Match each sentence beginning with an appropriate ending.
1 One of the aims of Greenpeace is to raise
2 I strongly believe that anyone caught dropping
3 The ship’s captain denied he had been dumping
4 Several species of birds and animals face
5 The local authorities talk of the need to recycle
6 Not enough is being done to preserve
7 In the natural world there is a fragile
8 In the UK Greenpeace protests against the damaging
a) balance in plant and animal population. b) extinction in this country as a result of modern farming methods. c) effects of cars on the roads. d) paper, but they have not provided enough containers. e) awareness of the environmental problems facing our planet. f) litter should be ordered to pay heavy fine. g) wildlife in this country. h) waste of any kind at sea.
1 It’s a good idea to recycle gaseous / radioactive waste.
2 We need to create safe / hostile working environment for all employees.
3 Our aim is to preserve / destroy the environment.
4 Different measures must be taken to rise / control air pollution.
5 Controlling erosion may lead to surface / soil conservation.
6 Hundreds of factories release household / harmful pollutants into the atmosphere.
1.13 Read the factfile and say:
1 which facts are surprising for you;
2 which facts you have already known or heard;
3 if it is necessary to do something now.
According to US State Department description of state of the world’s environment:
Deforestation – Area 4 times the size of Switzerland lost every year.
Fisheries – 70% of world fish stocks over-exploited.
Climate change – Release of about 20 billion tons of CO2 into atmosphere every year.
Species loss – 70 species lost every day.
Toxic substances – Can last for decades in animal and human organisms.
Water resources – 1950–2000 amount of irrigated land increase from 20 mln to 60 mln acres. Enormous usage pressure on aquifers, river systems.
Air quality – Approximately 3 mln people per year contact or die from lung disease due to indoor air pollution.
1.14 Read the following short texts and answer the following questions. Which text:
● gives information about pesticides?
● predicts large-scale changes in agriculture?
● gives examples of poor and rich countries?
● suggests to control energy sources?
● speaks about charity?
● gives the reason of global warming?
● gives information about polluted water?
● warns about health damage?
All the suggested actions on the previous pages must happen worldwide if they are to be successful. This demands much more international cooperation, especially between rich and poor nations. The trouble is that politicians tend to be more concerned with gaining support in their own countries in the short-term, than with the long-term future of the world and its people.
Many people believe that even all these actions will not be enough, and that we must all make very great changes in the way we live. They are working towards this in what is known as the green movement. This used to be called the ecology movement.
At the moment it is mainly charity organizations, that are successfully helping the world’s poor to help themselves.
POPULATION AND RESOURCES
The human population is increasing at such a rate that both the environment and the balance of nature are threatened.
The earth has enough resources to support its population of 5 billion and more. But at present this is not happening. Millions of people in the poor world are living in hunger and poverty. The population problem is not so much “too many people” or “not enough land”, as not managing to properly feed and support the growing populations.
Population problems do not necessarily come from a shortage of land: Holland has a high population density but no problem, because it can afford to feed its population. India and Brazil have more land per person, but have a problem because they are poor.
CHEMICALS IN FARMING
In today’s intensive farming the natural nitrogen and mineral cycles are neglected. Very little natural organic waste is returned to the soil, resulting in reduced levels of minerals and humus, and lower productivity. To make up for this, farmers add chemical fertilizers to the soil. These often cause environmental and health damage, e.g. when washed into rivers and lakes, eventually ending up in drinking water.
Many powerful chemicals are also used to fight pests, weeds and diseases in order to keep productivity high. These pesticides, herbicides and fungicides have long-lasting and damaging effects on food webs wherever they are used. The chemicals often remain on the plants which have been sprayed, and can damage human health when these are eaten.
THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere plays an important role in warming the earth by trapping the sun’s heat, in what is called the greenhouse effect. Since industrialization, the burning of fossil fuels has greatly increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
The future effects of this build-up on global temperatures can only be guessed at. Some experts predict that temperatures will rise, melting the polar ice packs, raising sea levels to flood coastal areas, and resulting in large-scale changes in climate and agriculture around the world.
To keep the level of carbon dioxide from rising further we must increase our use of renewable energy-efficient.
1.15 Read the text “Conservation of the Land” carefully and answer the questions after it. Use a dictionary if necessary.
CONSERVATION OF THE LAND
Protection of the soil against erosion:
Soil erosion is the destruction and wearing away of the soil by water or wind. A layer of soil formed in the course of 100 or 200 years may be destroyed in a few days by heavy rain or dust storms. The soil is rapidly destroyed but forms only over a very lengthy period. That’s why it’s so vitally important to protect the soil.
Soil erosion by water is widespread and most destructive. It occurs on slopes and is due to improper working of the land.
Soil erosion by wind is characteristic mostly of open, dry, diffused soils. It may arise on any field with sparse vegetation.
Mud and stone streams in the mountains are a form of soil erosion which occurs at great speed due to steep slopes and narrow gorges. They inflict great damage on people and the economy in mountain areas.
Fighting any kind of soil erosion always requires a set of anti-erosion measures. No one measure alone is effective. These measures may include: retention of the moisture in the soil, planting forests in river valleys, prohibition of destruction of rocks by explosions and felling of trees on mountain slopes, creation of the forest belt system, etc.
Rational use of land resources:
The rational use of land resources includes actual use of the land. It’s very important that ploughland is protected against inefficient use for civil and industrial construction, against dumping with builders’ refuse, and urban and village dumps.
Efforts are being undertaken throughout the world to recultivate the lands spoiled by industry. Recultivation develops along the following lines depending on the subsequent use to be made of the land: