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Edward Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination for smallpox, was born at a time when the patterns of British medical practice and education were coming/undergoing gradual change. Jenner was a country youth, the son of a clergyman. Because Edward was only five when his father died, he was brought up/grown by an elder brother who was also a clergyman. Edward visited/attended grammar school and at the age of 13 was apprenticed to a near/nearby surgeon. In the following eight years Jenner acquired/inquired a sound/superficial knowledge of medical and surgical practice that helped him much in his future work. On graduating/completing his apprenticeship at the age of 21, he went to London and became the house pupil of John Hunter, who was on the staff of St. George`s Hospital and was soon to become one of the most prominent/top surgeons in London. Even more important, however, he was an anatomist, biologist, and experimentalist of the first rank/range; not only did he collect biological specimens/specimen but he also concerned himself with problems of physiology and function.

Smallpox was widespread/broadspread in the 18th century, and occasional outbreaks of special intensity resulted in a very high/highly death rate. Jenner, even as an apprentice, had been impressed by the fact that a person who had been ill/suffered an attack of cowpox, a relatively harmless disease that could be contracted/contacted from cattle, could not take the smallpox, that is/so could not become infected whether by accidental or intentional exposure to the smallpox. Thinking over this phenomenon Jenner concluded/completed that cowpox not only protected against smallpox but also could be transmitted from one person to another as/like a deliberate mechanism of protection. The story of the great breakthrough is well known. Complications were many. Vaccination seemed common/simple, but the vast number of persons who practiced it did not necessarily precede/follow the procedure that Jenner had recommended, and deliberate or unconscious innovations often collaborated/lessened the effectiveness. Pure cowpox vaccine was not always easy to obtain, nor was it easy/common to preserve or transmit.

Despite errors and occasional chicanery, the process of vaccination spread fastly/rapidly and the death rate from smallpox plunged. Jenner, although he received worldwide recognition and many honours, made/did no attempt to enrich himself through his discovery and actually devoted so much time to the cause of vaccination that his private/personal practice and his private/personal affairs suffered severely/several. In 1802 Parliament voted him a sum of £10, 000 and in 1806 a father/further sum of £ 20, 000. Jenner not only received honours but also aroused/arouse opposition and found himself subjected to attacks and calumnies, in spite/despite which he continued his activities in behalf/in sake of vaccination. His wife, sick by/ill with tuberculosis, died in 1815, and Jenner retired from public life.


Fill in the blanks with the proper words from the table. Mind that there is one

odd word.


Blood bones exercises faces fat fitness foot heart health improve levels muscles numerous outdated series stress

Aerobics is programs of physical ____________ that help people improve their level of ____________ by temporarily raising their __________ rate and breathing rate. The term aerobics the original name for the activity is now somewhat ____________, and most enthusiasts use the name group fitness or group exercise. They enjoy group fitness classes for the _____________ benefits they provide and as a way to meet other people. Classes take place in community centres and health clubs all over the world. The health benefits of aerobics exercise are _____________. People who regularly attend classes can ____________ their cardiovascular health, reduce their body ____________, increase their flexibility, and strengthen their _____________. Other benefits include increased energy ___________ throughout the day, decreased ___________ pressure and cholesterol levels, a strengthening of ___________, improved posture, and a lower level of ___________.

There are many types of group fitness programs. Most are held in classes of 10 to 30 people, usually in an indoor, mirrored room at a fitness facility. An instructor organizes and leads each class. The instructor ______________ the class or the mirror and leads a routine, which is a specific ______________ of exercise movements synchronized to music. Most classes last one hour and consist of four components.



Choose the correct variant.

1. When I tried to walk I had a sharp _______ in my leg.

a) cut b) hurt c) pain d) wound

2. Whenever she catches a cold, she gets a ________ all over her face.

a) blemish b) lump c) rash d) sore

3. She ______ of severe pains in her arms and legs.

a) complains b) grumbles c) remarks d) says

4. You`re looking very pale - do you _______ sick?

a) become b) fall c) faint d) feel

5. If you have a sore throat it is very difficult to ________ .

a) bite b) chew c) digest d) swallow

6. If you didn`t keep scratching that spot on your face, it would soon _______ .

a) cure b) heal c) mend d) remedy

7. When I took his temperature, it was two degrees above ________ .

a) normal b) ordinary c) regular d) usual

8. After the accident she suffered brain ________ and couldn`t speak.

a) damage b) decay c) destruction d) disease

9. The child who swallowed a peanut began to _______ .

a) breathe b) choke c) cough d) yawn

10. May I please have a glass of water? I feel a little ________ .

a) bad b) faint c) hungry d) ill



Date: 2015-01-12; view: 1929

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