The Republic of Kazakhstan is a sovereign independent state in the center of the Eurasian continent. The official language is Kazakh. The Russian language is official used on equal grounds along with the Kazakh.
The territory of the country stretches 1600km. from north to south and 2800km. from west to east: a total area is 2,7mln. square km. Kazakhstan borders Russia to the north, China to the east, Kyrgysia, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the south, and the Caspian Sea to west. The landscape of Kazakhstan is diverse. The northern- steppe becomes steppe, semi-desert and desert in the south. The climate of Kazakhstan varies widely throughout the country.
Kazakhstan’s relatively developed economic structure is based on its vast deposits of natural resources such as ore, oil, and natural gas. In addition Kazakhstan Is a major producer and exporter of agricultural products – primarily grain, wool and meat. The main branches of industry are metallurgy, production of heavy machinery, industrial equipment, chemicals, textiles and processed foods. National currency of Kazakhstan is tenge.
Kazakhstan can be divided into five main zones according to climatic and economic conditions. They are: Eastern, Northern, Central, Southern, and Western Kazakhstan.
The main cities of Eastern Kazakhstan are Semey, Oskemen. The region is rich in polymetal ores, containing lead, zink, copper, gold, silver. Northern Kazakhstan is the granary of the country, about three-quarters of agricultural land is used for grain production. The main cities are Kokshetau, Pavlodar. Central Kazakhstan covers the territory of 3980 square km. The main cities are Karaganda, Temirtau. The region is famous for hard coal deposits. Southern Kazakhstan is the least developed region. The population density is the highest in the Republic. The main cities are Kyzylorda, Aralsk, and Taraz. The region is the main center of irrigated viticulture, cotton, sugar beet and rice growing.
Western Kazakhstan is famous for its mineral resources such as oil, gas, copper. The main cities are Atyrau, Aktau.The region attracts foreign investments to stimulate the development of the industry in the region.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (or the UK) is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The UK covers the British Isles, which is the geographical name of all the islands, situated off the northwest coast of the European Continent. They consist of Great Britain, Ireland and of about five thousand small islands. The North Sea, the Strait of Dover and the English Channel separate Great Britain from the continent. It is washed on the West Coast by the Atlantic Ocean and by the Irish Sea.
The mountains in Great Britain are not very high; the highest mountain is Ben Nevis in Scotland. The main rivers in Britain are the Thames, the Mersey, the Severn and others, but none of them are very long.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. The Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the weather on the British Isles. The summers are cool and rainy; the winters are not very cold.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. One of the leading industries in Great Britain is the textile industry. Shipbuilding and motor industry are highly developed too.
There are many big industrial cities in Britain, such as Birmingham and Sheffield, Manchester and Liverpool, Cardiff and others.
The total population of Great Britain today is about 59 million people. The official language of the country is English; though in Wales people speak Welsh which is different from English, while the Scottish dialect differs little from English. There are many other languages spoken in Britain as it has become now a multinational state.