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Exercise 9. Explain the words in bold and then match them with the best definition.

1. a craftsman, 2. a crop, 3. a desert, 4. a flood, 5. a kilt, 6. a priest, 7. a scribe, 8. a sepulcher, 9. a slave, 10.an amulet

a) a chamber that is used as a grave; b) a knee-length skirt with deep pleats, usually of a tartan wool, worn as part of the dress for men, especially in the Scottish Highlands; c) a member of a skilled trade; someone who practices a craft; an artisan; d) a person legally owned by another and having no freedom of action or right to property; e) a person who copies documents, especially a person who made handwritten copies before the invention of printing;
f) a region that is devoidor almost devoid of vegetation, especially because of low rainfall; g) a trinketor piece of jewelry usually hung about the neck and thought to be a magical protection against evil or disease; h) cultivated plants or agricultural produce, such as grain, vegetables or fruit, considered as a group; i) in many Christian churches, a member of the second grade of clergy ranking below a bishop but above a deacon and having authority to administer the sacraments; j) the inundation of land that is normally dry through the overflowing of a body of water, especially a river;
     

Speaking

Exercise 10. Read the text “Ancient Egypt-Timeline”. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary and explain the words in bold. Then, make up an oral summary of the text.

-3100 BC - The Egyptian civilization began when King Menes founded the first Egyptian dynasty. -3100 BC: 3100-2950: The First and Second dynasties ruled Egypt and began using hieroglyphics. Hor-Aha was the second king of the first Dynasty. - 2950 BC: 2950-2575: The first Egyptian pyramid was built - the Step Pyramid at Saqqara for King Zoser who was one of the kings of the 3rd Dynasty.
- 2575 BC: 2575-2150 BC: The Old Kingdom (the 4th-8th Dynasties) - The Great Pyramids of Egypt were built at Dahshur and Giza and revered as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. King Unas (the last ruler of the 5th Dynasty) had the burial chamber in his pyramid inscribed with spells for the afterlife. These are referred to as the Pyramid Texts. - 2125 BC: 2125-1975 BC: The 9th-11th Egyptian Dynasties, the 1st Intermediate Period. During this time Egypt saw a breakdown of central government.
- 1975 BC: 1975-1640 BC:The 11th-14th Egyptian Dynasties, the Middle Kingdom - Amenemhet was the most notable pharaoh who overthrew Mentuhotep III. - 1630 BC: 1630-1520 BC: The 15th-17th Egyptian Dynasties, the 2nd Intermediate Period. - Hyksos raided from Asia, moved into the Delta, the Egyptians began to use chariots. - Ahmose eventually expelled the Hyksos from Egypt. - 1539 BC: 1539 -1075 BC - The 18th-20th Egyptian Dynasties, New Kingdom and the building of the tombs in the Valley of Kings. The great Pharoahs included Hatshepsut (the famous female Pharaoh), Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Tuthmosis and Ramesses II.
- King Akhenaten established a new religious and ordered to worship to the sun god Aten. - During this time the Egyptians developed a permanent army. - Ramesses XI was the last of the rulers of the New Kingdom. - 1400 BC: 1400s: King Thutmose III and Ancient Egypt reached the height of its power when military expeditions brought the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea under Egyptian rule. - 1075 BC: 1075-715 BC - The 21st-25th Egyptian Dynasties, the 3rd Intermediate Period - the Nubians conquered Egypt (late 8th century).
- 715 BC: 715-332 BC - The 20th-30th Egyptian Dynasties, the Late Period and the Persians conquered Egypt in 525 BC lead by the Persian king Cambyses II. - 332 BC - Alexander the Great conquered Egypt. He occupied Egypt and his general, Ptolemy, became a king and found the dynasty. Greek culture spread throughout Egypt during this dynasty. The city of Alexandria was founded and became famous for the Great Library. The great Lighthouse of Alexandria was built which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. - 196 BC - The Rosetta Stone was carved.
- 51 BC: 51-30 BC - Cleopatra VII reigned and became the mistress of Julius Caesar, she gave birth to his son, Octavian. - 37 BC - Queen Cleopatra VII of the Ptolemy married Mark Antony. - 31 BC- Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra in the sea Battle of Actium. Both Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. - 30 BC - Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire. - 384 AD - Theodosius ordered the adherence to Christianity. - 395 AD - The Roman Empire split into West and East. Egypt became a part of the Byzantine Empire. http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/places-timelines/17-ancient-egyptian-timeline.htm
             

Date: 2016-04-22; view: 1351


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Language development | Exercise 11. Match the pictures with the best definition. Translate and explain the words in bold. Then, make up dialogues, using the information below.
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