The main peculiarity of philosophy ( studying relationship between personality and society or objective reality). The origin of philosophy (philosophy (phi-LOSS-oh-fee) n. [Greek philos (love) + sophia (wisdom) = the love of wisdom]). The essence and the specifics of philosophical thinking. Explanation of two main philosophical directions: idealism and materialism.
Methodical recommendations: More attention should be paid to correlation of philosophy with different forms of social consciousness. To know appliance of philosophy students must investigate the origins of famous philosopher’s works.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 1(p-25-45)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: 11(p-34-55)
1. Philosophy as a form of culture.
2. The content of materialistic and idealistic philosophical traditions.
THEME 2.The Ancient Philosophy of East.
Specifics of aincent oriental philosophy.Jainism and Brahmanism. East and west: similarities and differences. Buddhism philosophical system: foundations, essence, representatives. Taoism philosophical system: foundations, essence, representatives. Confucianism Philosophy: foundations, essence, representatives.
Methodical recommendations: In Eastern philosophical tradition there are many questions which reveal many aspects of ontology. It is necessary for students to know main philosophical doctrines and conceptions of Ancient East.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 1(p - 45-46)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: Internet
1. Teachings of many great Hindu gurus through the ages.
2. Spiritual bedrock od Taotezen. Book of Changes .
THEME 3The Ancient West Philosophy.
Greek materialistic and idealistic philosophers. Later Classical philosophers: Cicero, Zeno of Citium, EpictetusEpicurus
and Lucretius, Sextus Empiricus. Plato’s and Aristotel’s philosophical system. The questions of Greek philosophy: What is life? From where does everything come? Of what does it really consist? How do we explain the plurality of things found in nature? And why can we describe them with a singular mathematics?
Methodical recommendations: Philosophy of Ancient Greece occupied central place in history of philosophy. Students should paid more attention to ideas and conceptions of Plato, Aristotle, Socrates. It is necessary to observe the development of Ancient philosophical thought through the schools of Milet, Stoics, Epicures.
Skholastic philosophy. Arabian classical philosophy. Nominalism and realism. Philosophy of al-Faraby, al-Kindy, Ibn- Cina, Ibn-Rushd. Representatives of Middle western philosophy. Western peripatetism in arabian philosophy. Philosophy and religion in Middle ages.
Methodical recommendations: It should be mentioned that Medieval period occupied long period of the history of Europe. For students it is necessary to pay more attention to influence of Christian religion on philosophy of that period.
THEME 5Philosophy of Renaissance period.
The specifics of Renaissance philosophy. The representatives of Renaissance. Development of art, music, literature. Religion and philosophy at this period. Technological innovations in Greco-Roman culture. Antropologism and humanism. Intellectuals of Renaissance philosophy. Philosophy of nature through the works of scientists. Decay of the system of medieval values.
Methodical recommendations. This period opens new form of philosophical thinking. It should be noticed that in general philosophy is strongly connected with the art. The conception that philosophy is art of thinking finds its appliance in this period.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 4 (p – 45-125)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: 5(p – 23-45)
God within Medival philosophy, and through the dialog between Orthodox and Catholic theology.
Specifics of islam philosophy.
Education as a centre within humanist movement. The emergence of a new form of philosophy known as Neoplatonism
THEME 6 .Enlightenment philosophy.
Remarkable discoveries of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century.Significant changes is in eighteenth century or an age of Enlightenment. The Metaphysic of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter. The problem of matter and the universe. Humans as structures of the universe. Conception of Self.
THEME 7German philosophy XVIII – XIX centuries.
Specifics of German philosophy. The notion of individual free will. Vast contributions of German thinkers to history of philosophy. Dialectical reasoning in the process of thinking. Pessimistic Schopenhauer's philosophy. ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ and ‘The Metaphysics of Ethics’ of I. Kant. The truth throw the Hegelian philosophy. Transcendental philosophy of I. Kant. The principle and object of German philosophy.
Methodical recommendations: First of all students must understand that scholastic type of thinking is replaced by mechanistic. At this period the development of experimental knowledge and progress of science are observed. Also students should pay attention to most influential philosophers: I. Kant, Hegel, Fichte, Shelling. It is necessary to understand the notions of individual will of power, transcendental philosophy, and dialectics of Hegel.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 11 (p – 45-78)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: 9 (p – 77-87)
1.The Metaphysic of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter.
2. Montesquieu, J. J. Rousseau, Voltaire, Diderot are the representatives of Enlightenment.
3. Analytical propositions and synthetic propositions.
4. Hegel's philosophy as the history of theology transformed into a logical process.
5. The light of reality within the darkness of abstraction.
THEME 8Kazakh national philosophy.
