for false in the box provided. If it is false, write the correct answer.
1. At present, British schoolchildren have four weeks’ holiday in the summer.
2. With the proposed new system, they would have more frequent holidays.
3. The main benefit of the new system is that the autumn term would be shorter.
4. Pupils would remember the previous year’s work better under the new system.
5. Problems will be caused if only some schools change to the new system.
6. The new system would make life more difficult for all working mothers.
7. Young teachers are not in favour of the proposed new system.
PART II. READING
You are going to read an article about a scheme to help educate students who do not attend regular lessons at school. Eight sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNING
Each term, an increasing number of young people are excluded from school in Britain for a range of reasons including truancy, expulsion, or because their parents' work involves travelling. Some academics now believe that the 'virtual classroom', using computer networks, could be the best way to lure these young people back to some form of learning. 0 G
Currently, in most local authorities, the availability of ‘home tuition’ ranges from sparse to non-existent. The results of this are predictable.1___ By the time he is 20, he will be living on state benefits or on the proceeds of pickpocketing or burglaries.
The tragedy is that John knows all this very well. He is perfectly aware that the successful pupils he makes fun of and bullies are likely to be the winners in the end. The bus in the distance, though visible and brightly lit, has left him behind. 2___
Suppose, though, that someone brought him a computer with software that set him interesting work to do at home, at his own pace, without fear of failure or ridicule, where he could pick and choose from different subjects. He could contact a tutor when he needed help and chat to other pupils in his group from the peace and quiet of his home.
3___ Treated seriously by adults, he might regain some pride and belief in himself. He might eventually sit a few exams and get some qualifications and actually do quite well.
4___ The point is that nobody will know until someone gives the idea a proper trial, with good equipment and software, high-quality teachers and adequate funding. This autumn, a team led by Stephen Heppell of Anglia University's Ultralab is going to do just that.
The plan is to start with a pilot group of 30 teenagers who are not in full-time education for a variety of reasons. 5___ Much has to be worked out, which is why this is a pilot project. “We need to put together a toolkit for what works -methodology and pedagogy,” says Heppell.
6____ Exactly what will on-screen tasks look like? What about pupils with literacy problems? Who will be the tutors? How will targets be set, and what about the pupils who drop out – as some, presumably, will? “There will be failure for some,” says Heppell, “and we have to think how to manage that.”
In a sense, all of these problems, though they demand attention, add up to theoretical detail. The real issues, however, concern a change in the willingness and positive attitudes in the government and educational bodies. If this is to be achieved, then all those involved will be acknowledging that school is not the only answer and that there are other routes to learning. 7____
The Ultralab scheme has influential support from those who see it as a means of attacking truancy and exclusion. Arguably, though, it will also question some of the assumptions about formal schooling.
A.They will be given state-of-the-art hardware, video and audio facilities, and they will be grouped into fours, each group sharing a tutor.
B.Similarly, it will become apparent that if a participative approach to learning works better for marginalised pupils, then it will work for others too.
C.So, he makes his mark in the only way he can and, in doing so, he feels worthless and miserable.
D.Take John, for example; he is permanently excluded, too far behind to be successful in another school and drifting into criminal circles.
E.Or, of course, it might all end in tears and failure yet again.
F.Theoretically, this sounds fine but the number of still unanswered questions is almost bewildering.
G.Such a scheme would provide the pupils with access to education while they are at home.
H.This is an example of how not to use a potentially powerful resource.
I.Were this to happen, he might stay in and work and begin to feel part of a learning community.
You are going to read a magazine article written by a woman who has returned to studying in retirement. For questions 1 – 7, choose the answer A, B, C or D which you think fits best according to the text. Explain your choice.
CARRY ON LEARNING
Everyone, whatever their age, can share in the joy and fulfillment of learning, as June Weatherall found out.
When I first retired, I thought I’d love spending more time on the gardening, needlework, and other creative activities I’d found so relaxing after my demanding job. But it didn’t turn out that way. I found that I didn’t want, or need, that kind of relaxation anymore. I wanted to stimulate my mind instead. Also, they’re all solitary activities and I missed the company and interests of my old work companions.
So, with a couple of friends, I went along to an art appreciation evening class at our local regional college. It was wonderful, but only lasted a year. At the end, I asked my tutor. “What next?” He suggested I attend his history of art access course. “Whatever’s that?” I asked. The college had an open evening coming up, so I went along to find out.
A full-time access course takes one year and gives you access to university if, like me, you left school without any qualifications, and it’s free if you do it full-time. I only wanted to do the art history bit, but even so, with my pensioner’s discount, it would cost a mere ₤30 per term.
Lyn, who organizes the courses for the college, was enthusiastic. ‘Why don’t you do the whole course? You could start in the spring term with art history, do another module in the summer, then go full-time in the autumn and do all the subjects’. It sounded wonderful, but wasn’t I a bit old, at 63 to start being a student? A definite ‘no’. One of the students that year was 82. That clinched it. It must be worth having a go.
The art history part of the course, which I’ve just completed, was stimulating and involved a trip to the Louvre museum in Paris, which was wonderful. The tutors are enthusiasts and infect us all with their enjoyment of the subject they teach. ‘Lively’ would be the wont to describe the classes. My fellow students, who are also doing subject like psychology, maths, biology, etc, are good company. They’re mainly people in their thirties with children, taking a second bite at the educational cherry. There’s a crèche to help those with toddlers and an excellent library. They’re kind enough to say they find the older students offer a lot in experience – they certainly give a lot to us in newer ways of looking at things. One, a nurse, is changing direction and has a place at Anglia University to do a degree course in art history. Another has been accepted to do English.
We have homework and have to do an essay each term for each subject, and sit exams. For art history, I chose to write about the Bauhaus a college for all the arts set up in Germany: in the early twentieth century. The last essay I’d written had been a lifetime ago in 1955, but I managed. We also had to produce a journal about all the painters we’d learn about which was fun, but rather time-consuming. Occasionally I envy the more typical nature students, who just do courses for fun and don’t have to do exams or essays, but really I’m a very happy lady. There are drawbacks, however. The main one is you have to make a commitment. During term time, you can’t just drop everything and go out for the day if the sun shines – one of the supposed joys of retirement.
Will I go on to university if I’m successful? I’ll see how next year goes. Meanwhile, exercising my brain cells is working well for me. I feel alive. The garden’s getting a bit out of control, but that’s the least of my worries’.
1.What did June discover when she first retired?
A She had more free time than she expected.
B She had not really been very happy in her job.
C She needed activities she could do on her own.
D She no longer found her big hobbies satisfying.
2.What first attracted June to the access course?
A Some of her friends were doing it.
B She knew somebody who taught on it.
C She’d decided she wanted to study full-time.
D Pensioners who old it were offered a discount.
3.The word clinched means
A made up my mind for me.
B put me under pressure to decide.
C made me reconsider my decision.
D left me unsure what to do next.
4.What does June say about the teachers on the access course?
A They are very patient with the more mature students.
B They need to know a lot about a wide range of subjects.
C They appear to be genuinely interested in what they teach.
D They have problems dealing with such a variety of students.
5.What does one refer to?
A a subject June has to study
B a student on the course June is doing
C a new way of approaching art history
D an experience June can share with others
6.What disadvantage of the access course does June mention?
A It limits her freedom in some ways.
B It involves homework which is rather boring.
C It doesn’t give her the chance to take exams.
D It attracts students who are not really committed.
7.From the last paragraph, we understand that June is