The official name of our homeland is the Republic of the Russian federation often called Russia.
The Russian flag, the birch tree, the Russian “troika” are the symbols of Russia .The Russian national flag has 3 stripes. The red one symbolizes love and bravery, the blue one- honesty and devotion, the white one-nobility.
Physical Geography. Area.Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers.
It is washed by…Russia is touched by 3 oceans and 12 seas. The oceans are: the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific. The seas are: the Barents Sea, the White Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Azov, the sea of Japan, the Black Sea, the sea of Chukotsk, the Bering Sea.
Rivers…The longest rivers are: the Lena, the Irtysh, the Yenisey, the Ob, the Volga, the Amur. There are two million rivers in Russia.
Lakes…( about 2mln salt and fresh lakes). The largest lakes are: the Caspian Sea(Lake), Lake Baikal, Onega Lake. The deepest lake is Lake Baikal. It’s 1620 meters deep. Its ecology is unique. The water of the lake is so clear that you can see the bottom of this lake.
Mountains…There are several mountain chains in Russia: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The Urals separate Europe from Asia. The Altai Mountains are situated in the south of lake Baikal and along the board with Mongolia. The Caucasus are between the Black and the Caspian Seas.
Plains..There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland.
Forests…Russia has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.
It borders on…Russia borders on Finland and Norway in the north-west; on Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Byelorussia in the west; Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan in the south; China, Mongolia, Korean People’s Democratic Republic in the south-east.
Weather and climate…There are various types of climate in Russia: from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Time Zones…Russia crosses 9 time zones from the East to the West.
Natural resources….Oil, coal, natural gas, iron ore, copper, gold, platinum, nickel, etc.
The largest cities…The major cities of Russia are: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara, etc.
The political system of Russia
The political system of Russia is Presidential Republic.
Features:Russia is divided into 21 republics, 6 territories, 49 provinces.
The state symbol of the Russian Federationis a three colored banner. It has 3 horizontal stripes.
The national anthem of Russiawas written by M. Glinka, S. Mikhalkov.
The coat of arms is a double-headed eagle.
The federal governmentconsists of three branches: legislative(the Federal Assembly); executive( the Government with the Prime Minister) and judicial(the Constitutional court, the Supreme Court and regional courts).
Legislative poweris vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation. The Lower Chamber is the State Duma. Each Chamber is headed by the Speaker. There are 178 seats in the Upper Chamber. It is elected for a term of 2 years and cannot be dissolved by the President. Its duties are : to endorse the legislative acts adopted by the Duma. The State Duma is composed of 450 members elected for a term of four years. Its duties are: to endorse the appointment of the Prime Minister, to declare an amnesty, to draft and endorse laws.
Executive powerbelongs to the Government, which is headed by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister has to form the Cabinet. He is appointed by the President and endorsed by the State Duma.
The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional court, the Supreme Court and regional courts.
The Head of State is the President. His duties are : to call referendums; to appoint the Prime Minister, to appoint the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces; to make final decisions on foreign policy; to declare war and states of emergency, to dissolve the State Duma. He is elected for a term of 4 years and has the right to be elected for two terms only.