The specifics of Kazakh national philosophy. Outstanding philosophers of ancient times. Philosophy of Abai Kunanbaev Chokan Valikhanov, Ibray Altynsarin. Great Arabian scientist and thinker al-Faraby. Contemporary Kazakh social, political and philosophical doctrines.
Methodical recommendations: Students must define the specifics and essence of Kazakh philosophy. It is necessary to determine the origin of national philosophy and its connections with different western and eastern philosophical doctrines.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS. In Russian Segisbaev. O.A. “Kazakhskay philosophiy”
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: Internet
Abai Kunanbaev - great poet, philosopher, writer, public figure, founder of the modern Kazakh written literature.
Chokan Chingisovich Valihanov - the Great scientist-historian, ethnographer, geographer, economist, traveller.
Kazakh philosophy in contemporary period.
THEME 9The nineteenth century philosophy.
Nineteenth century as a stage in the development of human history Hegelianism in Germany. Representatives of nineteenth century philosophy. Renewed historical interest in medieval thought. Peculiarities of philosophical doctrines and schools. Nihilism and decadence. Apollo, the god of lucid wisdom, and Dionysos, the god of orgiastic mysticism.
Methodical recommendations:trough the development of main philosophical doctrines and schools it is important to pay attention to creative works of Soren Kierkeguard, Karl Barth, Friedrech Nietshe, and to the influence of Hegelian dialectics to philosophy of XIX century.
1. Will to power" is the ruling principle of all life.
The ideal of a "good European."
The influence of Hegelian movements.
THEME 10Contemporary philosophy.
Modern western philosophy. Existentialism as a philosophical movement. The nature of positivism.. Techno-utopianism and techno-progressivism. The conception of "truth is subjectivity". The definitions of human beings. Structuralism and post structuralism. Pragmatism and scientism in philosophy. Scientific theory of human nature. Common ideology of philosophy in the 19th and 20th century.
Methodical recommendations: the modern philosophical schools: existentialism, scientism, positivism, pragmatism, phenomenology, positivism plaid significant role in development of contemporary philosophy. For students it will be interesting to find the influence of Modern philosophy to culture of XX century.
Decay of classical philosophy in contemporary period.
The conception of "truth is subjectivity".
The nature and content of pragmatism.
Pragmatism and scientism in philosophy.
Personality in contemporary philosophy. Søren Kierkegaard as the "father of existentialism".
THEME 11.Social philosophy.
The main goal of social philosophy. Philosophical social theory of anthropocentrism. Functions of contemporary social philosophy. The system of philosophical concepts as a methodological tool. The principles of contemporary social philosophy. The peculiar feature of social philosophy. The idea of activities and of practice as one of problems of social philosophy.
Methodical recommendations: it is necessary to define the main destination of social philosophy which has been expressed by feedback between man and the world.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 15 (p – 235-345)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: 12 9p – (45-67)
The principles of contemporary social philosophy.
Most general issues of social philosophy.
Contemporary philosophy as the means of both thinking and action.
The methodological role of principles of the contemporary social philosophy.
THEME 12 Philosophy of science.
The philosophy of science as the branch of philosophy. The implications of scientific methods and models for the larger society, including for the sciences themselves. The nature of scientific statements, concepts, and conclusions. The relations of scientific theories to the interpretation of the world. Auguste Comte, J. S. Mill, and William Whewell and David Hume are representatives of philosophy of science.
Methodical recommendations: philosophy of science should be considered as the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations and implications of science including formal science, natural science and social science. Students must reveal the nature of scientific statements, concepts and conclusions.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 15 (p – 345-456)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: 12 (p – 56 - 100)
The implications of scientific methods.
The types of reasoning used to arrive at conclusions and the formulation of the scientific method, including its limits.
The origins of ontology. Problems of ontology. Ontology as a rigorous discipline dealing with such concepts as: object, state of affairs, property, genus, species, identity, unity, plurality, number, relation, connection, causation, series, part, whole, dependence, existence, magnitude, boundary, manifold, set, class, etc. Three main tasks for metaphysics.
Methodical recommendations: firstly it is necessary to pay attention to questions through the history of philosophy, prima philosophy ant metaphysics in ontology.
THEME 14 Problems of human in philosophy.
(Self-consciousness as the basis of personal identity).
The conception of human in philosophy. Spiritual and material values in philosophy. Notion of Self through western and eastern philosophy. Self-consciousness is a unique type of consciousness. The idea "I exist", and the idea "others know I exist". Role of Self-consciousness in behaviour of people. Self-consciousness as a motivator for social isolation. Self-consciousness and consciousness of humanity.
Methodical recommendations: more attention should be paid to system of human values in philosophy. Self-consciousness should be considered as a unique type of consciousness.
