English resorts to the following language means to express an adverbial.
1. Single adverbs and adverb phrases, e.g.: She’ ll never get over it (D. Robins).
She played her part very well (A. Christie).
2. Single nouns and noun phrases, e.g.: He is travelling north (S. Sheldon).
He drives to work every day (V. Evans).
3. Prepositional phrases, e.g.:
She listened in silence (J. Parsons).
4. Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, infinitives, participles, or prepositional phrases with a subordinator at the head, e.g.:
Jean runs faster than John (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).
5. Finite clauses, e.g.:
/ came to you because you're her closest friend (R. MacDonald).
6. infinitives, infinitival phrases, and infinitival predicative constructions, e.g.:
He stopped for a minute to rest (M. Swan).
He went to buy some bread (V. Evans).
He stepped aside for me to pass (D. du Maurier).
7. Participial phrases, e.g.:
Feeling rather tired, I telephoned and said I couldn't come (M. Swan).
8. Non-prepositional and prepositional absolute participial constructions, e.g.:
She sat down, her breath coming painfully (A. Christie). The daughter sat quite silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground (Ch. Dickens).
9. Non-prepositional and prepositional absolute constructions without a participle, e.g.:
She stared at him, a look of puzzlement on her face (J. Parsons).
/ found him ready, and waiting for me, with his stick in his ft<w*rf(W. Collins).
10. Gerundial phrases, e.g.:
After leaving her umbrella in the hall, she entered the living room (A. Cronin).
The criterion of function allows English grammarians to divide adverbials into three classes: circumstance adverbials, stance adverbials, and linking adverbials. Circumstance adverbials add information about the action or state described in the sentence, answering questions, such as: How? When? Where? How much? To what extent? Why? They include both obligatory and optional adverbials, e.g.:
You live in South London (L. and J. Soars) - obligatory.
Wait a minute (L. Jones) - optional.
Stance adverbials convey speakers' comments on what they are saying or how they are saying it. Stance adverbials fall into three categories: epistemic, attitude, and style adverbials. Epistemic stance adverbials focus on the question how true is the information in the sentence. They comment on factors, such as certainty, viewpoint, and limitations of truth-value. Cf:
She is definitely coming (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).
That really was wonderful! (D. Robins).
Apparently they're intending to put up the price of electricity (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).
Attitude stance adverbials express speakers' evaluations and attitudes towards the content of a sentence, e.g.:
Unfortunately, they were out when we called (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English).
Date: 2015-01-11; view: 854