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The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns.

There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite a/an article used only with nouns in the singular (a book, an apple) and the definite the article used with nouns both in the singular and in the plural (the sun, the children).

The indefinite article is used:

1) with countable nouns in the singular to show that the noun belongs to a certain class (has the meaning of "какой-то, один из, любой"). In the plural no article is used in this case. Have you got a car? - Never.     Give me a pen and a pencil, please.  
2) with a countable noun mentioned for the first time. I've bought a hat. It's expensive.  
3) to talk about someone's job. She is a doctor. He works as a pilot.
4) with a noun in general sense (has the meaning of every, any). A drawing man catches at a straw.  
5) in the meaning of "one". Wait a minute!
6) after the construction: There is. . ./was. . ., and after: It is ... . This is ... . There is a letter on the table. It is a book. This is a hotel.
7) after the words: such, rather. quite. What. . . ! (exclamations) Ann is such a pretty girl. What a strange person!
8) with a noun modified by the adjective in the positive degree. I've read an interesting book. Are you a good driver?  
9) a/an + ordinal numeral has the meaning "ещё один ". She gave me a second cup of coffee.  
10) also with: a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, a pound, a week, an hour, a mile, — in the meaning "one". We have English classes twice a week.    
11) in some expressions: a lot of, as a result, as a matter of fact, as a rule, it's a pity, it's a pleasure, in a hurry, to go for a walk to have a good time/rest, to take a shower, to have a smoke, to give a call, for a while, to tell a lie, what a shame, in a week, a knife and fork, to catch (a) cold.

The definite article is used:

1) with a noun when it is clear in the situation which thing or person is meant, or with the noun mentioned before. Can you turn off the light please? Will you pass me the salt, please? We stopped at a village. The village was very old but nice.
2) also: the police, the army, the fire brigade, the bank, the post-office, the doctor, the dentist. The police are looking for the thief. John isn 't well. He has gone to the doctor.
3) when the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute (an of phrase or an attributive clause, always used in post position). He knocked at the door of the nearest house. This is the flat that John bought. The apples I've bought weren 't ripe.
4) when the noun denotes a thing unique (the sun, the earth, the moon, the uni- verse) or a class, an inven- tion, musical instruments. The earth goes round the sun. A. Bell invented the telephone. Can you play the piano ( the after play) But: They bought a piano.
5) with the nouns modified by the adjective in the superlative degree and the ordinal numbers. But: a most - in the meaning весьма, крайне. This is the best day in my life. Major Yuri Gagarin was the first man to circle the Earth. It's a most interesting film!  
6) with the adjectives: the following, next, last, same, very, only. But: next у ear/time, last week/year. Answer the following questions. This is the only book on this problem. What is the next stop? But I saw him last week.
7) also: the sky, the sea, the ground, the country, the en vironment, the world, the cinema, the theatre, the radio (but: television), the weather, the government.     There are no stars in the sky tonight. Do you often go to the theatre ? I've heard this news on the radio. I have no time to watch television. But: Can you turn off the televi- sion, please?
8) the + adjective: the rich = rich people in general. These expressions are always plural. The old, the poor, the sick, the blind, the unemployed, the young.  
9) the + nationality words: the French = the French people. The English, the Irish, the Welsh, the Scots.
10) with the names of the oceans, seas, rivers, canals, mountain chains, island groups, deserts, areas. The Atlantic Ocean, the Thames, the British Isles, the Ontario (but: Lake Ontario), the Alps, the Sahara;
11) we say the with the names of the countries which include words like republic, union, kingdom, state, with plural names, regions.     The United Kingdom, the United States, the Republic of Belarus, the Philippines, the North, the South(of France), the East, the Westfof Russia). But: from East to West, from North to South.
12) also: the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, (the) Ukraine, the Congo, the Sudan, the High Street, the Hague.    
13) we say the before the names of the hotels, theatres, museums/galleries, cinemas, restaurants/pubs, newspapers.ships, also before the names with of.     The Hilton (Hotel), the British Museum, cinemas: the Odeon; the Classic; the Times, the Washington Post; ships: the Queen Elizabeth; the Tower of London, the Houses of Parliament;
But : a) many shop restaurants and banks are named after the people who started them. This names end in -s or 's. We do not use the with these names. shops: Self ridge's, Harrods; hotels: Claridge's;  
b) many names are two words. The first name is usually the name of the person or a place. We do not usually say the with these names. But we say: "The White House", "The Royal Palace", because "white" and "royal" are not names. universities: Oxford University, Cambridge University, London University, but: the University of London London Zoo, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey.  
14) with the names denoting the whole family. The Simons, The Smiths, The Nightingales.
15) with the noun in the singular used in the generic sense. But: a) We use "man" (= human beings in general) without "the". b) We do not use the with parts of the body. We use ту/his/her, etc. The tragedy and the comedy first appeared in Greece. Man is the greatest creation of nature.   He broke his leg. She hurt her arm.  
16) with the date (in speech). On the fifth of May/on May the fifth.
17) with organizations, official titles, documents, the whole species. The United Nations (but: Parliament, Congress), the President, the Constitution, the dinosaurs.
18) in some expressions: at the same time, in the original, on the whole, the other day (refers to the past), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, in the morning / afternoon / evening, at the seaside, on the train, in the rain, at the weekend, in the 1990s, at the end of /in the end, in the singular, in the plural, in the past, in (the) future, by the way, just the same, to tell the truth, to tell the time, out of the question, in the dark, in the sun.