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 1 (p – 345-378)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: Internet
Rational theology (the study of God), rational psychology (the study of the soul) and rational cosmology (the study of the body).
The counterpart of formal ontology. The `actual structure of our thoughts'.
The aim of descriptive metaphysics and ontology in philosophy.
Role of Self-consciousness in behaviour of people.
Spiritual and material values in society.
Western conception of self. Self-consciousness as a motivator for social isolation.
7. LIST OF THEMES FOR WRITTEN STUDENT’S WORK.
1. Philosophy of Taoism.
2. Philosophy of Confucianism.
3. Philosophy of Buddhism.
4. Philosophy of Jainism.
5. Hindu Philosophy.
6. Ancient Greece philosophy.
7. Philosophy of Socrates.
8. Philosophy of Plato.
9. Philosophy of Aristotle.
12. Philosophy of al-Faraby.
13. Ðhilosophy of Acvinatus.
14. Àrt, culture and religion in Renaissance
15. Ðhilosophy of N. Machiavelli.
16. Ðhilosophical worldview of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
17. Innovations in science, culture and in philosophy.
18. Philosophy of Diderot.
19. Philosophy of J. J. Rousseau.
20. Philosophy of Voltaire.
21. Transcendental idealism of I. Kant.
22. Moral philosophy of I. Kant.
23. Philosophical views of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
30. Philosophy and culture.
31. Kazakh philosophy.
8. THEME FOR ESSAY’S WORK.
THEME1. Introduction to Philosophy.
What does philosophy discover? (the subject discovers essence of human being (or life) and destination of the human). Philosophy as an attempt to come to a systematic understanding of the world through the use of reason and logic. Philosophy as humanitarian discipline (it learns students to develop their thinking and speech).
THEME2. The Ancient Philosophy of East.
What is the meaning of ancient Indian philosophy? What is the differences between Chinese and Indian philosophy? Confucianism as moral – ethical system of Chinese philosophy. Buddhism as religion and philosophical system. Development of religions in Ancient India.
THEME3. The Ancient West Philosophy.
Heraclitus of Ephesus Heraclitus is an example of the Pre-Socratic philosopher. Parmenides and the other Eleatic philosophers. Leucippus, Democritus and the other Atomists. Protagoras and the Sophists. Empedocles. The schools of Hellenistic period: Cynicism, Hedonism, Eclecticism, Neo-Platonism, Skepticism, Stoicism, Epicureanism.
THEME4. The Medieval Philosophy.
Rationalism, nominalism, peripatetism. Philosophy and religion in Middle ages. Advocators of God’s existence. Peripatetic debates of the 12th and 13th century. Nominalist and Voluntarist conflicts of the 14th and 15th. Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas philosophies. Pepresentatives of Arabian philosophy.
THEME5. Philosophy of Renaissance period
The emergence and growth of humanism. Major changes in art, music, literature and religion. Development of art, music, literature. Anthropologism, humanism and philosophy of nature. Popularity of archeology and discovery of ancient Roman and Greek constructions. Works of Renaissance philosophers. Assimilation of Platonic philosophy into Christianity by means of translation and interpretation.
THEME6. Enlightenment philosophy.
A human being as a part of the whole limited in time and space. Enlightenment philosophy is a period marked by significant changes. Montesquieu, J. J. Rousseau, Voltaire, Diderot are the representatives of Enlightenment. The problem of matter and the universe. Economic, social, intellectual and cultural developments in this period.
THEME7. German philosophy XVIII – XIX centuries.
Hegel as one of the greatest characters of German philosophy. The light of reality within the darkness of abstraction. ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ and ‘The Metaphysics of Ethics’ of I. Kant. Dialectical reasoning in the process of thinking. Transcendental philosophy of I. Kant.
THEME8 Kazakh national philosophy.
Ancient nomadic culture of Kazakhstan. Islam as religion and philosophy. “Alashorda” movement. Outstanding Arabian thinkers. National folklore in modern Kazakhstan. Contemporary social, political and philosophical doctrines.
THEME9 The nineteenth century philosophy.
The famous nineteenth century philosophers. Saint-Simonian movement in France and Hegelianism in Germany. The predominant motives of Kierkegaard's thought. Nietzsche’s "trans-valuations of values." The influence of Hegelian movements. The peculiarities of the nineteenth century philosophy.
THEME10 Contemporary philosophy.
Directions and schooles in philosophy of XX century. Lingvistic revolution in contemporary philosophy. Postmodernism in modern culture. Postpositivism and poststructuralism. Spiritual values in contemporary philosophy. Science and philosophy. Ananachronic
conception of science. Standard scientific methods of investigation.