24 Look at the articles headline and guess whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F).
The production of biofuels will more than double over the next decade.
T / F
The demand for biofuels will help increase global trade.
T / F
Governments are extremely keen to replace fossil fuels with biofuels.
T / F
There are no critics of biofuels.
T / F
Analysts believe biofuels are a major cause of rising food prices.
T / F
Its possible that food riots might break out in developed countries.
T / F
A UN official said biofuels were a crime against humanity.
T / F
25 Match the words with their definitions.
1) crude oil a) a saturated hydrocarbon; it consists
of hydrogen and carbon atoms
2) reservoir b) a gas without colour or smell that
burns easily and used as a fuel
3) natural gas c) a large amount of something that
is available to be used
4) methane d) oil in its natural state before it has been
treated with chemicals
5) alkane e) the simplest alkane and main
component of natural gas
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
26 Make sentences by putting the expressions in the correct order.
1. wells / crude oil / into the underground / Extracting / normally / reservoir / starts with
2. to the surface / is created by / a long hole / The oil well / drilling / which pumps /
into the earth / with an oil rig / the oil
3. a byproduct / can be / almost / on the other hand / Natural gas / always / is /
of production oil / natural gas / unwanted / a disposal problem /
4. consisting / commonly / Natural gas / mixture / higher alkanes / a hydrocarbon gas /
primarily / carbon dioxide / includes / of methane / hydrogen sulphide / and / nitrogen /
and / is
5. also / of the drill pipe / Drilling fluid / mud / and / at the drill bit / called / is pumped /
down the inside / exits /
6. chemicals / is / solids / a complex mixture of / Drilling mud / fluids / and
7. of the reservoir / for oil and gas / In many wells / to flow / enough / the natural gas /
is / to the surface / pressure / high
8. are used / the reservoir pressure / water flooding / To increase / or / CO2 flooding /
enhanced recovery methods / steam flooding / such as
OIL AND GAS WELLS START TO FINISH
27 Listen to the recording and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).
1. Heavy drilling mud can circulate without the control of underground pressure.
2. About 68,000 oil and gas wells were drilled in the States in 1954 1980.
3. Most oil and gas wells are drilled through water zones and then oil, gas and water
must be mixed.
4. According to the type of reservoir in pressure different kinds of production
equipment are installed.
5. To abandon the well cement is placed across oil zones.
28 Read the text and choose the correct forms of the verbs.
Dear Sir or Madam,
I am writing in response to your request for writers, which appears in this month´s edition of ´Global Issues´.
I am an active member of the Green Society at our university, where I started study/
to study / studying marine biology two years ago. The aim of the society is raising /to raise /raise awareness of environmental concerns amongst students and within the local community. As well as organize /organizing debates on matters of local and global importance, we also publish a monthly journal which is devoted exclusively to green issues and to which I regularly contribute.
The economy our region is largely based on farming / farm/ to farm and since it is likely that many of your readers live in similar areas, I am sure they would be interested read / reading / to read about the problem facing us. Last spring, for example, near our coast
a petrol tank sang off, to spill /spilling /spill hundreds litres of oil into the sea with devastating effects for marine wildlife and the fishing industry. I would welcome the chance write /to write / writing about the disaster and also about the attitude of our incompetent ´politicians´to this affair.
Our society is also interested in increase /to increase / increasing of the forestry industry which has recently come under heavy criticism from environmental groups.The fast-growing, and therefore very profitable, several new varieties of trees are planted, even they are not native to the region.Unfortunately, however, some of them allow nothing else grow/growing / to grow below them. Readers who are unware of this situation might learn /to learn / learning a great deal from an article on it.
I am convinced that issues like these would be of interest to people in other countries and I would like to have / having / have the opportunity write / writing / to write about them for your magazine.
I look forward to hear /hearing / to hearing from you.
Grammar File VERB PATTERNS, CLAUSES OF PURPOSE, GERUND, PARTICIPLE