THEME 4.The Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy in Medieval culture. Arabic Moslem philosophy within the context of Islam Medieval philosophy.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. Though medieval philosophy is widely varied, one defining feature which distinguishes this period, in the western world, is the degree to which competing or contradictory philosophical views and systems were brought into dialogue with each other.
From the Neoplatonic (Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Saint Anselm) figures who dominated the early middle ages, to the Peripatetic debates of the 12th and 13th century, to the Nominalist and Voluntarist conflicts of the 14th and 15th, it is hard to find a similar period in the history of recorded thought so populated with figures who believed their ideas could be reconciled, given enough debate and inquiry. In fact, this belief is the very essence of the philosophical mode of inquiry most closely associated with the medieval period, scholastic philosophy.In the beginning of early rationalism, the concept of Plato, with his emphasis on spirituality, a pessimistic outlook of the world, and even the concept of the trinity, influenced Augustine and other early neoplatonist figures. It is important not to exaggerate either the ignorance of medieval philosophy or its sophistication. Many medieval thinkers greatly influenced future philosophers and rationalists who attempted to prove God's existence. It is popularly believed that faith overpowered reason in significance, as philosophers such as Anselm maintained. Nevertheless, it was not the case with all philosophers. Gilson, in his book "Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages" discusses Averroes and the Latins such as Seiger who maintained what Gilson called the primacy of reason. Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas emphacized the role of philosophy and theology while taking care not to confuse the two. John Wipple illustrates the purely philosophical thought of St. Thomas Aquinas in his book "Metaphysical Themes in Thomas Aquinas" and other works. Theology, though a leading field in the middle ages, was preceded by a study of "arts" or philosophy. With the contribution of Boethius, and the first Scholastic philosophers, key Aristotle works and ideas survived though most translations were complied later in Moorish Spain. Within Medival philosophy, the question of whether God could be comprehended by the human mind, was a key discussion and is still a large contrast between Orthodox and Catholic theology. St. Anselm produced ideas with a significant amount of influence by Aristotle and stated all things that exist can be comprehended. A recommended book discussing Scholasticism and the discovery Aristotle's ideas is Aristotle's Children
OBLIGATORY READING MATERIALS: 4 (p – 45-125)
ADITIONAL READING MATERIALS: 5(p – 23-45)
God within Medival philosophy, and through the dialog between.
Orthodox and Catholic theology.
Date: 2015-01-12; view: 892