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Lecture 18. The second law of thermodynamics ………………. …..…. 127

Rotation of Rigid Body ………………………..……………………...…. 48

Fundamental equation of motion for a rotating body ……………….…… 51

Lecture 7. Forces of Inertia ………….…………………………………... 52

Centrifugal force ……………………………………………. ………..... 54

Corioli’s force ……………………………..……….. ……………….….. 55

Lecture 8. Vibrations ………………………………….…………….……55

Small deviations from equilibrium ………………………….………. … 55

Velocity, Acceleration, Energy of Oscillations…………………….…… 57

Forced vibrations ………………………………………….……….….... 62

Addition of mutually perpendicular vibrations …………….…………… 63

Additional of parallel vibrations ………………………………...…...….. 64

Part 2

Lecture 9. The Damped Mechanical Oscillations ……….. ………….….. 69

The Spring Pendulum …………………….………………….……….… 71

Physical pendulum …………………………………………………….. 73

The Mathematical Pendulum ………………….……………………….. 73

Lecture 10. Wave Motion. Principles of Acoustics …………………….. 75

Wave Equation …………………………………………………………... 76

Standing Waves …………………………………………………..……... 77

Sound Vibrations and Waves …………………..…………………..……. 79

Lecture 11. Electromagnetic Oscillations and Waves ………….….…..….81

Forced Oscillations. Electrical Resonance ……………………..……...… 84

Electromagnetic Waves …………………………………………………. 85

Lecture 12. Liquids and Their Properties. ……………………..…. …..… 88

Molecular Pressure and Surface Tension …………….………..…..…..… 88

Capillary Phenomena …………………………………..………….……. 91

Microscopic and Macroscopic Parameters ………………..………....…. 93

Lecture 13. Ideal gas ………………….…………………………..…...... 94

The Equation of State …………………………………………………… 94

The Equation of the Gas State …………………………….…..…..……. 95

Lecture 14. The Equations of State of Real Gases …….………….……. 96

Kinetic Theory of Gasses …………………………………. ………..… 97

Gas Pressure ……………………………………………………..……... 98

Absolute Temperature ………….……….…………………………….. 102

Lecture 15. Processes in the ideal gases ………………………………. 102

Distribution of Gas Molecules by Velocities ……………………........... 103

Transfer Phenomena ……………………………………………………106

Diffusion ……………………………………………..….. ……………. 106

Heat Conductivity …………………………………………………….. 108

Internal Friction………….. ……………….. ………………………….. 109

Lecture 16. Internal Energy of a Gas …………………………………... 109

Work, performed by Gas …………………………….……………….. 110

Temperature and Heat …………………………….…………………. 111

The first law of thermodynamics …………………..……………….… 112

Thermodynamic Process …………………………….……………….... 113

Specific heat ………………………………………………………....... 113

Application of the first law of thermodynamics to gas processes…….… 115

Lecture 17. Cycles ………………………….. ……………………….… 119

The principle of operation of heat engine …… ……… ………….…..120

Carnot’s Engine. Cycle of Carnot ………………………………..…..…. 121

Work and efficiency of Carnot’s Cycle ………………….…….……..… 121

Entropy ……………….. …………………………………………….… 125

Lecture 18. The second law of thermodynamics ………………. …..…. 127

Processes involving a change of gas state ……………….…….……..….129



Lecture 1. Introductory Lecture

The fields and uses of physics

 

The story of mans civilization is the story of his study of nature and the application of his knowledge in his life. The use of tools, first of stone and later of metals, the domestication of animals, the development of writing and counting, all progressed slowly since rapid advance was not possible until man began to gather data and check theories. Till that time most of mans knowledge was based on the speculation of the Greeks.

Non until a little over three centuries ago did man adopt the scientific method of studying his environment. After this the development of civilization has become increasingly more rapid. The advance of all the natural sciences has been almost simultaneous: in fact, many of the prominent scientists were working in more than one field of knowledge.

Probably more conditions under which man lives, physics deals not with man himself, but with the things he sees and feels and hears. This science deals with the laws of mechanics, heat, sound, electricity, light, in order to build our machinery age. Modern physics also deals with electronics, atomic phenomena, photo-electricity, X-rays, radioactivity, the transmutation of matter and energy and the phenomena associated with electron tubes and the electric waves of modern radio.

The practical application of the achievement of the physics continues to develop at an ever-increasing rate. “Practical physics” plays, therefore, no small role, for the laws of physics are applied in every movement we make, in every attempt of communication, in the warmth and light we receive from the sun, in every machine. Practical application of physics is not all made by physicists, for the majority of those who apply the principles of physics are called “engineers”.

In fact, most of the branches of engineering are closely related with one more sections of physics: civil engineering applies the principles of mechanics and heat; electrical engineering is based on fundamentals of electricity, etc. The relation between engineering and physics is so close that a thorough knowledge and understanding of physical principles is important for progress of engineering. One of the tools common to physics and engineering is mathematics. If we want to make effective the use of the principles and measurements of physical science, we must have a workable knowledge of mathematics. Physics and mathematics are thus the basic “foundations of engineering”.


Date: 2015-01-12; view: 1135


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