Read the text and tell about the difference between solicitors and barristers
England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers. If a person has a legal problem, he will go and see a solicitor. Almost every town will have at least one. In fact there are at least 50,000 solicitors in Britain.
Many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in Magistrates’ Courts, the lowest Courts. He prepares the case and the evidence. He actually speaks in Court for you.
In a civil action he can speak in the County Court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some depts. In the County Court the solicitor wears a black gown over his ordinary clothes.
A solicitor also deals with matters outside Court. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.
To qualify as a solicitor, a young man or woman joins a solicitor as a “clerk” and works for him whilst studying part time for the “Law Society” exams. Interestingly enough, it is not necessary for you to go to university. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you can “practice”, which means you can start business on your own.
Barristers are different from solicitors. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Law. They are called in to advise on really difficult points. The barrister is also an expert on advocacy (the art of presenting cases in Court). Indeed, if you desire representation in any Court except the Magistrates’ Court, you must have a barrister, with one or two exceptions.
Barristers are rather remote figures. If you need one, for instance, you never see him without your solicitor being with him. Barristers do not have public offices in any street. They work in what are known as chambers, often in London. They all belong to institutions called Inns of Court, which are ancient organizations rather like exclusive clubs. In many ways the remoteness they have and the job they do are medieval in conception.
To qualify as a barrister you have to take examinations of the Bar Council. These are different from solicitors’ examinations. There are over 5.000 barristers in England. A good one can earn 30.000 pounds a year. Only barristers can become judges in an English Court above a Magistrates’ Court.
Answer the following questions:
a) What is almost unique about the English legal system?
b) What kind of problems does a solicitor deal with?
c) How can you become a solicitor?
d) What are barristers experts in?
e) When must you have a barrister?
f) Are barristers paid salaries?
g) Why are barristers remote figures?
Words and Phrases for the Topic:
Read the text paying attention to the italicized words and say what the notion of International Law is and what it includes.
The Notion of International Law
International law is a body of laws, regulations, and accepted practices by which different nations throughout the world interact with each other as well as with their own citizens and citizens of other countries. There are two basic categories of International Law, Public International Law and Private International Law, although the two tend to overlap frequently. Public International Law deals with relationships between different nations or between a nation and persons from another country. Private International Law generally deals with individual concerns, such as civil or human rights issues, not only between a government and its own citizens but also in how its citizens are treated by other nations.
International law is developed and agreed upon by those that make up the international system, but not every nation state is a member or has a part in the process. Most nations are said to comply with International Law, but that appears questionable considering the number of human rights violations still occurring around the world. While the international community does attempt to hold all nations to International Law, it is not always feasible. Force may be necessary in order to ensure compliance, and the international community is generally against the use of force except in the direst circumstances.
There are also cultural issues that play a part in acceptance of and compliance with International Law. Some nations have a theocratic, or religious, government rather than a secular one and feel more bound to the tenets of their faith than to man-made law. In some cases, what most of the world views as human rights violations according to International law, may be viewed by some nations as acceptable actions or punishments prescribed by religion. This can create very sensitive situations.
The United Nations (UN) is probably the most well recognized of all international institutions. It has influence over the world community as a whole as well as individual nation. The UN is supposed to establish and protect peace and cooperation between nations and to ensure that people are treated humanely by their own as well as by other governments and groups.
1. Give Russian equivalents of the following:
a body of laws
Private International Law
interact with each other
to comply with International Law
human rights violations
force may be necessary
a theocratic government
influence over the world community
to establish and protect peace and cooperation between nations
to treat humanely
3. Match two parts of the sentences in two columns:
Public International Law deals with
those that make up the international system.
Private International Law deals with
but it is not always feasible.
International law is developed and agreed upon by
relationships between different nations or between a nation and persons from another country.
The international community does attempt to hold all nations to International Law
peace and cooperation between nations.
The UN is supposed to establish and protect
individual concerns, such as civil or human rights issues, not only between a government and its own citizens but also in how its citizens are treated by other nations.
4. Answer the following questions:
1. What is International Law?
2. What are the two basic categories of International Law?
3. What does Public International Law deal with?
4. What is Private International Law related to?
5. Is every nation state complied with the International Law?
6. When may force be necessary?
7. What are the main issues in International Law?
8. What is the difference between a secular government and a theocratic one?
9. What is the most well recognized international institution?
10. What is the mission of UN?
5. Imagine that you are a student of Monterey College of Law in California. Today your professor is going to lecture about “The International Law Fundamentals”. Before lecturing the professor asks your group if you know anything about International Law. Share your knowledge on this topic from Text 1.
Read the text paying attention to the italicized words and describe the domains of and sources of International Law.