2. Is it an instinct or a set of skills and techniques that can be taught?
3. What do you think makes a good manager?
4. Which business leaders do you admire for the managerial skills? What are these skills?
5. Do managers have a good reputation in your country or are they made fun of in jokes, cartoons and television series?
Ex.2. Match the words or word combinations with their definitions
a) the power to act for someone else
2 management activities
b) the duty or task to be performed
3 technical activities
c) working with and through other people to accomplish the objectives of both the organization and its members
d) the obligation to be held responsible for what was expected or what happened that was unexpected
e) the specialist functions of an individual, or those that derive from his/ her vocational field
f) include planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, motivating, leading, and controlling; getting results effectively through other people by process of delegation
Ex.3. Read and translate the text
Management is important. The success or failure of companies, public sector institutions and services, sport teams, and so on, often depends on the quality of their managers. But, what is management? Are their certain functions that all managers perform regardless of whether they are company presidents, managers of departments, or supervisors of department sections? In 1980, the President of the American Association (AMA) used this definition of management: “Management is getting things done through other people.” Now look at a current definition: “Management is working with and through other people to accomplish the objectives of both the organization and its members.” What are the differences between the two? There are three key differences that should be highlighted. The more recent definition:
· places greater emphasis on the human being in the organization;
· focuses attention on the results to be accomplished, on objectives, rather than just things and activities;
· adds the concept that accomplishment of the members’ personal objectives should be integrated with the accomplishment of organizational objectives.
In looking at the current definition, we come to the conclusion that management is both a science and an art. We also distinguish between the role as a manager and the role as a technician, following a vocational field. And when a person is a manager, he or she is doing the same thing no matter at what level in an organization.
According to Peter Drucker, the well-known American business professor and consultant, the work of a manager can be divided into planning, organizing, integrating (motivating and communicating), measuring, and developing people. Some also add such functions as directing, controlling, staffing, leading, representing and decision-making. But none of the management functions can be performed without communication.
Thus, managers (especially senior or top managers)
v set objectives, and decide how their organization can achieve them;
v organize (they analyze and classify the activities of the organization and the relations among them; they divide the work into manageable activities and select people to manage these units and perform the jobs);
v practice the social skills of motivation and communication (they have to make the people who are responsible for performing individual jobs form teams; they make decisions about pay and promotion);
v measure the performance of their staff;
v develop people (both their subordinates and themselves);
v consider the needs of the future and take responsibility for innovation;
v maintain business’s relations with customers, suppliers, distributors, bankers, investors, neighbouring communities, public authorities, and so on;
v deal with any major crises which arise.
Although the tasks of a manager can be analyzed and classified, management is not entirely scientific. It is a human skill. There were good managers, of course, long before anyone ever studied management. But not everyone can be a genius, and the demand for good managers far exceeds the supply of geniuses. A good manager needs plenty of intelligence, common sense, business judgment and intuition – and even ‘instinct’ may have place. But the knowledge of what others have learned about the various aspects of management will help him use his native abilities more effectively.
The ability to form mutually respectful relationships with others and to succeed in getting ideas heard is a vital element of being a good manager. Having influence enables a good manager to gain support and commitment for his proposals, and therefore increase his potential for success. Influencing people will help him build his communication skills, improve his ability to engage the interest and co-operation of others, and develop an authoritative and reliable reputation.
A manager is responsible for the men, machine, materials and methods at his disposal. These are resources he uses to reach his objectives. And in determining how he will use them, he must constantly make decisions. A real decision is required when there’s some uncertainty about choosing one course rather than another. Thus true decision-making involves some degree of risk. The decision-making process has several stages, they are discovering and defining problems, elaborating courses of action and making the final choices.
So, some people are clearly good at management, and others are not. Some people will be unable to put management techniques into practice. Others will have lots of technique, but few good ideas. Outstanding managers are rather rare.
Ex.4. Answer the questions:
1. How is management defined?
2. What is the main responsibility of managers?
3. How can managers obtain good results?
4. What are the main functions of top managers?
5. What types of problems do managers deal with?
6. What is decision-making process?
7. How can managers enable people to perform their tasks effectively?
8. What does leadership imply?
9. Is it important for the manager to have good relationship with his subordinates? Why (not)? Give your reasons.