(1) Some writers use the terms ‘needs’, ‘wants’ and ‘demands’ rather than customer ‘requirements’. A need is a basic requirement that an individual wishes to satisfy. People have basic needs for food, (1) … , affection, self esteem and self-development. Many of these needs are created from human biology and the nature of social relationships. Customer needs are, therefore, very broad. Whilst customer needs are broad, customer wants are usually quite narrow. A want is a desire for a specific product or service to satisfy the underlying need.
(2) A ‘want’ is a particular way of satisfying a ‘need’. Consider this example. Consumers needto eat when they are (2) … . What they want to eat and in what kind of environment will vary enormously. For some, eating at McDonalds satisfies the need to meet hunger. For others a microwaved ready-meal meets the need. Some consumers are never satisfied unless their food comes served with a bottle of fine Chardonnay.
(3) Consumer wants are shaped by social and cultural (3) … , the media and marketing activities of businesses. This leads onto another important concept - that of customer demand. Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it. A ‘demand’ is a requirement for a specific item plus an ability to purchase that item.
(4) For example, many consumers around the globe want a Mercedes. But relatively few are able and willing to buy one. Businesses, therefore, do not only have to make products that consumers want, but they also have to make them affordable to a (4) … number to create profitable demand.
(5) Businesses do not create customer needs or the social status in which customer needs are influenced. It is not McDonalds that makes people hungry. However, businesses do try to influence demand by (5) … products and services that are:
• Attractive • Work well • Affordable • Available
(6) Businesses also try to communicate the relevant features of their products through advertising and other marketing promotion. This leads us finally to an important summary point.
B) 1. a) shelter b) education c) rest d) decoration
2. a) fed b) hungry c) thirsty d) angry
3. a) events b) programs c) departments d) forces
4. a) small b) lot of c) sufficient d) indefinite
5. a) thinking b) designing c) purchasing d) building
C) Find words and phrases in the text which have similar meanings:
1.Something that is essential to human life. (1)
3.Limited in range or variety. (1)
5.Main, essential. (1)
6.Very much, greatly. (2)
7.To satisfy. (2)
8.To be formed. (3)
11.Cheap enough for ordinary people. (4)
12.Giving a benefit. (4)
13.Feeling that you want to eat. (5)
14.Able to be obtained, taken, or used(5)
15.Important and directly connected to what is being discussed or considered. (6)
16.A short account of something that gives only the most important information and not all the details. (6)
1. Let us learn something more interesting about psychology and its influence on a consumer:
Everybody is motivated by needs and wants. Needs are the basic forcesthat motivate a person to do something. Some needs involve a person’s physical well-being, others the individual’s self-view and relationship with others. Needs are more basic than wants. Wants are ‘needs’ that are learned during a person’s life. For example, everyone needs water or some kind of liquid, but some people also have learned to want Perrier with a twist.
When a need is not satisfied, it may lead to a drive. A drive is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need. Drives are internal — they are the reasons behind certain behavior patterns. In marketing, a product purchase results from a drive to satisfy some need.
Some critics imply that marketers can somehow manipulate consumers to buy products against their will. But marketing managers can’t create internal drives. Most marketing managers realize that trying to get consumers to act against their will is a waste of time. Instead, a good marketing manager studies what consumer drives, needs, and wants already exist and how they can be satisfied better.
We’re all a bundle of needs and wants.
It is important to see, however, that particular product may satisfy more than one need at the same time. In fact, most consumers try to fill a setof needs rather than just one need or another in sequence.
Obviously marketers should try to satisfy different needs. Yet discovering these specific consumer needs may require careful analysis. Consider, for example, the lowly vegetable peeler. Marketing managers for OXO International realized that many people, especially young children and senior citizens, have trouble gripping the handle of a typical peeler. OXO redesigned the peeler with a bigger handle that addressed this physical need. OXO also coated the handle with dishwasher-safe rubber. This makes cleanup more convenient — and the sharp peeler is safer to use when the grip is wet. The attractively designed grip also appeals to consumers who get personal satisfaction from cooking — and who want to impresstheir guests. Even though OXO priced the peeler much higher than most kitchen utensils, it has sold very well because it appeals to people with a variety of needs.
2. Choose the right answer:
1. Needs are _____.
a)reasons behind certain behavioral patterns
b)what you learn during your life
c)the basic forces that motivate a person to do something
2. Wants _____.
a)involve a person’s physical well-being
b)involve the individual's self view and relationship with others
c)are ‘needs’ that are learned during a person’s life
3. A drive is _____.
a)a purchase decision
b)a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need
c)a ‘need’ that is learned during a person’s life
3. Answer the following questions:
1.What is everybody motivated by?
2.What are needs?
3.What do needs involve?
4.What are wants?
5.What is more basic a need or a want?
6.What may lead to a drive?
7.What is a drive?
8.How can marketers manipulate consumers to buy products against their will?
9.Is it reasonable to make customers buy against their will?
10.Why can it be important if one particular product may satisfy more than one need at the same time?
4. Complete the following statements using the information from the text:
1.All people are motivated by ...
2.Very often needs involve ...
3.When a need is not satisfied, it may lead to ...