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Management is the achievement of organizational objectives through people and other resources. The manager's job is to combine human and technical resources in the best way possible to achieve these objectives.

There are three levels of management in most organizations. Top management, the highest level of the management pyramid includes the president, executive vice president and other key company executives. These people devote their time to developing long-range plans for the company. They make broad decisions such as whether to manufacture new products, to purchase other companies or to begin international operations. Middle management , the second level of the management pyramid, includes plant managers and division heads. Middle managers are responsible for developing detailed plans and procedures to implement the general plans of top management. They may, for example, determine the number of salespeople for a particular territory, operate a branch of a department store chain, select equipment for a new facility, or develop techniques for evaluating employee performance. Supervisory management, or first-line management, includes supervisors, foremen, department heads, section leaders who are directly responsible for details of assigning workers to specific jobs and evaluating daily - even hourly -performance. The first level managers are responsible for putting into action the plans developed by middle management.

Every manager must possess three basic managerial skills: technical skills, human relation skills, and conceptual skills.

Technical skills refer to the manager's ability to understand and use techniques, knowledge, and tools of a specific discipline or department.

Human relations skills are "people" skills. They involve the manager's ability to work effectively with and through people. The ability to create a work environment in which organizational members will contribute their best efforts to achieve objectives is a crucial managerial skill at every level.

Conceptual skills refer to the ability of the manager to see the organization as a whole and understand how all parts fit together. These skills involve a manager's ability to "see the big picture" by acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting information.

Managers at every level in the organization perform four basic functions - planning, organizing, directing and controlling.

Planning is the process of setting goals for the organization and developing strategies to accomplish them. It encompasses decisions about the activities the organization should perform; the production, marketing, and financial strategies it should use in reaching its objectives; and the resources needed to accomplish its goals. Thus, planning involves the determination of courses of action to answer the questions of what should be done, by whom, where, when, and how.

Organizing involves coordinating the efforts of employees and assigning work activities in such a way that the goals of the organization can be accomplished.

Directing is the process of supervising and guiding employees so that plans are completed and goals are accomplished. It involves motivating people to do their best, explaining procedures, issuing orders, and seeing that mistakes are corrected.

Controlling is the function of evaluating the organization's performance to determine whether it is accomplishing its objectives. Controlling is linked closely to planning; in fact, the basic рифове of controlling is the determination of how successful the planning function has been.



to work effectively with and through people - ефективно працювати з людьми та з їх допомогою

"to see the big picture" - бачити все в цілому



Answer the following questions:


  1. What is management?
  2. What does the manager's job involve?
  3. How many levels of management do you know?
  4. What are the functions performed by top management?
  5. What are middle managers responsible for?
  6. Whom does supervisory management include? What are their functions?
  7. What are the three skills required for managerial success?
  8. What are the four functions of management?
  9. What is meant by planning (organizing, directing, controlling)?



Date: 2015-01-12; view: 1372

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