Neologisms. Their place in the vocabulary system of the English language.
neologism is a newly coined word or phrase or a new meaning for an existing word, or a word borrowed from another language.
The intense development of science and industry has called forth the invention and introduction of an immense number of new words and changed the meanings of old ones, e. g. aerobic, black hole, computer, isotope, feedback, penicillin, pulsar, quasar, tape-recorder, supermarket and so on.
The term "e-mail", as used today, is an example of a neologism.
Neologisms can also refer to an existing word or phrase which has been assigned a new meaning.
At the present moment English is developing very swiftly and there is so called "neology blowup". R. Berchfield who worked at compiling a four- volume supplement to NED says that averagely 800 neologisms appear every year in Modern English. It has also become a language-giver recently, especially with the development of computerization.
New words, as a rule, appear in speech of an individual person who wants to express his idea in some original way. This person is called "originater". New lexical units are primarily used by university teachers, newspaper reporters, by those who are connected with mass media.
Neologisms can develop in three main ways:
-- a lexical unit existing in the language can change its meaning to denote a new object or phenomenon. In such cases we have semantic neologisms, e.g. the word "umbrella" developed the meanings: "авиационное прикрытие", "политическое прикрытие".
-- A new lexical unit can develop in the language to denote an object or phenomenon which already has some lexical unit to denote it. In such cases we have transnomination, e.g. the word "slum" was first substituted by the word "ghetto" then by the word-group "inner town".
-- A new lexical unit can be introduced to denote a new object or phenomenon. In this case we have "a proper neologism", many of them are cases of new terminology.
Newly created words entering a language tend to pass through several stages:
-- Unstable - Extremely new, being proposed, or being used only by a small subculture (also known as protologisms).
-- Diffused - Having reached a significant audience, but not yet having gained widespread acceptance.
-- Stable - Having gained recognizable and probably lasting acceptance.
-- Dated - The point where the word has ceased holding novelty and has passed into clichИ, formal linguistic acceptance, or become culturally dated in its use
Neologisms can be also classified according to the ways they are formed.
-- phonological neologisms
-- semantic neologisms
-- syntactical neologisms (morphological /word-building/ and phraseological /forming word- groups)
Morphological and syntactical neologisms are usually built on patterns existing in the language, therefore they do not belong to the group of strong neologisms.
Here also belong:
-- call-and-recall - вызов на диспансеризацию,
-- bioastronomy -search for life on other planets,
-- rat-out - betrayal in danger ,
-- zero-zero (double zero) - ban of longer and shorter range weapon,
-- x-rated /about films terribly vulgar and cruel/,
-- Ameringlish /American
Formation of neologisms:
-- word overlapping
-- forming new words from combinations & sentences
-- forming new words according to already existing productive patterns