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Leading Industries

 

Non-ferrous Metal industry

This is one of the basic industries of Kazakhstan. Its part of the total industrial output accounts for 11.2%. Among these, 12 are in lead and zinc production, such as the Ust-Kamenogorsk Lead and Zinc group of enterprises, the Ridder Polymetallic Plant, the Zyryanovsk Zinc Plant, the Achisai Polymetallic Plant and also the Shymkent Zinc Plant. The Zhezkazgan and Balkhash mining and metallurgical group of enterprises produce copper. To add to these, there are 3 aluminium plants, 5 gold and 2 rare metal mines, one wolfram and molybdenum and one titanium and magnesium operating in the Republic. Besides, there are also five mine construction organizations. The Republic produces 50 elements of Mendeleev’s periodic table in the form of metals and chemicals.

 

Ø Name the main plants of non-ferrous metal industry and show them on the map.

 

Ferrous Metal Industry

The enterprises and organizations of the ferrous metal industry are an important factor in the Republic’s industrial potential producing 6% of the country’s total output. There are 9 industrial enterprises, a mine contracting combine, branches of “Giprozem”, the “Chermetavtomatica” scientific and industrial combine, and 10 repair and building head offices of the ferrous metal industry.

The Karaganda metallurgical group of enterprises is the biggest in Kazakhstan. It specializes in the production of sheet-rolled ferrous metal, including white tin, and exports it to 30 countries.

 

Ø Find derivatives and translate them into Russian.

 

 

Chemical and Oil-Processing Industries

There are more than 40 enterprises belonging to these industries which are located in the west and southwest of Kazakhstan. They are enterprises processing oil to produce petrol, diesel fuel, aviation paraffin and other products. They also make tires for cars and agricultural machines, rubber articles, plastics, chemical fibers and threads.

 

Ø Find the English equivalents to:

 

Oil and Gas Industries

Kazakhstan has sufficient reserves of oil and gas. This sector is represented by the industrial combines “Mangyshlakneft”, ”Embaneft”, “Aktubinskneft”, “Tengizneftegaz” and others.

* The oldest industrial combine is “Embaneft” (1899).

* The biggest is “Mangyshlakneft” providing 60% of the Republic’s oil extraction. It exploits the Uzen and Zhetybai oil deposits of the Mangyshlak peninsula and started to operate in the mid-60s.

* The most recent oil and gas extracting enterprise is “Tengizneftegas”, a joint with the American Chevron Oil Company project.

* The joint exploitation of the Aktubinsk oil and gas deposits is under the discussion with the French company Elf Akiten.

* The new oil deposits were discovered in the South Turgai and Western Kazakhstan with prospects of exploitation for 25-30 years.

 

 

Ø Fill in the gaps:

1. Kazakhstan has … of oil and gas.

2. The oldest industrial combine is ....



3. “Mangyshlakneft” provides ... of the Republic’s oil extraction.

4. The Uzen and Zhetybai oil deposits are situated on ….

5. The most recent enterprise is ….

6. The new oil deposits were discovered in ….

 

Transport and Communications

All types of transport and communications have been developed in Kazakhstan: railway, air, road, sea, water transport and pipelines.

* There are 3 main railway lines with total route length of more than 14 000 km. The railway network stretches in all directions. In 1992 regular services were started with the Chinese People’s Republic.

* Total main road length is more than 80,000 km. Roads link Kazakhstan with all its neighbouring states. All the regions, districts and cities are part of an integrated transport network.

* Airlines connect Astana and Almaty with all regional centers, with many cities and settlements of the Republic as well as cities of the the CIS.

* There are about 5,000 km of oil and gas pipelines.

* There are more than 4,000 km of navigable rivers. Sea transport is mainly on the Caspian Sea.

* Electric, electronic and post office communications are being constantly modernized. In fact, there are extensive facilities to connect the Republic with practically any place in the world.

 

Ø What do these numbers refer to?

1992 14 000 km 5 000 km 80 000 km 4 000 km

 

 

Agriculture

Agriculture in the Republic is highly developed. The country is a significant producer and exporter of agricultural products. The main cereal crop is wheat. Arable land occupies 35 hectares. Live-stock breeding is one of the main activities of the Republic’s agricultural industry (sheep, cows, goats, pigs and horses).

 

Ø Give the Russian equivalents to:

- to be highly developed

- cereal crop

- live-stock breeding

- a significant producer

- an exporter of agricultural products

- the main activities

 

Science and New Technologies

At present the Republic has more than 100 scientific and research institutes and laboratories carrying out research work in all fields of science and technology. The biggest scientific centers are located in Astana, Almaty, Karaganda, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Shymkent.

It was Kazakh scientists who started the important project at Baikonur cosmodrome. In 1992 The National Space Agency was founded to organize the cooperation in space research and technologies with many countries in the world. Work is in progress to build up space communications between Kazakhstan and Turkey.

 

 

Ø Answer the questions:

1. What is the aim of a research institute or a laboratory?

2. Where are the biggest scientific centers located?

3. Who started the important project at the Baikonur cosmodrome?

4. When was the National Space Agency founded?

 

Foreign Economic Relations

Kazakhstan’s economy is closely linked with the economies of other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), especially Russia.

* Kazakhstan exports 200 different types of goods (metals, raw materials, power, building materials, etc.)

* Prospects for international tourism are very promising ( hunting, mountain-climbing tours, horse and camel riding)

* There are 3 000 joint ventures registered on the territory of Kazakhstan.

* There are 20 foreign economic associations and combines.

* Kazakhstan is open for the foreign investments into its economy.

 

 

Ø Complete the sentences:

1. Kazakhstan’s economy is closely linked with ….

2. Kazakhstan exports 200 ….

3. There are 3 000 joint ventures ….

4. Kazakhstan is open for ….


Date: 2015-01-12; view: 944


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