2.Read the following sentences and try to guess the meaning of the words in bold type.
Study the use of these words.
Mentionv.:To talk or write smth or someone, usually quickly and without saying very much or giving details. Some of the problems were mentioned in this report. The concept of the energy of a body or system of bodies is much broader than may be inferred from the few cases mentioned above. As mentioned in Chapter 4, the temperature at which degradation becomes excessive may be calculated from reaction rate mechanics.
Ensure v.: To make certain that smth will happen properly. This ensures a correct volume. To To ensure a correct volume of sample, some mud must some flow through the hole. To ensure all potassium has been removed, add 2 to 3 drops of the sodium perchlorate to the centrifuge tube after centrifuging.
Prevent v.: To stop smth from happening, or stop someone from doing smth. A drilling mud should have sufficient density to prevent any gas, oil or saltwater from entering the wellbore uncontrolled. Always use the back-pressure receiver to prevent vaporization of the filtrate at test temperatures near boiling or higher.
Setn.: A group of similar things that belong together or are related in some way. We face a new set of problems. In this part no units are given for the flow equations because any set of units will serve. They developed a set of equations containing 5 physical parameters. Exert.: Make effort; influence. The shear stresses exerted by the fluid on the hole walls are in the
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order of pounds per hundred square feet. At depth, the pressure exerted by the mud-column may be as much as 20,000 pounds per square inch (1,400kg/cm ).
Keep (kept-kept)v.: 1.To stay in a particular state, condition, or position, or to make someone or smth do this. 2. To leave smth in one particular place so that you can find it easily. Keep assembly upright, so that mud does not flow into the drain tube. The perchlorate is not hazardous if kept water wet.
Conditionn.: All the things that affect the way smth happens. The pressure loss may be determined by making test with the polymer of interest in a pipe viscometer under turbulent flow conditions. Under these conditions the rheological properties of the mud must be adjusted to increase the transport ratio.
Vary v.: Be or become different; be of different kinds. The importance of this action varies with the type of rock. An enormous variety of materials have been used at one time or another in attempts to cure lost circulation. The magnitude of this effect varies with the type of bit. Satisfactory results can be obtained with a concentric cylinder viscometer provided that n and k do not vary greatly with rate of shear.
Includev.: If one thing includes another, the second thing is part of the first. Water has three common phases, including a solid one. The procedures are outlined in the manual, which is included with the viscometer. Other necessary equipment includes the large heating cup and
a mixing device to heat the fluid sample evenly.
Toleratev.:To allow people to do, say or believe smth without criticizing or punishing them. A sight colour can be tolerated if the proper blank is used as specified in steps. The “intermediate” casing is run and cemented when there is a need to change the mud to density that can’t be tolerated by exposed formations or by the surface casing.
Mean (meant-meant)v.: Have as one’s purpose, design; intend to convey or indicate. The difference is significant because it means that the flow velocity would have it to be 35% higher, all other factors being equal. It means that inhibitors are generally selected vased on the application temperature.
Adjacent adj.:A room, building, piece of land etc. that is adjacent to smth is next to it. Fields adjacent to the nuclear plant were found to have high levels of radioactivity. In one application the directional wellbore intersects several adjacent, but isolated and discrete, vertical fractures with a single drainhole.
Other than: Apart from a particular person or thing. If the ratio is other than 4.0±0.5, it must be
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used as a correction factor in the calculation of mg/lK+. Stratigrafic traps are formed by
geological processes other than structural deformation and related to variations in rock properties.
Imposev.:To force someone to have the same ideas, beliefs etc as you. They did not realize the difficulties the new drilling method would impose on them. Restrictions were imposed on the use of this welbore.
Createv.: Make smth exist that did not exist before; invent or design smth. The high strengths developed by thixotropic muds after prolonged periods of rest create another problem for the drilling engineer. Today sophisticated electronic instruments are created that can perform measurement while drilling function.
