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Ak-Orda: origins, ethnopolitical history

In historical science hasn’t consensus on the term "Ak Orda", because in the medieval sources contained conflicting data about Ak Orda and Kok Orda.

Russian chronicles explained Ak-Orda as western part of Golden Horde, which ruled by Batu and his descendants - Juchids right wing (M. G. Safargaliyev, G. A. Fëdorov-Davydov, T. I. Sultanov.)

Some historians (Grekov, Yakubovskiy ) believe that the Ak Orda was located in the eastern part of the Jochi Ulus, and Kok Orda in Western

Kazakhstan historiography has a third point of view about the Ak Orda. K. Uskenbai in article “Uluses of first Juchids. The problem of the terms Ak-Orda and Kok Orda” understood Ak Orda as ulus of eldest son of Jochi - Orda Ichena, which located in territory between the Irtysh and Syr Darya, and it is regarded as the core of the modern Kazakh State.

The Ak-Horde of the beginning of the XIV-XV th centuries located of the Kazakh steppes from the Ural River to the West Siberian Lowland, including the lower and middle reaches of the Syr Darya.

The first khan of Ak- Orda was Sasy- Buka. Complete independence from the Golden Horde was in the mid of 14th century by khans Erzene (Erdene) and his son Mubarak.

Urus became khan of the Ak-Horde in 1368. At the same time he actively participated in the struggle for the throne of Golden Horde . In 1368 Urus made a campaign towards the Volga region. In 1374-1375 he seized Saray and subjected the Kama Bulgars. However, Urus-Khan's success was brief and in the following year he had to leave the Volga region.

Urus was a very powerful khan, confident enough to make war on the great Tamerlane to demand the extradition of his nephew Toqtamish (who had tried to overthrow him). He was driven back to the steppe by Tamerlane and died shortly afterwards. Urus regarded as the ancestor of khans of the Kazakhs.

Urus Khan is credited with the rebuilding of Sygnak, the capital of the left wing of the Jochid Ulus.

Barak, the grandson of Urus Khan was the last khan of the Ak Orda in the period when it was weakened and defeated by Tamerlane. A large part of the Ak Horde was entered in Khanate of Abulkhair , the rest of Ak-Orda was a part of the Nogai Horde.

Date: 2015-01-29; view: 1200

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