Management means the members of administration of a business or an organization. They may be or may be not the owners of the business. But they are always selected by the owners to be responsible for different functions of the organization. A typical organization has three levels of management: the senior management, the middle management and the junior management.
Heads of major departments within the organization make the senior level. Leaders of sections make the middle management level. The junior management level provides a link with the rest of the workforce.
The word "management" has also another meaning. E Pitt and V.Baker in "Management and Information" define it as "the making of decisions on the allocation of resources".
The common essential of all management activity is the flow of information. That is, the inward flow of data on which decisions can be based and the outward flow of the decisions.
A good definition of a manager is given by W. Brown and E. Jaques. A manager is "an individual who is accountable for more work than he/she can do themselves and who gets some of it done through other people". This definition is related to managers who function at all levels.
The main functions of a manager are:
1. to forecast and plan (seeing into the future and drawing up plans of action);
2. to organize (to put plans into operation);
3. to command (to get the best performance from the staff);
4. to co-ordinate (to make it sure that each department's efforts harmonize with those of other departments);
5. to control (to see that everything works according to plan). Traditionally, there are two styles of management - autocratic and democratic.
Autocratic managers set objective for the group demonstrating their power and authority. They give orders and expect group members to obey them without any question. It is clear that in such situations group members do not make their own decisions.
Democratic managers, on the contrary, let group members set their own objectives. If they give orders they explain why and give reasons for their orders. Group members take part in decision making, they express different points of view. What is more, democratic managers take into consideration all their opinions before making a final decision. They also demonstrate the fact that the opinions of group members influence a final decision.
Researches show that the democratic style of management is much more effective. It leads to higher labor productivity, feelings of involvement into business and job satisfaction.
Of course, the autocratic management style can also achieve high productivity. However, researches show that such group members experience conflicts with management more often. They also show dissatisfaction with their work more often.
What modern researches also showed is that managers adopt more than one style in different situations.
III. Retell the text according to the following questions:
1.What does management mean? 2. Who selects members of administration? 3. What levels of management has a typical organization? 4.What is another meaning of the word "management"? 5. What is the common essential of all management activity? 6.Who is a manager? 7.What are the main functions of a manager? 8. What are two styles of management? 9. What is more effective style of management? 10. Why is democratic style of management more effective? 11. What do modem researches show?
IV. Arrange the words into pairs of:
Administration, forecast, command, opinion, obey, also, data, workforce, work, to choose, to demonstrate, too, information, staff, job, to show, to foresee, personnel, order, point of view, to submit, management, layer, level, to select, vice versa, on the contrary.
To reject, same, satisfaction, senior, inward, to lose, junior, outward, democratic, to achieve, to obey, autocratic, to command, to adopt, another, dissatisfaction.
1. We are going to interview three ... for the position. 2. If you need applicants for this position, ... in a special section of the local newspaper. 3. Personnel office will help you to find a new ... 4.All the information about the staff of the firm can be found in ... 5. She has a good ... for the position: a college degree, good work experience. 6. I want to find a new secretary, so I'll call an employment ... 7. If you are an applicant for the position, you have to write your ... 8. Don't ask him ... questions, it will be impolite.
VI. Translate the sentences paying attention to the different ways of comparison in the following patterns:
1. This style of management is as good as ours. 2. This flow of information is more important than the previous one. 3. This method of adaptability is the best of all known methods of this kind. 4. The new manager is less assertive than Mr. Brown. 5. The suggestion is the least clever of the three. 6. The higher the rate of production, the higher the living standards of people. 7. The more efficient management, the better performance of a firm.
VII. Match the word on the left with the statement on the right:
Planning _ the process of arranging an organization's structure and coordinating its managerial practices and use of resources to achieve its goals;
Organizing _ the process of establishing objectives and suitable sources of action before taking action;
Leading _ the process of monitoring actual organizational activities to see that they conform to planned activities;
Controlling _ the process of directing and inspiring workers to perform the task-related activities of the group;
Challenge _ a rule, statement about what can be done and what can not;
Regulation _ a difficult job.
VIII. Fill gaps with prepositions where necessary. Translate the sentences:
1. Marketing has been defined _______different ways ______ different writers. 2. Marketing is generally defined as a process_______ which people obtain what they need ______ exchanging products _______others. 3. The decision aimed________________ winning a market share must be based ________ evaluations ________ market opportunities and other relevant information. 4. As sales go ________decline, the product is subject _________ continuos price pressure. 5. Management was faced _________a problem _______ making innovations _______the technological process. 6. The company's increase _______profits was due ________ large scale sales support developed ______ management. 7. A thorough knowledge ________ computer technology and the introduction _________the computer__________ the regular activities ________ a company are a must ________ marketing managers.
IX. Read and translate the meanings of the following terms. Translate the sentences with them.
Manager - is a person who is employed to control, organize and direct part or all of a business or organization.
1. The company has taken on a new marketing manager. 2. The branch manager of a bank is also called a bank manager. 3. Personnel manager controls the work of the office staff. 4. Office manager is a manager in charge of an office.
X. Translate into English.
XI. Read the text and answer the question:
1.What are manager's functions?
2.What options has manager to consider when he wants to hire a new-employee?
Management is a process of managing people. Any manager has got some functions. For example, he makes a lot of important decisions. He sets objectives, coordinates work, delegates authority, makes hiring, firing and just general leading. It is evident that making careful decisions is the basis of good management. In fact there is no difference between the words an executive, a manager and an administrator. These words are interchangeable, in many companies the top officers are called administrators. The next group - the heads of major departments, the vice presidents. Any organizations has a number of positions and some people have more authority than others. Where and how a manager can hire a qualified employee?
A manager has several options to consider when he wants to hire a new employee. First of all he may look within his own company. But if he can't find anybody suitable for the position he has to look outside the company. If there is a personnel office in the company, he can ask them to help him to find a qualified applicant. The employer can also use other valuable sources, for example, employment agencies, consulting firms, placement offices and professional societies. He can also advertise in a newspaper or in a magazine and request candidates to send in resumes. The employer has two sets of qualifications to consider if he wants to choose from among the applicants. He must consider both professional qualifications and personal characteristics. A candidate's education, experience and skills are included in his professional qualifications. These can be listed on a resume. Personal characteristics or personality traits can be evaluated through interviews.