There is no article:



1) before the nouns modified by the pronouns: possessive: my, his, her, its, our, your, their, demonstrative: this, that, those, these; interrogative: what, which, whose and in­definite: some, any, each, every, many, much and no, and also by cardinal numerals.     My friend and I would like to spend our holidays in some quite place. I'd like to read this book. What question have you dis­cussed? Take any book you like. There is no theatre here. Platform 2, size 42, page 50, room 20;
2) before the names of a person, streets, squares, towns, villages; before the names of sciences and subjects; before airports, stations, parks, mountain peaks, bridges, single islands and the names of planets.     Oxford Street is one of the biggest and most popular shopping centers in London. Heathrow Airport, Hyde Park, Tower Bridge. He is fond of mathematics and physics. Elbrus, Madagascar, Venus;
3) before plural countable nouns in general sense. Children learn a lot from playing. I like pets.
4) after the verbs: elect, appoint, turn, commence. He was elected President of the country.
5) before the nouns of material and abstract nouns in general sense.     Life is impossible without water and air. What fine weather! But: The weather is fine today.
6) Note: many abstract nouns and nouns of material used with the indefinite article become countable. Usually there is a difference in meaning.     ice-cream - мороженое, an ice cream - порция мороженого; also: a help, a love of/a knowledge of, and a pity / shame / hope /fear of. Paper was invented in China. I bought a paper on the way home.
7) with the nouns denoting titles and ranks followed by the names of persons. Mr Brown, Mrs Simmons, Dr. Fox, Pr. Kemp.  
8) with the nouns expressing relationships: a) followed by names of persons, b) nouns expressing relationship not followed by a proper noun when used by the members of the family. Aunt Polly is coining tonight. Uncle James lives in London. Tom, hasn 't Father come yet? Where is Mother? Winter is my favorite season.  
9) with the names of months, days, seasons. But: when these names are modified by a particularizing attribute, the definite article is used. The May of 1945 will always stay in the memory of people. The winter of 1941 was very cold.
10) with the names of the countries and continents; with official titles. Europe, Asia, Great Britain, Belarus, Poland. Queen Elizabeth, President Bush.
11) with the names of meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner, sup- per. But: we say a meal; we also say я when there is an adjective before dinner, supper, and the when the situation makes the idea definite. What time is lunch ? I have breakfast at 8. I had a meal at home. How did you like the dinner? Thank you, that was a nice dinner.  
12) the nouns: school, college, bed, jail, prison, church are used without an article when they express the purpose for which the objects denoted by these nouns serve. to go to school = to be a schoolboy, to be in prison -to be a prisoner, to go to university = to be a student. But: Where is the University?
13) with names of languages when they are not followed by the noun language are used without article. Do you speak English ? But: The English language is spoken all over the world.  
14) most + noun (without article) - the noun is used in general sense. Most + of+ the - definite objects are meant; Most children like ice-cream.   Most of the streets in London are not wide.
15) in some expressions: forages, at first, at first sight, at home, to go home, at school, at table, by chance, by heart, by name, by mistake, to go to bed, to go by bus (train, plane), to go out of town,       in/on time, to ask permission, to go to town, to fall in love, at/to work, on foot, in cash, in bad/fine weather, to be/go on holiday/on business, at/till night, by day, early morning, late evening, from morning till night, at Christinas, on Christmas Day, at Easter.
     

NOTES:

1. Articles are omitted in newspaper headings, telegrams, in stage directions.

2. Another means "какой-либо другой", "ещё один". The other means "определённый другой".

3. The last + noun is always used with the article, except in the expressions: last month, last year, last week, last winter, etc.

4. Next means "будущий" when referring to the time: next month, next week, etc.

Next time means "в следующий раз".

The next means "следующий": the next room, the next lesson.

5. A number means "many" - много, ряд. The number means "число, количество".

6. Few - "мало", a few - "несколько", the few - "те не­многие".

7. Little - "мало", a little - "некоторое количество", the little -"то небольшое количество".

8. Two - "два", the two - "оба, те два".

9. No article with the noun which expresses a post (occa­sionally the is used):

Mr Green, director (the director) of the company and Pr. Pet-rov, dean (the dean) of the English department left for London.

 


Date: 2015-01-11; view: 895


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