The Use of Articles with Nouns in some Set Expressions
The use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions.
1. in a hurry - похапцем
Things done in a hurry are done badly.
2. to have a mind to do something (a great mind, a good mind) - мати намір, збиратися зробити що-небудь, бути схильним до чогось
I have a great mind to have a serious talk with her.
3. to fly into a passion - скипіти, розлютуватися
If you contradict him, he will fly into a passion.
4. to get in a fury (in a rage) - розлютуватися
If you contradict him, he will get in a fury (in a rage).
5. to take a fancy to (chiefly with names of living beings) - полюбити когось
I wonder why she took a fancy to the little girl.
6. in a low (loud) voice - гучним (тихим) голосом; голосно, тихо
Don't speak in a low voice.
7. a great many (with countables) - багато
I have spoken to him a great many times.
8. a great deal (with uncount- ables) — багато
We can't skate today, there is a
great deal of snow on the ice.
9. it is a pity - шкода
It is a pity you did not go to the concert last night.
10. it is a shame - соромно
It is a shame not to know these elementary things.
11. it is a pleasure - приємно
It is a pleasure to read beautiful poetry.
12. as a result - в результаті
As a result of the inhabitants' efforts the damaged city was soon rebuilt.
13. to have a good time - приємно проводити час
Last night we went to an evening party and had a very good time.
14. to be at a loss - вагатися, бути розгубленим, розгубитися
She was at a loss what to say.
15. at a glance - відразу, з першого погляду
She saw at a glance that something had happened.
The use of the definite article with nouns in set expressions.
1. it is out of the question - про це не може бути й мови.
"Will you go to the theatre to- night?" "It's out of the question. I have lots of things to do."
2. to take the trouble to do something - узяти на себе турботу зробити щось
You had a difficult text to translate and you did not take the trouble to consult the dictionary.
3. in the original - в оригіналі
You know English well enough to read Dickens in the original.
4. to play the piano (the violin, the harp) - грати на піаніно, скрипці
She plays the piano very well.
5. to keep the house - сидіти вдома
She has a cold and will have to keep the house for a couple of days.
6. to keep the bed - бути на постільному режимі
She has a bad cold and will have to keep the bed for a couple of days.
7. on the whole - в цілому
On the whole Tom is a pleasant fellow, but sometimes he has whims.
8. the other day (refers to the past)- днями
I met him the other day.
9. on the one hand...on the other hand - з одного боку з іншого боку
On the one hand he certainly ex- cites suspicion, but on the other hand we have not, enough evidence against him.
10. to tell (to speak) the truth - говорить правду; to tell the truth - правду кажучи
He always speaks (tells) the truth.
To tell the truth, I don't like the girl.
11. to be on the safe side - для вірності
I am almost sure of the pronunciation of this name, but to be on the safe side let us consult the pronouncing dictionary.
Nouns in set expressions used without an article.
1. out of doors - надворі, навулиці
The children spent most of the time out of doors.
2. to take to heart - брати близько до серця
Don't take things too much to heart.
3. to take offence - ображатися
If he had heard your remark, he
would have taken offence.
4. to give (to get, to ask) permission - давати (отримати, просити) дозвіл
I asked permission to keep the book a little longer.
5. to lose heart - втрачати мужність, зневіритися
Не found the subject very difficult at first, but he did not lose heart. He went on working hard and finally mastered it.
6. at present - зараз
You may go home, we don't want you at present.
7. from morning till night - з ранку до вечора
Не worked in his little garden from morning till night.
8. from head to foot - з голови до ніг
She was dressed in furs from head to foot.
9. from beginning to end - з початку до кінця
The whole story is a lie from
beginning to end.
10. at first sight - з першого погляду
He fell in love with her at first sight.
11. by chance - помилково
They met quite by chance.
12. by mistake - випадково
I have brought the wrong book by mistake.
13. for hours - годинами
He could read for hours.
14. for ages - довгий строк, вічність
I have not seen you for ages.
15. by land, by air, by sea - по суші, повітряним шляхом, морем
I like travelling by sea.
16. to go to sea - стати моряком
My sister wants to be a doctor, and my brother wants to go to sea.
17. on deck - на палубі
We spent hours on deck.
18. to keep house - вести домашнє господарство
Her sister keeps house for her.
19. at sunrise - на сході сонця
We left the town at sunrise.
20. at sunset - на заході сонця
We arrived at the village at sunset.
21. at work - бути зайнятим чимось, за роботою
Whenever I come, he is always at work.
22. at peace - у мирі
We want to be at peace with all countries.
23. by name - на ім’я
His cat, Snowball by name, was playing on the carpet.
24. in debt - у боргу
Mr. Micawber was always in debt.
So a considerable number of nouns of different character when used in adverbial prepositional phrases have no article, e. g. by accident, by hand, by letter, by land, by sight, at hand, off hand, in detail, in person, on board, on foot, on tiptoe, at sea, to sea, on hand, on leave, on business, on holiday, etc.
There is no article in a number of combinations consisting of a preposition + a noun + a preposition. Such set phrases are to be treated as compound prepositions: in addition to, in charge of, in contrast with, in regard to, in support of, in reply to, in connection with, on account of, in comparison with, in conformity with, in honour of, in memory of, in pursuit of, in favour of, in combination with, in answer to, on top of, in defiance of, with regard to, in recognition of, in return for, in place of, in relation to, in search of, by reason of, by way of, etc.
I rushed through the passage in search of my mother.
My father found himself in charge of a factory.
However, in other set phrases built up on the same pattern the definite article is found: under the influence of, in the centre of, on the invitation of, by the side of, in the middle of, on the initiative of, under the pretence of, etc.
There are no articles in so-called parallel structures such as from tree to tree, from house to house. These are free combinations as they are freely built up by the speaker with the help of the pattern “from + N + to + N”, in which the same noun is repeated:
He leaned back in his long chair and rolled from side to side with laughter.
There are also set expressions among parallel structures, the most common of which are: arm in arm, hand in hand, man to man, face to face, shoulder to shoulder, from beginning to end, from north to south, from floor to ceiling, from right to left.
At the end of the living-room there were bookshelves from floor to ceiling.