Considerableadj.: Fairly large, especially large enough to have an effect or be important. This point has a considerable practical importance. There is considerable evidence that the degree of dispersion increases when muds are aged dynamically. Most natural sands and sandstones contain considerably less clay minerals than did the packs in Bardot's experiments.
Considern.: To talk or write about something in detail, so that you can make it understood. In the next chapter we will consider many methods used to locate petroleum traps. Mud properties as a function of temperature and pressure are also considered. Because of pollution problems oil muds are not considered suitable for drill geothermal wells.
Fracturen.: A crack or broken part in a bone or other substance. There can be a coating fracture. A knowledge of the pressure and flow velocity in the various sections of the annulus is very important when dealing with such problems as hole cementing, induced fracturing and hole erosion. Unfortunately, in most places where oilwells are drilled the formations are either fractured by tectonic movements, or gravely weakened by physico-chemical reactions with the mud.
Turnv.: To start to have a different quality or to make do this. Solution will turn from blue to wine-red if zinc is present. Also, the boric acid solution should turn the indicator pink, not yellow.
Turnn.:The time when it is your chance, duty or right to do smth that each person in a group is doing one after the other. It is turn to determine the alkalinity and lime content of drilling muds.
In turn: 1) one after the other, especially in a particular order; 2) as a result of smth. The suction pit is in its turn used for the addition of treating chemicals and mud conditioning additives.
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Occurn.:To happen. The flattening occurs because the local shear rate decreases towards the
centre of the pipe and the local viscosity increases accordingly. It has been found experimentally that the change from laminar to turbulent flow always occurs at approximately the same Reynolds number. His results showed that the maximum positive surge pressure occurred at the maximum pipe velocity. The occurrence of such fractures is shown by fluctuations in the injection pressure.
Dilutev.: To make a liquid weaker by adding water or another liquid. This gives an initial dilution factor of 6. If the filtrate is dark the colour must be removed by diluting. Thus the PV is sensitive to the concentration of solids, and therefore indicates dilution requirement.
Detrimental adj.: Causing harm or damage. The detrimental effect of cement on increased Pm is due to the high alkalinity content. The detrimental effect of corrosion of drill pipes and corrective measures are briefly discussed in this section.
Likelihoodn.: The degree to which smth can reasonably be expected to happen. They must face the likelihood that severe crystallization may cause the entire brine volume to turn to slush or solidify completely. Determining the likelihood of oil and gas in the trapped region is yet another concern.
Requirev.: To need smth. It may be required to determine the concentration of magnesium as well as calcium. Temperature over 300 to 400F require the use of porous stainless – steel discs in place of filter paper.
Efficientadj.: If someone or smth is efficient, they work well without wasting time, money or energy. The reaction takes place at the surface so that the efficiency of the material depends on the surfaced area exposed. Oil muds efficiently prevent corrosion because they are not-conductive and contain strong oil-wetting agents.
Suction n.: The process of removing air or liquid from the enclosed space so that another substance is sucked in or so that two surfaces stick together. If the glass tube protrudes below the stopper, the caustic solution being distilled will collect around the exposed tube and be sucked up and over to the boric acid solution. The suction pit is also used for the addition of treating chemicals and mud conditioning additives. After that, the mud moves to the suction pit where the pumps pull it out for recirculation downhole.
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3.Give the English for the following.
Упоминать, ссылаться; гарантировать, обеспечивать; не позволять, мешать,
препятствовать; множество, совокупность; создавать (силу), оказывать(влияние);
поддерживать, сохранять(ся), держать(ся); условие, состояние; колебаться, изменяться; включать, заключать в себе; допускать, позволять, выдерживать; значить, подразумевать, означать; смежный, прилегающий, соседний; кроме, за исключением; налагать, предписывать, навязывать; создавать; значительный; рассматривать, учитывать; разлом, ломаться; превращаться, изменяться; очередь, по очереди, в свою очередь; происходить, иметь место; разбавлять, разводить; вредный, пагубный, причиняющий ущерб; вероятность; требовать; эффективный, действенный; всасывание.